• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cervical cancer prevention

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Effects of a Peer Cervical Cancer Prevention Education Program on Korean Female College Students' Knowledge, Attitude, Self-efficacy, and Intention

  • Mo, Hyun Suk;Choi, Keum Bong;Kim, Jin Sun
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.736-746
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer cervical cancer prevention education program on Korean female college students' knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention. Methods: A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with a non-equivalent control group was used. The participants were 58 female college students in a metropolitan city in Korea. The sample consisted of an intervention group (n=28) that participated in a peer education program and a control group (n=30). Data were measured using self-administered questionnaires at two time points: prior to the intervention and after the intervention. Results: Compared to the control group, the experimental group reported significantly positive changes for knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and intent to practice cervical cancer prevention behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that a peer education program developed for Korean female college students was a useful and effective intervention strategy to promote cervical cancer prevention behaviors in Korean sociocultural contexts.

HPV Vaccination for Cervical Cancer Prevention is not Cost-Effective in Japan

  • Isshiki, Takahiro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6177-6180
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    • 2014
  • Background: Our study objectives were to evaluate the medical economics of cervical cancer prevention and thereby contribute to cancer care policy decisions in Japan. Methods: Model creation: we created presence-absence models for prevention by designating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Cost classification and cost estimates: we divided the costs of cancer care into seven categories (prevention, mass-screening, curative treatment, palliative care, indirect, non-medical, and psychosocial cost) and estimated costs for each model. Cost-benefit analyses: we performed cost-benefit analyses for Japan as a whole. Results: HPV vaccination was estimated to cost $291.5 million, cervical cancer screening $76.0 million and curative treatment $12.0 million. The loss due to death was $251.0 million and the net benefit was -$128.5 million (negative). Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention was not found to be cost-effective in Japan. While few cost-benefit analyses have been reported in the field of cancer care, these would be essential for Japanese policy determination.

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Lay Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Causation and Prevention

  • Wang, Linda Dong-Ling;Lam, Wendy Wing Tak;Wu, Joseph;Fielding, Richard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7679-7686
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    • 2014
  • Background: This study aimed to seek insights into Chinese women's lay beliefs about cervical cancer causal attributions and prevention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three new immigrant adult women from Mainland China and thirty-five Hong Kong adult women underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results: This study generated three foci: causal beliefs about cervical cancer, perceived risk of cervical cancer, and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Personal risky practices, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of cervical cancer. New immigrant women more likely attributed cervical cancer to external factors. Most participants perceived cervical cancer as an important common fatal female cancer with increased risk/prevalence. Many participants, particularly new immigrant women participants, expressed helplessness about cervical cancer prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, it being perceived as beyond individual control. Many new immigrant participants had never undergone regular cervical screening while almost all Hong Kong participants had done so. Conclusions: Some Chinese women hold pessimistic beliefs about cervical cancer prevention with inadequate knowledge about risk factors. Future cervical cancer prevention programs should provide more information and include capacity building to increase Chinese women's knowledge and self-efficacy towards cervical cancer prevention.

Development of an Educational Program to Prevent Cervical Cancer among Immigrants in Korea

  • Choi, So Young
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.9
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    • pp.5345-5349
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    • 2013
  • Background: This study developed and measured the effects of a cervical cancer prevention program for married women immigrants. Materials and Methods: A nonequivalent control group pre-test/post-test design was used with a group of married women immigrants registered at the multi-cultural center in the city of "J." Data on for 30 participants in the intervention group and 27 participants in the control group (N=57) were used for analysis. The intervention group attended a 4-session cervical cancer prevention program. Results: The knowledge of the intervention and control groups about cervical cancer post-intervention was significantly different (F=12.55, p<0.001). The perceived susceptibility score before and after the experiment, for the intervention group, and 29.4 and 28 for the control group, was significantly different (t=2.063, p=0.043). After the program, cancer prevention behavior was significantly different in the intervention group (t=2.646, p=0.010). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate that the cervical cancer preventive program was effective in increasing cervical cancer knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and cancer prevention behavior.

Does Hopelessness of Turkish Women Affect their Behavior Regarding Cervical Cancer Prevention and Early Diagnosis?

  • Tasci-Duran, Emel;Unsal-Atan, Senay
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.2085-2089
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    • 2013
  • Background: The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate attitudes women of towards cervical cancer prevention applications and early diagnosis, and whether or not their hopelessness levels had any influence. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Isparta with a descriptive design. A sample of 251 individuals was recruited from January 2011 through May 2011 in the largest tea garden (restaurant-cafe). The data collection tool consisted of two parts: a "Questionnaire Form" identifying women; and the "Beck Hopelessness Scale". Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for Windows for the numerical and percentage distribution, average, standard deviation with the ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Some 70.2 % of the woman indicated that they had not taken the Pap test. There was a significant relationship between the hopelessness level and women believing that they could protect themselves from getting cervical cancer (F=10.11 p=0.00). There was a significant relationship between hopelessness levels and believing whether or not early diagnosis tests are deterministic (F=8.781 p=0.00). Conclusion: Our study concluded that the hopelessness level of women had an effect on their thoughts about cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis.

Evaluation of Korean Version of the Beliefs about Papanicolau Test and Cervical Cancer in Unmarried University Students (한국판 자궁경부암과 Pap 검사 신념 도구의 타당도 신뢰도 평가: 미혼 여대생 대상)

  • Kim, Hae Won;Ko, Ga Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate Korean version of the beliefs about Papanicolau (Pap) test and cervical cancer [CPC-28] in unmarried university students. Methods: The Korean version of CPC-28 (K-CPC-28) was developed through forward-backward translation techniques. A reliability, confirmatory factor analysis and correlations coefficients were evaluated. Data were collected from 303 unmarried female students attending university using a questionnaire that included28 items of CPC, 5 items of susceptibility of cervicalcancer and 8 items of HPV knowledge. Results: K-CPC-28 had reliable internal consistency with Cronbach's ${\alpha}$=.74 of six subscales ranged from .66 to .80. Factor loadings of the 28 items of subscales ranged from .31 to .86. Six factors in this study explained 55% of the total variance. In convergent validity of the K-CPC-28, the subscales of K-CPC-28 were significantly correlated with susceptibility scale of cervical cancer and HPV knowledge scale. Conclusion: K-CPC-28has satisfactory construct validity and reliability. It seems to be an acceptable tool to assess the attitudes toward cervical cancer prevention and Pap smear in unmarried women. This tool would be also applicable to screen the risk group in cervical cancer prevention and to identify its association with actual Pap test or cervical cancer prevention behaviors.

Challenges of Providing Cervical Cancer Prevention Programs In Iran: A Qualitative Study

  • Bayrami, Roghieh;Taghipour, Ali;Ebrahimipour, Hossein
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10071-10077
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    • 2015
  • Background: Cervical cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide. Iran, like other developing countries, is facing a number of challenges in managing the disease. This qualitative study documents challenges encountered in cervical cancer preventing programs in Iran. Materials and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 participants including eleven patients with cervical cancer, three gynecologic oncologists, five specialists in Obstetrics and Gynecology, five midwives, three health care managers and one epidemiologist in Mashhad Iran, between May and December of 2012. The sample was selected purposively until data saturation was achieved. Data credibility verified via allocated sufficient time for data collection, using member checking and peer debriefing. Data analysis was carried out using conventional content analysis approach with ATLAS. ti software. Results: Findings from data analysis demonstrated 2 major themes and 6 categories about challenges of providing cervical cancer prevention programs including: individual and social challenges (cognitive/behavioral challenges and socio/cultural challenges) and health system challenges (stewardship, financing, competency of health care providers and access to services). Each category included some subcategories. Conclusions: Managing the cervical cancer prevention programs need to include the consideration of individuals, health care providers and health system challenges. Addressing the low level of knowledge, negative attitudes, socio cultural challenges, Poor intersectional collaboration and coordination and intra-sectional management, financing and competency of health care providers are essential steps toward significantly reducing the burdens of cervical cancer.

Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

  • Obel, J;McKenzie, J;Buenconsejo-Lum, LE;Durand, AM;Ekeroma, A;Souares, Y;Hoy, D;Baravilala, W;Garland, SM;Kjaer, SK;Roth, A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3435-3442
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    • 2015
  • Objective : To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results: Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific.

Use of Fast Transfer Analysis Cartridges for Cervical Sampling and Real Time PCR Based High Risk HPV Testing in Cervical Cancer Prevention - a Feasibility Study from South India

  • Vijayalakshmi, Ramshankar;Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara;Malliga, JS;Murugan, Kothandaraman;Kanchana, Albert;Arvind, Krishnamurthy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.5993-5999
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    • 2015
  • Background: Molecular testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most objective and reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests and also less demanding in terms of training and quality assurance. However, there is an impending need for cost effective molecular HPV testing methods with sampling ease, easy storage measures and minimum turn around times suitable for a low resource setting. Objective : Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using a fast transfer analysis (FTA) mini elute cartridge for cervical sampling to identify high risk HPV by real time PCR and to compare molecular HPV testing and Pap cytology testing to predict histologically confirmed cervical precancer (CIN 2+ lesions) in a cervical cancer prevention program. Materials and Methods: This was conducted as a pilot study (n=200) on women sampled using FTA mini elute cartridges, genotyped by two different real time PCR assays, detecting 13 high risk HPV (HR HPV) species, including HPV16 along with its physical DNA status. Results obtained from each of the tests were compared and analysed using suitable statistical tests. Results: With FTA mini elute cartridge samples HR HPV positivity was seen in 48/200 (24%). Of these, presence of HPV 16 DNA was observed in 28/48 (58.3%) women. High risk HPV was positive in 20% (37/185) of women with benign cytology and 73.3% (11/15) of women with abnormal cytology findings. A very significant correlation (${\chi}^2=22.090$ ; p=0.000) was observed between cytology and HR HPV findings showing an increasing trend of HR HPV prevalence in 50% (1/2) of LSIL, 75% (3/4) of HSIL and 100% (3/3) of SCC. Of the CIN 2+ lesions identified by histopathology, 88.9% (8/9) had HR HPV. A significant association (${\chi}^2=11.223$ ; p=0.001) of HR HPV and histopathologically confirmed CIN 2+ lesions was found. Sensitivity of the two tests were comparable but specificity of Pap testing was better (90.7% vs 70.4%) to predict histopathologically diagnosed cervical precancers. Conclusions: The current study explored the feasibility of using a FTA mini elute cartridge for cervical sampling for the first time in India as a part of a community based cervical cancer prevention program. We suggest that FTA based sampling is suitable and feasible for real time based HPV testing. Molecular HR HPV testing can be more sensitive and useful to identify high risk women requiring Pap testing which is more specific to detect histologically confirmed cervical precancer.