• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cervical cancer prevention

Search Result 651, Processing Time 0.031 seconds

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Lay Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Causation and Prevention

  • Wang, Linda Dong-Ling;Lam, Wendy Wing Tak;Wu, Joseph;Fielding, Richard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.18
    • /
    • pp.7679-7686
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: This study aimed to seek insights into Chinese women's lay beliefs about cervical cancer causal attributions and prevention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three new immigrant adult women from Mainland China and thirty-five Hong Kong adult women underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results: This study generated three foci: causal beliefs about cervical cancer, perceived risk of cervical cancer, and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Personal risky practices, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of cervical cancer. New immigrant women more likely attributed cervical cancer to external factors. Most participants perceived cervical cancer as an important common fatal female cancer with increased risk/prevalence. Many participants, particularly new immigrant women participants, expressed helplessness about cervical cancer prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, it being perceived as beyond individual control. Many new immigrant participants had never undergone regular cervical screening while almost all Hong Kong participants had done so. Conclusions: Some Chinese women hold pessimistic beliefs about cervical cancer prevention with inadequate knowledge about risk factors. Future cervical cancer prevention programs should provide more information and include capacity building to increase Chinese women's knowledge and self-efficacy towards cervical cancer prevention.

Development of an Educational Program to Prevent Cervical Cancer among Immigrants in Korea

  • Choi, So Young
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.9
    • /
    • pp.5345-5349
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: This study developed and measured the effects of a cervical cancer prevention program for married women immigrants. Materials and Methods: A nonequivalent control group pre-test/post-test design was used with a group of married women immigrants registered at the multi-cultural center in the city of "J." Data on for 30 participants in the intervention group and 27 participants in the control group (N=57) were used for analysis. The intervention group attended a 4-session cervical cancer prevention program. Results: The knowledge of the intervention and control groups about cervical cancer post-intervention was significantly different (F=12.55, p<0.001). The perceived susceptibility score before and after the experiment, for the intervention group, and 29.4 and 28 for the control group, was significantly different (t=2.063, p=0.043). After the program, cancer prevention behavior was significantly different in the intervention group (t=2.646, p=0.010). Conclusions: The results obtained in this study indicate that the cervical cancer preventive program was effective in increasing cervical cancer knowledge, perceived susceptibility, and cancer prevention behavior.

Knowledge and Views of Secondary School Students in Kuala Lumpur on Cervical Cancer and its Prevention

  • Rashwan, Hesham;Ishak, Ismarulyusda;Sawalludin, Nurhidayah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.2545-2549
    • /
    • 2013
  • Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.

HPV Vaccination for Cervical Cancer Prevention is not Cost-Effective in Japan

  • Isshiki, Takahiro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.15
    • /
    • pp.6177-6180
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: Our study objectives were to evaluate the medical economics of cervical cancer prevention and thereby contribute to cancer care policy decisions in Japan. Methods: Model creation: we created presence-absence models for prevention by designating human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for primary prevention of cervical cancer. Cost classification and cost estimates: we divided the costs of cancer care into seven categories (prevention, mass-screening, curative treatment, palliative care, indirect, non-medical, and psychosocial cost) and estimated costs for each model. Cost-benefit analyses: we performed cost-benefit analyses for Japan as a whole. Results: HPV vaccination was estimated to cost $291.5 million, cervical cancer screening $76.0 million and curative treatment $12.0 million. The loss due to death was $251.0 million and the net benefit was -$128.5 million (negative). Conclusion: Cervical cancer prevention was not found to be cost-effective in Japan. While few cost-benefit analyses have been reported in the field of cancer care, these would be essential for Japanese policy determination.

Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

  • Obel, J;McKenzie, J;Buenconsejo-Lum, LE;Durand, AM;Ekeroma, A;Souares, Y;Hoy, D;Baravilala, W;Garland, SM;Kjaer, SK;Roth, A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.8
    • /
    • pp.3435-3442
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objective : To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results: Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific.

Knowledge and prevention Attitude of Female North Korean Refugees regarding cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection (북한이탈 여성의 자궁경부암 및 인유두종 바이러스 감염에 대한 지식과 예방태도)

  • Jeon, Jung Hee;Lee, In Sook
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.166-176
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and prevention attitudes of female North Korean refugees regarding cervical cancer and human papillomavirus(HPV) infection. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted. Data were collected from November 2015 to March 2016 and 130 female North Korean refugees participated. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0. Results: Score on knowledge and prevention attitudes regarding cervical cancer and HPV were 2.53 out of 8 points, 1.67 out of 17 points, and 28.90 out of 36 points. There were significant differences between entry duration, the number of children, previous cervical cancer tests, Precognition about HPV, preferred education method, and knowledge of cervical cancer. There were significant differences between previous cervical cancer tests, Precognition about HPV and knowledge of HPV. The correlation between knowledge and prevention attitudes regarding cervical cancer and HPV was significant positive. Conclusion: Female North Korean refugees' knowledge level of cervical cancer and HPV is very low. However, their attitudes towards prevention was higher. These results imply a need for education, aimed at guiding North Korean female refugees, so as to enhance their knowledge regarding cervical cancer and HPV, and to promote their sexual health.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Women in Maldives Related to the Risk Factors, Prevention and Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

  • Basu, Partha;Hassan, Salma;Fileeshia, Fathmath;Mohamed, Sizna;Nahoodha, Aminath;Shiuna, Aminath;Sulaiman, Asma Ibrahim;Najeeb, Nazeera;Saleem, Fathmath Jeehan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.16
    • /
    • pp.6691-6695
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: A population-based cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid was launched in Maldives in 2014. Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women in relation to risk factors of cervical cancer, early detection of the disease and its prevention. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire based survey was conducted among 20 to 50 year old women, systematically sampled to represent three regions of Maldives. Trained investigators interviewed a total of 2,845 women at home. Results: The prevalence of the risk factors of cervical cancer like early age at marriage and childbirth, multiple marriages, multiple marriages of the husbands, and multiple pregnancies was high. More women knew about breast cancer than cervical cancer. Even among the small number of women who knew of cervical cancer, only 34.6% had the knowledge of at least one early symptom. Very few women knew that the cancer could be prevented by any test. Only 6.2% of the women reported having ever undergone a Pap smear. Many women had the misconception that cervical cancer was infectious. In Maldives the younger women have high literacy rate due to the policy of universal free education and those with higher levels of education had improved knowledge of cervical cancer and its risk factors. The prevalence of risk factors also reduced with improved literacy. Conclusions: Awareness about risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer is limited among Maldivian women in spite of having high exposure to some of the risk factors. A universal literacy program in the country has helped to improve the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and to reduce the exposure to various risk factors in the younger population.

Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in India

  • Baskaran, Krishnan;Kumar, P Kranthi;Karunanithi, Santha;Sethupathy, Subramanian;Thamaraiselvi, B;Swaruparani, S
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.18
    • /
    • pp.8187-8190
    • /
    • 2016
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial tissues. Specific genotypes of human papillomavirus are the single most common etiological agents of cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer. Cervical cancer usually arises at squamous metaplastic epithelium of transformation zone (TZ) of the cervix featuring infection with one or more oncogenic or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types. A hospital-based study in a rural set up was carried out to understand the association of HR-HPV with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) and cervical cancer. In the present study, HR-HPV was detected in 65.7% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 84.6% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and 94% of cervical cancer as compared to 10.7% of controls. The association of HPV infection with SIL and cervical cancer was analyzed with Chi square test (p<0.001). The significant association found confirmed that detection of HR-HPV is a suitable candidate for early identification of cervical precancerous lesions and in the prevention of cervical cancer in India.

High-risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Lesions and Vaccination Challenges in China

  • Xu, Qiu-Xiang;Zhang, Zhen-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.6
    • /
    • pp.2193-2197
    • /
    • 2015
  • Cervical cancer, mostly progressing from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Chinese women. This is largely due to high prevalence of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) in the population. The prevalence of hr-HPV DNA in women and in cervical lesions women ranged from 9.9% to 17.% and from 50.5% to 70.9% in different regions of China, respectively. The most common genotypes somewhat differ between regions throughout the country and from those in many other countries. This may be a challenge to cervical cancer screening and prevention in China. Combined detection of particular HPV genotypes should be recommended in all geographical regions in China and greater attention must be paid to specific hr-HPV types during cervical cancer screening and follow-up of cervical lesions. Besides, vaccination for prevention of cervical cancer by particular HPV genotypes, has not been introduced to China so far. Updated knowledge on prevalent HPV genotypes should be provided to public health organizations to help with the development of more effective HPV vaccines, which can protect Chinese women against HPV types prevalent in local China and thus have a substantial impact on the cervical cancer burden.

Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China

  • Di, Jiangli;Rutherford, Shannon;Chu, Cordia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.17
    • /
    • pp.7401-7407
    • /
    • 2015
  • Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.