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Evaluation of the Measurement Uncertainty from the Standard Operating Procedures(SOP) of the National Environmental Specimen Bank (국가환경시료은행 생태계 대표시료의 채취 및 분석 표준운영절차에 대한 단계별 측정불확도 평가 연구)

  • Lee, Jongchun;Lee, Jangho;Park, Jong-Hyouk;Lee, Eugene;Shim, Kyuyoung;Kim, Taekyu;Han, Areum;Kim, Myungjin
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.607-618
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    • 2015
  • Five years have passed since the first set of environmental samples was taken in 2011 to represent various ecosystems which would help future generations lead back to the past environment. Those samples have been preserved cryogenically in the National Environmental Specimen Bank(NESB) at the National Institute of Environmental Research. Even though there is a strict regulation (SOP, standard operating procedure) that rules over the whole sampling procedure to ensure each sample to represent the sampling area, it has not been put to the test for the validation. The question needs to be answered to clear any doubts on the representativeness and the quality of the samples. In order to address the question and ensure the sampling practice set in the SOP, many steps to the measurement of the sample, that is, from sampling in the field and the chemical analysis in the lab are broken down to evaluate the uncertainty at each level. Of the 8 species currently taken for the cryogenic preservation in the NESB, pine tree samples from two different sites were selected for this study. Duplicate samples were taken from each site according to the sampling protocol followed by the duplicate analyses which were carried out for each discrete sample. The uncertainties were evaluated by Robust ANOVA; two levels of uncertainty, one is the uncertainty from the sampling practice, and the other from the analytical process, were then compiled to give the measurement uncertainty on a measured concentration of the measurand. As a result, it was confirmed that it is the sampling practice not the analytical process that accounts for the most of the measurement uncertainty. Based on the top-down approach for the measurement uncertainty, the efficient way to ensure the representativeness of the sample was to increase the quantity of each discrete sample for the making of a composite sample, than to increase the number of the discrete samples across the site. Furthermore, the cost-effective approach to enhance the confidence level on the measurement can be expected from the efforts to lower the sampling uncertainty, not the analytical uncertainty. To test the representativeness of a composite sample of a sampling area, the variance within the site should be less than the difference from duplicate sampling. For that, a criterion, ${i.e.s^2}_{geochem}$(across the site variance) <${s^2}_{samp}$(variance at the sampling location) was proposed. In light of the criterion, the two representative samples for the two study areas passed the requirement. In contrast, whenever the variance of among the sampling locations (i.e. across the site) is larger than the sampling variance, more sampling increments need to be added within the sampling area until the requirement for the representativeness is achieved.

Geochemical Characteristics and Quaternary Environmental Change of Unconsolidated Sediments from the Seokgwan-dong Paleolithic Site in Seoul, Korea (서울 석관동 유적의 미고결 퇴적층의 지구화학적 특성 및 제4기 지표환경변화)

  • Lee, Hyo-Min;Lee, Jin-Young;Kim, Ju-Yong;Hong, Sei-Sun;Park, Jun-Bum
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.373-388
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    • 2016
  • To understand human activity in the past, the information about past environmental change including geomorphological and climatic conditions is essential and this can be traced by using age dating and geochemical analysis of sediments from the prehistoric sites. The sedimentary sequence of Seokgwan-dong Paleolithic Site located in Seoul was 5m long unconsolidated sediments and consists of lower part bedrock weathering sediments, slope deposits and upper-part fluvial deposits. In this study, upper part sediments were used to reconstruct past environmental change through age dating and various physical and chemical analyses including grain size, magnetic susceptibility and mineral and elements. The fluvial sediments can be divided into 4 units including three organic layers. Grain size analysis results showed that the sediments were very poorly sorted with fining upward features. Magnetic susceptibility was relatively high in the organic layers, indicating environmental changes causing mineral composition change at that times. The mineral and major element composition are similar to Jurassic biotite granite which mainly consists of quartz, K-feldspar, biotite and muscovite. The radiocarbon age of $14,240{\pm}80yr$ BP was obtained from the lower most organic layer of Unit III(O), suggesting that the fluvial sediments formed at least from the early stage of deglacial period after the end of Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent wet and warm climates and resultant fluvial process including slope sedimentation during the Holocene may have been responsible for the sedimentary sequence in Seokgwan-dong paleolithic site and surrounding area. The observed organic layers suggests frequent wetland occurrence combined with natural levee changes in this area.

Quality Characteristics of Doenjang by Aging Period (전통 된장의 숙성 기간에 따른 감각·화학적 품질특성)

  • Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Kyungmin;Kim, Hyun Jung;Kim, Yoonsook;Koo, Minseon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2014
  • In order to characterize the quality of Doenjang, fermented Korean soybean paste, subjected to long-term aging, this study performed physico-chemical analyses and sensory evaluation according to aging period (from 1 to 9 years). Regarding the proximate composition of Doenjang according to aging period, moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude ash, and salt contents showed little differences among Doenjang samples. Amino-type nitrogen content was 1,046.7 mg% in the 1 year-aged sample, 990.9~996.9 mg% in the 2~5 year-aged samples, and 1,214.1~1,304.8 mg% in the samples fermented more than 5 years. ${\Delta}$E value, reflecting total color differences between the samples, increased according to aging period. Ratios of linoleic and linolenic acids, which are essential fatty acids in soybeans, constituted 55% of total fatty acids, which was the most abundant among all fatty acids. The major free sugar in Doenjang was fructose at a content of 1.6~2.2% in 1~9 year-aged Doenjang. Glycoside form of isoflavones in Meju constituted 77.1%, and the aglycon form constituted 22.9%. However, the glycoside type of isoflavones in soybeans was converted to aglycon type in Doenjang through fermentation and aging. In the sensory evaluation of Doenjang samples, brown color, salt smell, soy sauce flavor, and viscosity all increased according to aging period, whereas sweet flavor, roast smell, beany flavor, salty taste, and acrid taste showed no significant differences. In cluster analysis of the sensory attributes of Doenjang according to aging period, 1 year-aged Doenjang was significantly different between 2 year- and 3~5 year-aged Doenjang.

Characterization of Mineralogical Changes of Chrysotile and its Thermal Decomposition by Heat Treatment (열처리에 따른 백석면의 광물학적 특성 변화와 열분해 과정 연구)

  • Jeong, Hyeonyi;Moon, Wonjin;Roh, Yul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2016
  • Chrysotile is a 1:1 sheet silicate mineral belonging to serpentine group. It has been highlighted studies because of uses, shapes and structural characteristics of the fibrous chrysotile. However, it was designated as Class 1 carcinogen, so high attentions were being placed on detoxification studies of chrysotile. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes of mineralogical characteristics of chrysotile and to suggest detoxification mechanism of chrysotile by thermal decomposition. Samples for this study were obtained from LAB Chrysotile mine in Canada. The samples were heated in air in the range of 600 to $1,300^{\circ}C$. Changes of mineralogical characteristics such as crystal structure, shape, and chemical composition of the chrysotile fibers were examined by TG-DTA, XRD, FT-IR, TEM-EDS and SEM-EDS analyses. As a result of thermal decomposition, the fibrous chrysotile having hollow tube structure was dehydroxylated at $600-650^{\circ}C$ and transformed to disordered chrysotile by removal of OH at the octahedral sheet (MgOH) (Dehydroxylation 1). Upon increasing temperature, it was transformed to forsterite ($Mg_2SiO_4$) at $820^{\circ}C$ by rearrangement of Mg, Si and O (Dehydroxylation 2). In addition, crystal structure of forsterite had begun to transform at $800^{\circ}C$, and gradually grown 3-dimensionally to enstatite ($MgSiO_3$) by recrystallization after the heating above $1,100^{\circ}C$. And then finally transformed to spherical minerals. This study showed chrysotile structure was collapsed about $600-700^{\circ}C$ by dehydroxylation. And then the fibrous chrysotile was transformed to forsterite and enstatite, as non-hazardous minerals. Therefore, this study indicates heat treatment can be used to detoxification of chrysotile.

Growth Conditions and Maintenance of Natural Monument Old Big Trees in Gangwondo (강원도 내 천연기념물 노거수의 생육환경 및 관리현황)

  • Heo, Bok Soo;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Lee, Won Ho;Kang, Hee Jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.182-195
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    • 2011
  • Old big tree transcends the simple meaning of trees as they are the natural monuments that embody the people's history and culture of this land. The Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (CHA) defines and protects old big tree based not only on the size of the tree but also on its definitive cultural and natural factors such as value, implications, and originality. This research aims to identify and analyze the habitation and measurements, the soil conditions, as well as the protective facilities of 14 old big tree spread throughout the Gangwondo. The research examined the soundness of the arboreal form, the degree of damage on the bark, as well as the quantity of leafs levels to evaluate the overall condition of growth and development. Then, the tree height, the eastwest and south-north width of the crown, the sternum circumference, and the root circumference were recorded to identify the measurements of the selected old big tree. Also, the research analyzed 9 elements such as soil texture, pH levels, and organic contents in order to determine the scientific characteristics of soil upon which the trees draw nutrition. Finally, the research evaluated supporting pillars, lightning rods, iron pulling-facilities, as well as notice boards to study the protective facilities of old big tree. The research procedures revealed that 78.57% of the old big tree identified as natural monuments in the Gangwondo have average to above average habitation conditions. Also, the average tree height reaches 18.80m above ground while the average root circumference measures 7.34m. Moreover, the results of the scientific analyses conducted on the soil elements determined that most chemical values were within the defined levels, with the exception of phosphoric acid levels falling within the hyper-nutritious range. Finally, although most of the protective facilities did support the habitation of the Old big tree, there were some supporting pillars and iron pulling-facilities that actually damaged the trees. This research means to provide foundational reference data for the analysis of the habitation and management conditions of natural monument old big tree within the Gangwondo. A follow-up topic led by the results of this research is the identification and analysis of correlating environmental elements that affect the habitation of the old big tree.

Estimation of Productivity for Quercus variabilis Stand by Forest Environmental Factors (삼림환경인자(森林環境因子)에 의한 굴참나무임분(林分)의 생산력추정(生産力推定))

  • Lee, Dong Sup;Chung, Young Gwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.75 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 1986
  • This study was initiated to estimate productivity of Quercus variabilis stand. However the practical objective of this study was to provide some information to establish the basis of selecting the suitable site for Quercus variabilis. The productivity measured in terms of DBH, height, basal area and stem volume was hypothesized, respectively, to be a function of a group of factors. This study considered 32 factors, 20 of which were related to the forest environmental factors such as tree age, latitude, percent slope, etc. and the rest of which were related to soil factors such as soil moisture, total nitrogen, available $P_2O_5$, etc. The data on 4 productivity measurements of Quercus variabilis growth and related factors cited were collected from 99 sample plots in Kyeongbook and chungbook provinces. Some factors considered were, in nature, discrete variables and the others continuous variables. Each kind of factor was classified into 3 or 4 categories and total numbers of such categories were eventually amounted to 110. Then each category was treated as an independent variable. This is amounted to saying that individual variable was treated a dummy variable and assigned a value 1 or 0. However the first category of each factor was deleted from the normal equation for statistical consideration. First of all, each of 4 productivity measurements of Quercus variabilis growth was regressed and, at the same time, those 110 categories. Secondly, the partial correlation coefficients were measured between each pair of 4 productivity measurements and 32 individual foctors. Finally, the relative scores were estimated in order to derive the category ranges. The result of these statistical analyses could be summarized as follows: 1) Growth measurement in terms of height seems to be a more significant criterion for estimation of productivity of Quercus variabilis. 2) Productivity of forest on stocked land may better be estimated in terms of forest environmental factors, on the other hand, that of unstocked land may be estimated in terms of physio-chemical factors of soil. 3) The factors that a strongly positive relation to all growth factors of tree are age group, effective soil, soil moisture, etc. This implies that these factors might effectively be used for criteria for selecting the suitable site for Quercus variabilis. 4) Parent rock, latitude, total nitrogen, age group, effective soil depth, soil moisture, organic matter, etc., had more significant category range for tree growth. Therefore, the suitable site for Quercus variabilis may be selected, based on this information. In conclusion, the above results obtained by the multivariable analysis can be not only the important criteria for estimating the growth of Quercus variabilis but also the useful guidance for selecting the suitable sites and performing the rational of Quercus variabilis forest.

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The Effects of a Fermentation Product by Aspergillus oryzae on the in vitro Digestibilities of Dry Matter, Fiber and Protein and pH in the Fermentation Fluid of Diets for Dairy Cows (착유우 사료에 대한 Aspergillus oryzae 발효물질 첨가가 in vitro 건물, 섬유소 및 단백질 소화율과 발효액의 pH에 미치는 영향)

  • Myung, Yoon-Ah;Park, Duk-Sub;Lee, Soo-Kee;Park, Jong-Soo;Kim, Yong-Kook
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.20-34
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture on the in vitro digestibilities of dry matter, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), crude protein, and pH in in vitro experiment of diets for dairy cows. A fungal species, Aspergillus oryzae was supplied by Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon, Korea (KCTC 1229). The experimental diets were commercial compound feed (concentrate) and total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating cows, of which chemical analyses were determined at Research and Development Institute, Woosung Feed Co., Ltd., while the digestibilities were done at the laboratory of Chungnam National University. Aspergillus oryzae culture products were added to compound feed and TMR at the rate of 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% respectively. The experimental diet with the rumen fluid sampled from Holstein fresian milking cows were used and digested for 24 hrs, 48hrs and 72hrs in the shaking incubator. The residues of the digesta were digested for 48hrs in the incubator in which put 30ml of 0.1N HCl with 0.2% pepsin at $39^{\circ}C$. The final precipitates were dried for 48hrs in the drier at $60^{\circ}C$. These experimental procedures were triplicated to determine the in vitro digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ADF, NDF, crude protein and pH. Compared to control diet, not added Aspergillus oryzae, the DM digestibility of fungal diets were improved 2.1%(63.1%), 9.7%(68.5%) and 9.0%(68.0%) for 24 hour fermentation in compound feed while 4.8%(60.0%), 6.4%(61.1%) and 2.9%(58.8%) in TMR. On the contrary, for 48 hour and 72 hour digestibilities, the effects of Aspergillus oryzae culture on the digestibility of dry matter were relatively lowered compared to 24 hour digestibility. Referring to the digestibility of dietary fiber, Aspergillus oryzae was believed to significantly improve digestibilities of crude fiber, ADF and NDF. Those were increased up to 13.3%(53.3%) for 24 hour fermentation, while 2.4%(54.6%) for 3.0% added for 72 hour fermentation in compound feed. However, there were no significant differences among the treatments for the inclusion rate of Aspergillus oryzae, even though the more inclusion rate, the better digestibility. The protein digestibilities were significantly improved from 0.4%(79.7%) to 9.4%(71.8%) by adding Aspergillus oryzae into compound feed. However, there were no significant differences between the two experimental diets, 2.0% and 3.0% Aspergillus oryzae included diets. In case of TMR, the protein digestibilities were significantly improved from 4.0%(70.4%) to 6.3%(65.1%) by adding Aspergillus oryzae. However, there were no significant differences between the two experimental diets, 2.0% and 3.0% Aspergillus oryzae included diets. In this study, there were no significant differences among the treatments in pH. On the contrary, there were slightly decrease in pH by adding Aspergillus oryzae into experimental diets but not significant. Summarizing the results of this examination, Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture is believed to improve the digestibilities of dry matter, fiber and crude protein in cattle diets. However, more detailed research for the mechanism of the fungal culture is required to improve ruminal environment.

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Influence of Fertilizer Type on Physiological Responses during Vegetative Growth in 'Seolhyang' Strawberry (생리적 반응이 다른 비료 종류가 '설향' 딸기의 영양생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hee Su;Jang, Hyun Ho;Choi, Jong Myung;Kim, Dae Young
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2015
  • Objective of this research was to investigate the influence of compositions and concentrations of fertilizer solutions on the vegetative growth and nutrient uptake of 'Seolhyang' strawberry. To achieve this, the solutions of acid fertilizer (AF), neutral fertilizer (NF), and basic fertilizer (BF) were prepared at concentrations of 100 or $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ based on N and applied during the 100 days after transplanting. The changes in chemical properties of the soil solution were analysed every two weeks, and crop growth measurements as well as tissue analyses for mineral contents were conducted 100 days after fertilization. The growth was the highest in the treatments with BF, followed by those with NF and AF. The heaviest fresh and dry weights among treatments were 151.3 and 37.8 g, respectively, with BF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. In terms of tissue nutrient contents, the highest N, P and Na contents, of 3.08, 0.54, and 0.10%, respectively, were observed in the treatment with NF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The highest K content was 2.83%, in the treatment with AF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$, while the highest Ca and Mg were 0.98 and 0.42%, respectively, in BF $100mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The AF treatments had higher tissue Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu contents compared to those of NF or BF when fertilizer concentrations were controlled to equal. During the 100 days after fertilization, the highest and lowest pH in soil solution of root media among all treatments tested were 6.67 in BF $100mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and 4.69 in AF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$, respectively. The highest and lowest ECs were $5.132dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ in BF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and $1.448dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ in BF $100mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$, respectively. For the concentrations of macronutrients in the soil solution of root media, the AF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ treatment gave the highest $NH_4$ concentrations followed by NF $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and AF $100mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The K concentrations in all treatments rose gradually after day 42 in all treatments. When fertilizer concentrations were controlled to equal, the highest Ca and Mg concentrations were observed in AF followed by NF and BF until day 84 in fertilization. The BF treatments produced the highest $NO_3$ concentrations, followed by NF and AF. The trends in the change of $PO_4$ concentration were similar in all treatments. The $SO_4$ concentrations were higher in treatments with AF than those with NF or BF until day 70 in fertilization. These results indicate that compositions of fertilizer solution should to be modified to contain more alkali nutrients when 'Seolhyang' strawberry is cultivated through inert media and nutri-culture systems.

Genesis and Characteristics of the Soil Clay Minerals Derived from Major Parent Rocks in Korea IV. Genesis and Distribution of the Soil Clay Minerals (한국(韓國)의 주요(主要) 모암(母岩)에서 발달(發達)된 토양점토광물(土壤粘土鑛物)의 특성(特性)과 생성학적(生成學的) 연구(硏究) IV. 토양점토광물(土壤粘土鑛物)의 분포(分布) 및 생성(生成))

  • Um, Myung-Ho;Lim, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Tai-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.202-212
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    • 1992
  • This study reports on the genesis and mineralogical characteristics of the clay minerals in the soils derived from the five major parent rocks of granite, granite-gneiss, limestone, shale, and basalt in Korea. The investigation on the mineralogical aspects of primary and secondary minerals of the rocks and coarse fractions in the soils have been already reported. In this report, the identification of clay minerals in the soil clay fractions was done through the analyses of chemical, X-ray diffraction, and thermal methods. The studies showed clearly that much of the clay minerals was evolved by the weathering of primary minerals and some were further developed by the transformation of secondary minerals. Cation exchange capacity(CEC) of the clay fractions increased with higher amotunts of vermiculite, chlorite, and illite, however, decreased with higher hydroxy octahedral sheet within the interlayer spaces of vermiculite even if dominant clay with vermiculite. Feldspars in the granite and granite-gneiss might be completely transformed to kaolin mineral, Illite, chlolrite, and vermiculite formed by the alteration of micas, amphibole, augite, and primary chlorile seem to be subsequently transformed to the mixed layer minerals such as illite/vermiculite, illite/chlorite, and chlorite/vermiculite. These weathering products may be ultimately transformed into kaolin minerals. The smectite minerals in the clay fractions of the soils developed on the limestone are considerably present and they seem to be formed directly by the precipitation from high Mg solution and/or by the transformation of vermiculite from micas and chlorite in the parent materials. Abundant presence of illite in the soil clays developed on the shale is considered to have inherited from the fine particles and more resistant hydrous muscovite. The weathering sequences of the hydrous muscovite were as follows according to the degree of soil development ; hydrous muscovite ${\rightarrow}$ illite/vermiculite mixed layer(Inceptisols, Daegu series) and hydrous muscovite ${\rightarrow}$ illite/vermiculite mixed layer ${\rightarrow}$ vermiculite ${\rightarrow}$ kaolin mineral(Alfisols, Buyeo series). The plagioclase in the basalt might be mostly weathered to kaolin minerais. The augite in the basalt is likely to be transformed through progressive stage of weathering, augite ${\rightarrow}$ chlorite ${\rightarrow}$ chlorote/vermiculite mixed layer ${\rightarrow}$ vermiculite ${\rightarrow}$ kaolin. Another weathering sequence of augite could be expected, augite ${\rightarrow}$ chlorite ${\rightarrow}$ illite by the presence of illite and illite/vermiculite mixed layer in the clay fractions. Vermiculite and gibbsite were quantified from thermogravimetry(TG) and kaolin minerals, from both TG and differerential thermal analysis (DTA). Vermiculite in Jangseong series from the limestone was the dominant clay mineral of 21.7 percent and had a range in the order of 9.2 percent in Buyeo series to 5.4 percent in Daegu series from the shale. The rest soils ranged from 8.8 to 28.3 percent. Kaolin minerals were the dominant clay mineral of 32.7 percent in Asan series from the granite-gneiss and Gueom series of 32.0 percent from the basalt. The soils from the limestone ranged from 9.4 to 14.9 percent. The rest soils ranged from 8.9 to 28.6 percent. Gibbsite were 3.9 and 2.3 percent for Weoljeong and Chahang series from the granite, respectively. In Asan and Cheongsan series from the giranite-gneiss were 1.4 and 4.5 percent, respectively, and 3.6 percent in Jangpa series from the basalt.

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