• Title, Summary, Keyword: Charge density

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Charge Determination of Humic Acid and Humic Extract by Spectrophotometry

  • Kam Sang Kyu;Cho Eun Il
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 1998
  • The charge densities of humic acid and humic extract have been determined by back titration using spectrophotometry as the method of end point detection and several cationic polymers of different charge density(copolymers of acylamide and dimethylaminoethylacrylate and polydiallyidimethylammonium chloride, PDDA), and a cationic indicator o-toluidine blue(o-Tb). The charge densities of humic acid and humic extract obtained depend on the charge densities of cationic polymers used. When the polymers of lower charge density are used, lower apparent charge density values are obtained, but for polymers of high charge density(above 2.5 meq/g), the measured values are almost identical, but also are nearly the same as that obtained for PDDA which has a high charge density(about 6 meq/g). For polymers of lower charge density, it is considered that the optimum dosage does not correspond to 1 :1 charge neutralization between anionic and cationic groups. Polymers of high charge density should be used in order to achieve a complete charge neutralization. As humic acid and humic extract are dissociable acids, their ionization is heavily pH dependent and so higher charge density values are obtaines with increasing pH.

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Charge Determination of Cationic Polyelectrolytes by Visual Titrimetry and Spectrophotometry (지시약 적정법 및 분광광도법에 의한 양이온 고분자 전해질의 전해밀도 정량)

  • Lee Min-Gye;Kam Sang-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.525-532
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    • 2005
  • Polyelectrolyte titration, which was called colloid titration is based on the stoichiometric reaction between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, This can be used, for instance, to determine the charge density of a cationic polyelectrolyte, using an anionic polyelectrolyte of known charge density, such as potassium polyvinyl sulfate (PPVS). The technique requires a suitable method of end-point detection and there are several possibilities. In this work, two methods have been investigated: visual titrimetry based on the color change of a cationic dye (o-toluidine blue, o-Tb) and spectrophotometry based on the absorbance change corresponding to the color change of the same dye. These have been applied to several cationic polyelectrolytes with different charge density and molecular weight. In all cases, the cationic charge was due to quaternary nitrogen groups. In the case of cationic dye, it was shown that the sharpness depends on the charge density of cationic polyelectrolyte. With the polyelectrolytes of lower charge density, the binding to PPVS is weaker and binding of the dye to PPVS can occur before all of the polyelectrolyte charge has been neutralized. However, by carrying out titrations at several polyelectrolyte concentrations, good linear relationships were found, from which reliable charge density values could be derived. Effects of pH and ionic strength were also briefly investigated. For cationic polyelectrolytes (copolymers of acrylamide and dimethylaminoethy] acrylate), there was some loss of charge at higher pH values, probably as a result of hydrolysis. Increasing ionic strength causes a less distinct color change of o-Tb, as a result of weaker electrostatic interactions.

Evaluation of the Effective Charge Density on Low Pressure Nanofiltration with the Separation Characteristics of Monovalent and Divalent Solutes in the Production of Drinking Water

  • Oh, Jeong-Ik;Taro, Urase
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2011
  • The electric charge on a membrane was investigated by analyzing the experimental rejection of various monovalent and divalent ionic solutes. The characteristics of the separation of ionic solutes using various nanofiltration membranes were obtained from an experimental nanofiltration set-up, with a surface area of $40cm^2$ under the operational pressures between 0.25-0.3 MPa. The state of the membrane electric charge was observed using separation coefficients, i.e., the permeation ratio of monovalent to divalent ions. To confirm the state of the membrane charge observed via the separation coefficient, a calculation using the extended Nernst-Planck equation, coupled with the Donnan equilibrium, assuming different electric charge states of the membrane, was compared with the experimental rejection of ionic solutes. The examination of the characteristics of separation using three types of nanofiltration membranes showed that one of the membranes carried a negative/positive double charge density inside, while other two membranes carried either a positive or negative charge density.

A Study on a Spiral Charge for Charge Simulation Method (전하 중첩법용 Spiral 전하에 관한 검토)

  • 민석원;박은서;송기현
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of IIIuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Conference
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    • pp.179-182
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    • 2000
  • This paper investigates characteristics of spiral charge for charge simulation method to calculate electric fields of spiral conductor bundles with spiral rods in 765 kV transmission line. We finds the simulating spiral charge as constant charge density give less potential calculation error than sinusoidal charge density. When a spiral rod is simulated as spiral charge, we also knows two spiral charge can simulate spiral rod best.

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Chemical Modification of Macroporous Gelatin Microcarriers and Characterization of Cell Growth and Attachment

  • Lim, Hyun-Soo;Kim, Jung-Hoe
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.163-166
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    • 1995
  • Chemical modification of gelatin-based macroporous microcanier beads was achieved by increasing the charge density through incorporation of (diethylamino)ethylchloride-hydrochloride (DEAE:CI-HCI) or lysine, and this significantly improved the attachment and growth of HepG2 cells. When microcarriers were modified by the addition of 2% lysine, positive charge density was 0.95 meq/g-caniers. In case of modification of microcarriers with DEAE:CI-HCI, positive charge density was 0.6 meq/g-caniers. An increase in charge density of the microcaniers to improve cell attachment has facilitated the growth of the cells on macroporous gelatin microcaniers. Also, final HepG2 cell concentration cultivated on modified beads with DEAE:CI-HCI was increased up to $10^7$ cells/ml. This was 2-3 times higher than that obtained with unmodified macroporous gelatin microcarriers.

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Application of Highly Charged PAC and Polyamine admixture in Neutral Papermaking

  • Yan, Yong-Xiang;Chen, Fu-Shan;Wang, Li-Jun;Zhou, Lin-Jie
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.391-394
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    • 2006
  • Studied that the relationship between the charge density of PAC and its alkalinity, as well as the influences of PAC in paper sizing. Study results showed that PAC with higher charge density brought higher sizing degree when the same amount of $Al_{2}O_{3}$ content was dosed. However, there was no direct relationship between PAC charge density and its alkalinity, and higher PAC alkalinity can't improve its charge density. It was also found that the admixture (PPAC) of polyamine and PAC had higher charge density than PAC. The effects of PPAC on DRS and RAKD sizing were better than PAC sizing, when dosage and other sizing condition were the same.

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A Study of the Quantitative Relationship of Charge-Density Changes and the Design Area of a Fabricated Solar Cell

  • Jeon, Kyeong-Nam;Kim, Seon-Hun;Kim, Hoy-Jin;Kim, In-Sung;Kim, Sang-Hyun
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.204-208
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, the design area of a fabricated solar cell has been analyzed with respect to its charge density. The mathematical calculation used for charge-density derivation was obtained from the 2001 version of a MATHCAD program. The parameter range for the calculations was ${\pm}1{\times}10^{17}cm^{-3}$, which is in the normal parameter range for n-type doping impurities ($7.0{\times}10^{17}cm^{-3}$) and also for p-type impurities ($4.0{\times}10^{17}cm^{-3}$). Therefore, it can be said that the fabricated solar-cell design area has a direct effect on charge-density changes.

Calculation of mobile charge density in ferroelectric films using TVS(Triangular Voltage (TVS법을 이용한 강유전체 박막내에서의 mobile charge밀도 산출)

  • 김용성;정순원;김채규;김진규;이남열;김광호;유병곤;이원재;유인규
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.433-436
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    • 1999
  • In this paper we applied TVS(Triangular Voltage Sweep) method to calculate the mobile ionic charge densities in some ferroelectric thin films. During the measurement, the temperature of specimens were maintained at 20$0^{\circ}C$. By this method, the amount of mobile ionic charge Q$_{m}$ and mobile ionic charge density N$_{m}$ of a MFIS structure were calculated 3.5 [pC] and about 4.3$\times$10$^{11}$ [ions/cm$^2$], respectively. In order to successful TVS measurement, the gate leakage current density of films must be low 10$^{-9}$ (A/cm$^2$) order.der.

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Comparison of Flocculati on-Spectrophotometry and Streaming Current Detector Method to the Control of Flocculants for the Removal of Humic Acid

  • Sang-Kyu Kam;Lee
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 1992
  • Flocculation-spectrophotometry and streaming current detector( SCD ) method were investigated and compared in order to determine the optimum dosages of synthetic cationic polymers of different charge density and molecular mass for the removal of humic acid. The optimum dosage for each of the polymers was determined with the dosage at which the lowest absorbance of humic acid was shown for the formal. and was determined with the dosage required during charge neutralization of humic acid for the latter It was in good agreement between both methods and there is a strong inverse correlation between the optimum dosage and charge density of the polymers, with highly charged polymer giving the lowest optimum dosage, pointing out the importance the charge neutralization. By flocculation-spectrophotometry, it was found that the absorbance of humid acid with the amount of each of the polymers dosed, changes sharply for polymers of high charge density, but changes rather broadly for polymers of low and middle charge density, Both methods showed that a stoichiometric correlation exists between the optimum dosage of each of the cationic polymers and the negatively charged humic acid.

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Comparison of Flocculation-Spectrophotometry and Streaming Current Detector Method to the Control of Flocculants for the Removal of Humic Acid

  • Kam Sang-Kyu;An Lee-Sun;Lee Min-Gyu
    • Environmental Sciences Bulletin of The Korean Environmental Sciences Society
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 1997
  • Flocculation-spectrophotometry and streaming current detector(SCD) method were investigated and compared in order to determine the optimum dosages of synthetic cationic polymers of different charge density and molecular mass for the removal of humic acid. The optimum dosage for each of the polymers was determined with the dosage at which the lowest absorbance of humic acid was shown for the former and was determined with the dosage required during charge neutralization of humic acid for the latter. It was in good agreement between both methods and there is a strong inverse correlation between the optimum dosage and charge density of the polymers, with highly charged polymer giving the lowest optimum dosage, pointing out the importance the charge neutralization. By flocculation-spectrophotometry, it was found that the absorbance of humic acid with the amount of each of the polymers dosed, changes sharply for polymers of high charge density, but changes rather broadly for polymers of low and middle charge density. Both methods showed that a stoichiometric correlation exists between the optimum dosage of each of the cationic polymers and the negatively charged humic acid.

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