• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cervix Cancer

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Clinical Application of $^{18}F-FDG$ PET in Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암에서 $^{18}F-FDG$ PET의 임상 이용)

  • Oh, So-Won;Kim, Seok-Ki
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 2008
  • Cervix cancer is one of common gynecological cancers in the world, and staged with FIGO or TNM system. However, these clinical staging systems lack information about lymph node or distant metastases, thus imaging modalities are considered to make an appropriate therapeutic plan and enhance overall survival rate. In this context, FDG PET is recommended to pre-treatment stating and prognosis prediction, for it could noninvasively evaluate the status of lymph nodes, especially abdominal paraaortic nodes which are closely related with prognosis. Moreover, the degree of FDG uptake is correlated with prognosis. Although there is no consistent method for surveillance of cervix cancer, FDG PET seems a very important tool in detecting tumor recurrence because it is much more advantageous than conventional imaging modalities such as MRI for discerning recurrent tumor from fibrosis caused by radiation or surgery. Furthermore, FDG PET could be used to evaluate treatment response. On the other hand, recently introduced PET/CT is expected to play an ancillary role to FIGO staging by adding anatomical information, and enhance diagnostic performance of PET by decreasing false positive findings.

A Model Approach to Calculate Cancer Prevalence From 5 Year Survival Data for Selected Cancer Sites in India

  • Takiar, Ramnath;Jayant, Kasturi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6899-6903
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    • 2013
  • Background: Prevalence is a statistic of primary interest in public health. In the absence of good follow-up facilities, it is difficult to assess the complete prevalence of cancer for a given registry area. Objective: An attempt was here made to arrive at complete prevalence including limited duration prevalence with respect to selected sites of cancer for India by fitting appropriate models to 1, 3 and 5 years cancer survival data available for selected population-based registries. Materials and Methods: Survival data, available for the registries of Bhopal, Chennai, Karunagappally, and Mumbai was pooled to generate survival for breast, cervix, ovary, lung, stomach and mouth cancers. With the available data on survival for 1, 3 and 5 years, a model was fitted and the survival curve was extended beyond 5 years (up to 35 years) for each of the selected sites. This helped in generation of survival proportions by single year and thereby survival of cancer cases. With the help of survival proportions available year-wise and the incidence, prevalence figures were arrived for selected cancer sites and for selected periods. Results: The prevalence to incidence ratio (PI ratio) stabilized after a certain duration for all the cancer sites showing that from the knowledge of incidence, the prevalence can be calculated. The stabilized P/I ratios for the cancer sites of breast, cervix, ovary, stomach, lung, mouth and for life time was observed to be 4.90, 5.33, 2.75, 1.40, 1.37, 4.04 and 3.42 respectively. Conclusions: The validity of the model approach to calculate prevalence could be demonstrated with the help of survival data of Barshi registry for cervix cancer, available for the period 1988-2006.

Image Guided Brachytherapy in Cervix Cancer

  • Park, Sung-Yong;Shin, Kyung-Hwan;Park, Dahl;Cho, Jung-Keun;Kim, Dae-Yong;Kim, Jong-Won;Cho, Kwan-Ho;Kim, Tae-Hyun;Chie, Eui-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.154-156
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    • 2002
  • Brachytherapy has a long history in the treatment of cancer. However, the treatment planning technique for brachytherapy has lagged somewhat behind the corresponding developments for external beam therapy as far as the imaging technique is concerned. Currently, the orthogonal-film-based treatment planning is performed at most institutions even though the CT-based planning is available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the CT-based vs. the orthogonal-film-based treatment planning in cervix cancer. The doses to point A, point B, rectum and bladder points according to ICRU 38 were calculated for the two methods above. In addition, the volumetric studies such as 3D dose computation and DVH were obtained for the CT-based planning. For the bulky tumor, the isodose lines of point A prescription were not fairly covered for the CTV. The CT -based dose planning can overestimate the maximum dose delivered to bladder and rectum by 30%. The CT-based planning has several advantages over the orthogonal-film-based such as 3D dose display, DVH, and more accurate target delineation. It is suggested that the prescription point in cervix cancer be revised especially for the bulky tumor.

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Result of Radiation Therapy of the Cervix Cancer Stage IIIB (자궁경부암 IIIB 기의 방사선치료 성적)

  • Huh, Seung-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 1993
  • From September 1985 through September 1989,56 patients with stage IIIB carcinoma of the cervix were treated with radiation therapy with curative aim. The overall survival at 5 year was $38{\%}$. The survival rate was better for patients treated with combined external radiotherapy and high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy than with external radiotherapy alone. No significant survival difference was observed between the unilateral and bilateral parametrial extension of the tumor Seventeen patients experienced recurrence within the irradiated field with a loco-regional recurrence rate of $30{\%}$. Ten patients had complications ($18{\%}$). The complications were mild in three, moderate in four, and severe in three patients. A study was made on the relationship between the fraction numbers of intracavitary radiotherapy, vaginal packing and the complication rate, respectively. In this analysis author observed that the significant treatment factor influencing the survival of cervical cancer was the use of intracavitary radiation, and meticulous vaginal packing could decrease the late complication rate of radiotherapy of cervical cancer.

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Intraarterial Scintigraphy in Recurrent Cervix Cancer - The Evaluation of Radionuclide Therapeutic Trials - (자궁경부재발암 환자의 국소동맥 주입식 동위원소 검사 -방사성 동위원소의 치료시도를 위한 평가-)

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Suh, Jin-Suck;Park, Chang-Yun;Lee, Jong-Tae;Yoo, Hyung-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 1990
  • We performed 17 intraarterial scintigraphies in six patients with recurrent cervix cancer. With Seldinger method, the agent (four different radiopharmaceuticals) was perfused at the same speed of infusion of anticancer drugs (25 cc/hour) through internal iliac artery. There were four different radiopharmaceuticals; I-131-Lipiodol, Tc (Technetium)-99m-HSa (Human Serum Albumin), $^{99m}Tc-Sucralfate$ and $^{99m}Tc-MAA$ (Macroaggraegated Albumin). We evaluate the distribution pattern of radioactivity by the use of ratio of Tumor/Extratumor uptake (T/ET ratio). Our results reveals that $^{99m}Tc-MAA$ scan showed the highest T/ET ratio and the other were not ideal agents for intraarterial therapy of recurrent cervix cancer. In conclusion, an ideal radioisotope and tracer which can block capillary, for example MAA, should be re-evaluated or produced in order to treat the patient with recurrent cervix cancer.

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Statistical Modelling and Forecasting of Cervix Cancer Cases in Radiation Oncology Treatment: A Hospital Based Study from Western Nepal

  • Sathian, Brijesh;Fazil, Abul;Sreedharan, Jayadevan;Pant, Sadip;Kakria, Anjali;Sharan, Krishna;Rajesh, E.;Vishrutha, K.V.;Shetty, Soumya B.;Shahnavaz, Shameema;Rao, Jyothi H.;Marakala, Vijaya
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2097-2100
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    • 2013
  • Background: To estimate the numbers and trends in cervix cancer cases visiting the Radiotherapy Department at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, statistical modelling from retrospective data was applied. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out on data for a total of 159 patients treated for cervix cancer at Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, between $28^{th}$ September 2000 and $31^{st}$ December 2008. Theoretical statistics were used for statistical modelling and forecasting. Results: Using curve fitting method, Linear, Logarithmic, Inverse, Quadratic, Cubic, Compound, Power and Exponential growth models were validated. Including the constant term, none of the models fit the data well. Excluding the constant term, the cubic model demonstrated the best fit, with $R^2$=0.871 (p=0.004). In 2008, the observed and estimated numbers of cases were same (12). According to our model, 273 patients with cervical cancer are expected to visit the hospital in 2015. Conclusions: Our data predict a significant increase in cervical cancer cases in this region in the near future. This observation suggests the need for more focus and resource allocation on cervical cancer screening and treatment.

Pattern of Reproductive Cancers in India

  • Takiar, Ramnath;Kumar, Sathish
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.599-603
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    • 2014
  • Background: Reproductive cancers are those that affect the human organs that are involved in producing offspring. An attempt is made in the present communication to assess the magnitude and pattern of reproductive cancers, including their treatment modalities, in India. The cancer incidence data related to reproductive cancers collected by five population-based urban registries, namely Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai, for the years 2006-08 were utilized. The reproductive cancers among females constituted around 25% of the total and around 9% among males. Among females, the three major contributors were cervix (55.5%), ovary (26.1%) and corpus uteri (12.4%). Similarly among males, the three major contributors were prostate (77.6%), penis (11.6%) and testis (10.5%). For females, the AAR of reproductive cancers varied between 30.5 in the registry of Mumbai to 37.3 in the registry of Delhi. In males, it ranged between 6.5 in the registry of Bhopal to 14.7 in the registry of Delhi. For both males and females, the individual reproductive cancer sites showed increasing trends with age. The leading treatment provided was: radio-therapy in combination with chemo-therapy for cancers of cervix (48.3%) and vagina (43.9%); surgery in combination with chemo-therapy (54.9%) for ovarian cancer; and surgery in combination with radio-therapy for the cancers of the corpus uteri (39.8%). In males, the leading treatment provided was hormone-therapy for prostate cancer (39.6%), surgery for penile cancer (81.3%) and surgery in combination with chemo-therapy for cancer of the testis (57.6%).

Iliopelvic Lymphoscintigraphic Findings in Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix (자궁경부암 환자에서의 Lymphoscintigraphy 소견)

  • Lim, Sang-Moo;Hong, Sung-Woon;Park, Sang-Yun;Lee, Je-Ho;Lee, Eui-Don;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Park, Kee-Bok;Choi, Chang-Woon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.286-292
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    • 1990
  • Iliopelvic lymphoscintigraphy was performed to visualize the changes of the lymphatic system using Technetium-99m antimony sulfide colloid in carcinoma of uterine cervix. There were no differences between various indices and clinical stages, but comparison with computed tomographic and postoperative findings, there was meaningful difference in index of decrease and increase, respectively. And lymphoscintigraphy showed by pass way of lymphatic channel in 42 cases (16%) and this suggested the presence of normal shunts of lymphatic channels. Iliopelvic lymphoscintigraphy may be useful for evaluation of lymphatic system in carcinoma of uterine cervix, expecially for screening method.

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Significance of Blood Group and Social Factors in Carcinoma Cervix in a Semi-Urban Population in India

  • Lee, Jun Kai;Raju, Kalyani;Lingaiah, Harendra Kumar Malligere;Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.4811-4814
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    • 2013
  • Background: To assess the significance of social factors as risk factors for carcinoma cervix and to determine the significance of blood group to prevalence of carcinoma cervix in a semi-urban population of Kolar, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of carcinoma cervix were included in the study, along with 200 females of the same ages considered as controls. Case details were collected from the hospital record section regarding social factors and blood groups and the data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Blood group B showed the highest number of cases (55 cases) followed by blood group O (29 cases) in carcinoma cervix which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Age of marriage between 11 to 20 years showed highest number of carcinoma cervix cases (77 cases) and this also was statistically significant (p<0.001). Patients with rural background were 75 (p=0.112, odds ratio: 1.54), parity of more than or equal to two constituted 96 cases (p=0.006, odds ratio: 4.07) and Hindu patients were 95 in number (p=0.220, odds ratio: 1.89). Conclusions: Blood group B and age of marriage between 11 and 20 years were significantly associated with carcinoma cervix in our population. Region of residence, parity and religion presented with a altered risk for carcinoma cervix.

The Cytologic Analysis of Microinvasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix on Cervical Smear (자궁경부 세포도말 검사에시 미세침윤성 편평세포암종의 세포학적 분석)

  • Choi, Hyun-Joo;Park, In-Ae
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2001
  • Whlie cytologic characteristics of squamous dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix are well documented, relatively few studios have dealt with the cellular features of microinvasive carcinoma. In order to describe the cellular characteristics of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma, we retrospectively reviewed 45 cervovaginal smears(15 carcinoma in situ, 15 microinvasive cancer, 15 invasive cancer) which were confirmed by histologic examination of specimens obtained by hysterectomy at the Seoul National University Hospital during S years from 1995 to 1999. The cytologic features about tumor diathesis, inflammatory background, ceil arrangement, anisonucleosis, nuclear membrane irregularity, nuclear chromatin pattern, and nucleoli were observed. The cytologlc characteristics of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix are syncytial pattern, mild tumor diathesis, the irregularity of nuclear membrane, irregularly distributed nuclear chromatin, and occurrence of micronucleoli. But, correlation between the depth of Invasion and the cytologic feature had limited value.

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