• Title, Summary, Keyword: Champion's health belief model scale

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Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Colorectal Cancer Screening

  • Kharameh, Zahra Taheri;Foroozanfar, Sahar;Zamanian, Hadi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4595-4599
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    • 2014
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem. Early detection of colorectal cancer is crucial for treatment and reducing mortality. Beliefs related to colorectal cancer have been found to be a factor in a person's decision about colorectal cancer screening programs. To determine such beliefs, a valid and reliable instrument is necessary. Objective:The aim of this study was to adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale of breast cancer screening in the measurement of beliefs toward colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Materials and Methods: The 'forward-backward' procedure was applied to translate the instrument from English into Persian. This study was conducted in Iran from June 2012 to May 2013. A convenience sample of 200 individuals aged 50 years and older was recruited from the population at the outpatient clinics in the three teaching hospitals. Validity was assessed using content, face and construct validity. To test reliability, the internal consistency was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient) analyses. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity and determine the factors of adapted Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Results: The mean age of the participants were 62.5 years (SD=10.8 years) and the majority of them (75.5 percent) were female. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicated a six-factor solution for the questionnaire (benefits, motivation and confidence, seriousness, susceptibility, emotional barriers and background barriers) that jointly accounted for 55.52% of variance observed. Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.57 to 0.89 and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 indicating a good range of reliability. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the Persian version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale of CRC screening has good psychometric properties and could be an appropriate measure for health beliefs related to CRC screening in national and international studies.

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior of Turkish Women about Breast Cancer and Breast Self-Examination According to a Turkish Version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5823-5828
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Although a great deal of progress has been made in the health sciences, early diagnosis, and increasing community awareness, breast cancer remains a life-threatening illness. In order to reduce this threat, breast cancer screening needs to be implemented in all communities where possible. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about breast cancer and breast self-examination of Turkish women. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of 656 women, using an adapted Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), between January and May 2011, in Ordu province of Turkey. Results: The results showed that 67.7% of women had knowledge about and 55.8% performed BSE, however 60.6% of those who indicated they practiced BSE reported they did so at irregular intervals. CHBMS subscales scores of women according to women's age, education level, occupation, family income and education level of the women's mothers, family history of breast cancer, friend and an acquaintance with breast cancer, knowledge about breast cancer, BSE and mammography were significantly different. Conclusion: Knowledge of women about the risks and benefits of early detection of breast cancer positively affect their health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Health care professionals can develop effective breast health programs and can help women to gain good health behavior and to maintain health.

Is Health Locus of Control a Modifying Factor in the Health Belief Model for Prediction of Breast Self-Examination?

  • Tahmasebi, Rahim;Noroozi, Azita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2229-2233
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. Early detection is necessary to improve outcomes and decrease related costs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of health locus of control as a modifying factor in the Health Belief Model (HBM) for prediction of breast self-examination. Materials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 400 women selected through the convenience sampling from health centers. Data were collected using part of the Champion's HBM scale (CHBMS), the Health Locus of Control Scale and a self administered questionnaire. For data analysis by SPSS the independent T test, Chi square test, logistic and linear regression modes were appliedl. Results: The results showed that 10.9% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. Health locus of control did not act as a predictor of BSE as a modifying factor. In this study, perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of BSE performance (Exp (B) =1.863) with direct effect, while awareness had direct and indirect influence. Conclusions: For increasing BSE, improvement of self-efficacy especially in young women and increasing knowledge about cancer is necessary.

Health Beliefs and Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors among Iranian Female Health Workers

  • Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa;Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh;Neamatzadeh, Hossein;Kargar, Saeed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9817-9822
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is a serious health problem. Early detection is crucial for optimal treatment and reducing mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate health beliefs concerning performance of breast self- examination (BSE) and mammography in a sample of Iranian female health workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 441 female health care workers (physicians=88, nurses=163, midwives=38, officers=68, and others=84) in 3 different health centers in Yazd, Iran. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and thenPersian version of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Results: The mean age of the participants was $34.7{\pm}13.7$. It was found that 41.9% of the workers performed BSE in the past and 14.9% of them regularly, but only 10.6% of them had undergone a mammogram. Perceived barriers to BSE (F=6.351, P=0.021) and mammography (F=5.214, p=0.022) were significantly higher in officers than physicians, nurses or midwives. Perceived barriers were lower among those who had performed BSE and mammography, but not significant (p=0.34 and p=0.56, respectively). Furthermore, perceived susceptibility and perceived benefits of the workers who had BSE and mammography were significantly higher than who did not (p<0.05). Perceived seriousness was not a significant variable in BSE and mammography (p=0.71 and p=0.43, respectively). Conclusions: The health beliefs of health workers concerning the perceived susceptibility of breast cancer and the perceived benefits BSE and mammography significantly impact their screening practices.

Predicting Factors of Breast Self-Examination Among Middle Aged Women (장년기 여성의 유방자가검진 수행에 대한 예측변수)

  • Lee, Young-Whee;Lee, Eun-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.551-559
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predicting factors of the performance of breast self-examination (BSE) among Korean middle-aged women based upon the Health Belief Model. Method: A descriptive design was used for this study. A total of 309 convenience samples were recruited from Yonsu-Gu, Inchon. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale was used to measure the health belief related variables of susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, confidence, and health motivation. The performance of BSE asked of it was as ever or never performed during the last year. The obtained data were analysed using descriptive statistics, $\chi^2$-test, t-test, and logistic regression. Result: Results showed that 32% had ever BSE last year. Age and BSE education among demographic characteristics were significantly associated with the performance of BSE. Thus, these demographic variables were added to the logistic regression analyses with the health belief variables. As a result, age, BSE education, health motivation, and confidence significantly explained the performance of BSE. Conclusion: This study suggests that it is important that the development of BSE educational programs increase confidence and motivation, particularly for middle aged-Korean women.

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Determining the Awareness of and Compliance with Breast Cancer Screening among Turkish Residential Women

  • Yilmaz, Demet;Bebis, Hatice;Ortabag, Tulay
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3281-3288
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Despite being associated with high morbidity and mortality, breast cancer is a disease that can be diagnosed and treated early. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 321 women, data were collected by Questionnaire, Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chisquared tests and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: It was found that only 2.2% of women have high and very high risk levels of breast cancer risk. There is a positive correlation between early diagnosis techniques and Health Belief Model Sub-Dimension scores which are sensibility, health motivation, BSE (Breast self-examination) self-efficient perception and negative correlation between mammography barrier score and BSE barrier score (p 0.05). When factors for not having BSE were examined, it was determined that the women who do not have information about breast cancer and the women who smoke have a higher risk of not having BSE. Conclusions: It is important to determine health beliefs and breast cancer risk levels of women to increase the frequency of early diagnosis. Women's health beliefs are thought to be a good guide for planning health education programs for nurses working in this area.

The Effects of Educational Level on Breast Cancer Awareness: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey

  • Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan;Saracoglu, Gamze Varol;Oran, Ebru Sen;Yankol, Yucel;Soybir, Gursel Remzi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2012
  • Breast self-examination (BSE) is important for early diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). However, the majority of Turkish women do not perform regular BSE. We aimed to evaluate the effects of education level on the attitudes and behaviors of women towards BSE. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 413 women (20-59 years), divided into university graduates (Group I, n = 224) and high school or lower graduates (Group II, n = 189). They completed a 22-item scale assessing the knowledge level, attitudes and behaviors regarding BSE, and the Turkish version of the Champion's Revised Health Belief Model. A significantly higher number of women in Group II did not believe in early diagnosis of BC. A significantly higher number of Group I had conducted BSE at least once, and their BSE frequency was also significantly high. Moreover, a significantly lower number of Group I women considered themselves to not be at risk for BC and the scores for "perceived susceptibility" and "perceived barriers" were significantly higher. Logistic regression analysis identified the university graduate group to have a higher likelihood of performing BSE, by 1.8 times. Higher educational levels were positively associated with BSE performance. Overall, the results suggest that Turkish women, regardless of their education level, need better education on BSE. Consideration of the education level in women will help clinicians develop more effective educational programs, resulting in more regular practice and better use of BSE.

Breast Cancer Awareness among Turkish Nursing Students

  • Celik, Sevim;Tasdemir, Nurten;Sancak, Hulya;Demirel, Merve;Akman, Ozlem;Kara, Merve
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.20
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    • pp.8941-8946
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    • 2014
  • Background: This study conducted to determine breast cancer awareness and influencing factors among nursing students in the West Black Sea Region in Turkey. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April-May, 2014. The sample was 270 female nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Results: The students' mean age was $21.6{\pm}2.09$ and 81.1% had knowledge about breast cancer from their academic education. It is found that 63.7% of the students performed Breast Self-Examination (BSE) and 11.1% had a family member diagnosed with breast cancer. The CHBMS mean score of the students was $117.7{\pm}14.5$. Conclusions: Breast cancer awareness of nursing students is on a good level and was affected by family history of breast cancer and health beliefs.

Predictors of Mammography Participation Among Rural Korean Women Age 40 and Over

  • Hur, Hea-Kung;Kim, Gi-Yon;Park, So-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.8
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    • pp.1443-1450
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    • 2005
  • Purpose. The study was conducted to identify predictors of mammography screening for rural Korean women according to 'Stage of Change' from the Transtheoretical Model which, along with the Health Belief Model, formed the theoretical basis for this study. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized. Through convenience sampling 432 women were selected from 2 rural areas. Data were collected by survey. Health beliefs constructs were measured with Champion's HBM Scale-Korea version. Mammography participation was measured using the Stage of Mammography Adoption Scale developed. by Rakowski, et al.(1992). Results. The most frequent stage of mammography adoption was 'contemplation' ($40.5\%$). Predictors of stage of mammography adoption included 'mammogram recommended by health professional' (beta==0.59, t=16.12, p=.000), 'perceived benefits' (beta=0.09, t=2.21, p=.050), 'perceived susceptibility' (beta=0.09, t=1.98, p=.050), and 'perceived barriers' (beta=-0.07, t=-2.05, p=.041). 'Mammogram recommended by health professional' demonstrated the greatest association with having a mammogram. Conclusion. Health professionals play key roles in improving mammography participation and should recognize the importance of their role in cancer prevention and be more actively involved in education and counseling on prevention of breast cancer.

Determining the Factors that Affect Breast Cancer and Self Breast Examination Beliefs of Turkish Nurses in Academia

  • Yucel, Sebnem Cinar;Orgun, Fatma;Tokem, Yasemin;Avdal, Elif Unsal;Demir, Muzeyyen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.1275-1280
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To define factors that affect the performance status of BSE and confidence of student nurses. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the academic year 2010-2011 in a nursing faculty in $\dot{I}$zmir, Turkey. "Informative data form" and "Champion's Revised Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS)" were used as data collection forms. Results: The mean age of the participant nurses was $21.0{\pm}1.49$. The mean CHMS scores of the student nurses were as follows: perceived susceptibility regarding breast cancer, $7.78{\pm}2.46$; perceived seriousness regarding breast cancer, $22.4{\pm}5.43$; perceived benefit regarding BSE application, $20.5{\pm}4.45$; perceived barriers regarding BSE application, $23.8{\pm}7.13$; perceived confidence regarding BSE application, $36.3{\pm}7.78$; the mean score of health motivation sub-scale, $25.7{\pm}4.59$; and mean of the total score of the scale, $36.5{\pm}15.01$. Conclusions: The outcomes obtained in this study indicated the importance of better education to student nurses, who have a key role in teaching preventive health behaviour including BSE to society and other university students as colleagues.