• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cervix Cancer

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Morphological Changes of Mouse Ovary by X-Ray Irradiation (방사선 조사선량에 따른 생쥐 난소의 형태학적 변화)

  • Yoon, Chul-Ho;Choi, Jong-Woon;Yoon, Surk-Hwan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.140-156
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    • 2007
  • This research was performed to investigate the morphological changes of folliculus ovary according to the radiation dose. The whole body radiation of 200 cGy, 400 cGy, and 600 cGy was given to the each groups of 5 months-aged female mouse. Various staining methods used in this research are: Hematosylin-Eosin method, and immunohistochemistrical methods using BrdU, TUNEL, p53, p21, PCNA and inhibin. The minute structural changes of folliculus ovary were observed through an electron microscope with high magnification. The morphological changes of growing folliculus ovary became distinct as the dose of X-rays increased. Especially, the nuclei of granular cells showed manifest condensation and the changes of the transparent zone were distinct. As a result of histochemical reaction according to Masson's trichrome method and reticular fiber method, the changed granular cells, the deformed basilar membrane of folliculus ovary and the abnormal arrangement of the reticular fiber were observed. In the reaction of BrdU, the granular cells of normal folliculus ovary with positive reaction rapidly decreased according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In TUNEL study, granular cells showing positive reaction in retarded folliculus ovary were expanded to growing folliculus ovary and primordial folliculus ovary according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In case of 600 cGy of X-rays, oocyte underwent apoptosis. In p53 immunohistochemistry, p53 manifested to be stronger as the dose of X-rays increased. p53 reactivity was manifested distinctively in all cells comprising folliculus ovary following irradiation of 600 cGy. p21 was manifested in granular cells of folliculus ovary and showed very positive reaction around follicular antrum according to the increase of the dose of X-rays. In PCNA, positive reaction was manifested in growing folliculus ovary, mature folliculus ovary and primordial folliculus ovary, but the extent of the reaction decreased as the dose of the X-rays decreased. The finding that the reaction of granular cells around folliculus ovary was stronger than that near follicular membrane indicates that what was damaged first by X-ray was the cells near folliculus ovary and follicular antrum. The reactivity of $inhibin-{\alpha}$ showed difference according to the growing stage of folliculus ovary: $inhibin-{\alpha}$ showed the most strong reaction in mature folliculus ovary with follicular antrum. There was strong reaction in granular cells around follicular membrane but $inhibin-{\alpha}$ did not occur at all in theca cells comprising follicular membrane. $Inhibin-{\alpha}$ in ovary tissue exposed to 400 cGy of X-rays was manifested more strongly than in ovary tissue exposed to 600 cGy of X-rays, which was related to the phenomenon that granular cells of mature folliculus ovary underwent necrosis or apoptosis increasingly due to X-rays. In an electron microscope with high magnification, nuclei and protoplasm of granular cells in growing folliculus ovary abruptly underwent minute structural changes according to the increase of dose of X-rays. Cell residue, by-product of cell decease, neutrophil and macrophage around follicular antrum were observed. The minute structural changes in granular cells showed typical characteristics of apoptosis: the increase of electronic density due to nuclear condensation, fragmentation of nuclei and atrophy of protoplasm. Necrosis of cells was identified but it was not so remarkable. Macrophage with apoptotic bodies was scattered. Proportional to the radiation dose, we found that the generation of heterogeneous substance of normal ovary texture's follicular fluid, the emergence of dyeing characteristic in the basilar membrane of folicle, the generation of apoptosis, and the transformation of macrophages, etc. From this results, we can infer the possible radiation hazard on the ovary of cervix cancer patient with radiation therapy.

The Analysis of Dose in a Rectum by Multipurpose Brachytherapy Phantom (근접방사선치료용 다목적 팬톰을 이용한 직장 내 선량분석)

  • Huh, Hyun-Do;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Cho, Sam-Ju;Lee, Suk;Shin, Dong-Oh;Kwon, Soo-Il;Kim, Hun-Jung;Kim, Woo-Chul;K. Loh John-J.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: In this work we designed and made MPBP(Multi Purpose Brachytherapy Phantom). The MPBP enables one to reproduce the same patient set-up in MPBP as the treatment of the patient and we tried to get an exact analysis of rectal doses in the phantom without need of in-vivo dosimetry. Materials and Methods: Dose measurements were tried at a point of rectum 1, the reference point of rectum, with a diode detector for 4 patients treated with tandem and ovoid for a brachytherapy of a cervix cancer. Total 20 times of rectal dose measurements were made with 5 times a patient. The set-up variation of the diode detector was analyzed. The same patient set-ups were reproduced in self-made MPBP and then rectal doses were measured with TLD. Results: The measurement results of the diode detector showed that the set-up variation of the diode detector was the maximum $11.25{\pm}0.95mm$ in the y-direction for Patient 1 and the maximum $9.90{\pm}4.50mm,\;20.85{\pm}4.50mm,\;and\;19.15{\pm}3.33mm$ in the z-direction for Patient 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Un analyzing the degree of variation in 3 directions the more variation was showed in the z-direction than x- and y-direction except Patient 1. The results of TLD measurements in MPBP showed the relative maximum error of 8.6% and 7.7% at a point of rectum 1 for Patient 1 and 4, respectively and 1.7% and 1.2% for Patient 2 and 3, respectively. The doses measured at R1 and R2 were higher than those calculated except R point of Patient 2. this can be thought to related to the algorithm of dose calculation, whcih corrects for air and water but is guessed not to consider the correction for the scattered rays, but by considering the self-error (${\pm}5%$) TLD has the relative error of values measured and calculated was analyzed to be in a good agreement within 15%. Conclusion: The reproducibility of dose measurements under the same condition as the treatment could be achieved owing to the self-made MPMP and the dose at the point of interest could be analyzed accurately. If a treatment is peformed after achieving dose optimization using the data obtained in the phantom, dose will be able to be minimized to important organs.