• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cervical cancer

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Cervical Cancer Screening in Korean American Women: Findings from Focus Group Interviews

  • Kim, Hoo-Ja;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Ock;Kim, Sung-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.617-624
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    • 2004
  • Purpose. Korean American women have twice the rate of cervical cancer than white women and demonstrate low rates in participation in cervical cancer screening. This study was to describe the perceptions about cervical cancer and factors related to cervical cancer screening among Korean American women. Method. Focus group methods. Results. Five themes emerged. First, knowledge about cervical cancer; misconceptions about cervical cancer, its causes, reproductive anatomy and the treatment Second, perceived meanings of having cervical cancer; most of the women felt that cervical cancer represented a loss of femininity and existential value of woman-hood. Third, knowledge about cervical cancer screening; regular medical check-ups were necessary for early detection and prevention of cervical cancer. Forth, experiences and perceived meanings of cervical cancer screening; the participants expressed their feelings; embarrassment, fear, shame and shyness. Fifth, practices of cervical cancer screening; various intervals in participating in cervical cancer screening. But they mentioned several deterrents, language, insurance, time constraint, embarrassment, fear of the screening results, misbelief about susceptibility, lack of health prevention behavior, and lack of information written in Korean. Conclusion: Results emphasize the critical need for culturally appropriate health education to encourage participation of Korean American women in cervical cancer screening.

Attitudes and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening among Female University Students from 25 Low, Middle Income and Emerging Economy Countries

  • Pengpid, Supa;Peltzer, Karl
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7235-7239
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer, the third commonest cancer in women worldwide, can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduate university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 9,194 female undergraduate university students aged 18-26 years (mean age 20.9, SD=2.0) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 11.6% of the female students indicated that they had conducted one or more times a cervical (Pap) smear test; 8.3% among 18-20 year-olds and 15.6% among 21-26 year-old students. There was considerable country variation on having had a cervical (Pap) smear test among 21-26 year-old female university students, ranging from 59.2% in Colombia and 50.9% in Barbados to 0% in India and 1.0% in Tunesia. Logistic regression showed that cervical cancer screening importance or positive attitude were highly associated with the cervical screening practice. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use, two cervical cancer risk factors, were associated with screening. Cervical cancer screening practices were found to be inadequate and e fforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening.

Hong Kong Chinese Women's Lay Beliefs about Cervical Cancer Causation and Prevention

  • Wang, Linda Dong-Ling;Lam, Wendy Wing Tak;Wu, Joseph;Fielding, Richard
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7679-7686
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    • 2014
  • Background: This study aimed to seek insights into Chinese women's lay beliefs about cervical cancer causal attributions and prevention. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three new immigrant adult women from Mainland China and thirty-five Hong Kong adult women underwent semi-structured in-depth interviews. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach. Results: This study generated three foci: causal beliefs about cervical cancer, perceived risk of cervical cancer, and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Personal risky practices, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of cervical cancer. New immigrant women more likely attributed cervical cancer to external factors. Most participants perceived cervical cancer as an important common fatal female cancer with increased risk/prevalence. Many participants, particularly new immigrant women participants, expressed helplessness about cervical cancer prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, it being perceived as beyond individual control. Many new immigrant participants had never undergone regular cervical screening while almost all Hong Kong participants had done so. Conclusions: Some Chinese women hold pessimistic beliefs about cervical cancer prevention with inadequate knowledge about risk factors. Future cervical cancer prevention programs should provide more information and include capacity building to increase Chinese women's knowledge and self-efficacy towards cervical cancer prevention.

Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China

  • Di, Jiangli;Rutherford, Shannon;Chu, Cordia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7401-7407
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    • 2015
  • Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

Perception of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Japanese University Students Who Have Never Had a Pap Smear: A Qualitative Study

  • Oshima, Sumiko;Maezawa, Masaji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4313-4318
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    • 2013
  • This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist.

Factors Associated with Delayed Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer in Iran - a Survey in Isfahan City

  • Behnamfar, Fariba;Azadehrah, Mahboobeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.635-639
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    • 2015
  • Background: In the absence of routine screening program for cervical cancer in Iran and high rate of diagnosed cancer in its advanced stage, recognition of sociodemographic factors related to delayed diagnosis of cancer in Iran could be helpful in reducing the burden of disease in our community. The aim of this study was to determine the stage of cervical cancer at diagnosis and factors related to delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study women diagnosed with cervical cancer for the first time by histo-pathological examination were enrolled. According to the clinical and paraclinical findings and staging of the cancer, they were classified into early and delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer. Sociodemographic factors were compared in the two groups. Results: In this study of 55 women mean age was $48.3{\pm}12.0.$ According to our classification 6/55 (10.9%) and 49/55 (89.1%) of them had early and delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer. Delayed diagnosis of the cancer was significantly higher in patients with lower degree of education, lower socioeconomic status, having smoker and addict husband and those who did not have a history of Pap smear test (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study indicated risk factors related to delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer. The affected women should be targeted for implementation of specialized educational programmes for improving knowledge and screening test.

Early Diagnosis Behavior in Turkish Women with and without a Family History of Cervical Cancer

  • Gunaydin, Cansu;Gencturk, Nuran
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.401-406
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    • 2015
  • Background: This study was planned as comparative and descriptive in order to measure and evaluate the knowledge and attitudes regarding early diagnosis of women with and without a family history of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of the relatives of female patients (N=253) who were admitted to Istanbul University of Medicine. Women with a family history of cervical cancer formed the case group, while those without family history of cervical cancer constituted the control group. Two distinct data collection tools, a questionnaire and the Miller Behavioral Style Scale (MBSS), were used in order to obtain data for evaluation with SPSS for Windows 20.0 statistics package program. Results: It was found that 61.0% of the case group with family history of cervical cancer and 19.0% of the control group without family history of cervical cancer were using early diagnostic methods. Thus the presence of an individual with cervical cancer in the family affected the attitudes towards early diagnosis. It was further found that the level of knowledge on cervical cancer and PAP smear test was higher in the case group, which was more sensitive with regard to being informed about cervical cancer as compared to general society. However, the average MBSS scores were not significantly different compared to the control group. Conclusions: It was noted that, women participating this study knowledgeable, but this did not necessarily transform into better behavior.

Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccine Post-Vaccination among Mothers and Daughters in Vietnam

  • Paul, Proma;LaMontagne, D. Scott;Le, Nga Thi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2587-2592
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    • 2012
  • Background: Limited human papillomavirus (HPV) related knowledge might be a barrier to future vaccine acceptance. From 2008-2010, PATH conducted an HPV vaccination demonstration project in partnership with the government immunization program in Vietnam, which included awareness campaigns prior to vaccination. Objective: To assess and compare knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines between mothers and daughters, and whether knowledge was associated with vaccination status. Methods: We analyzed HPV-related knowledge and attitude data from mother-daughter paired responses to a cross-sectional household survey. After parents completed the survey, daughters were asked the same questions. We calculated the frequency of responses for each question and devised a scaled composite measure for knowledge. Results: Participants believed they had received enough information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines and it was sufficient to make a decision about vaccination. Fifty percent of the participants knew HPV causes cervical cancer and 80% knew the HPV vaccine prevented cervical cancer. Mothers had more knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV infection (p<0.01), compared to daughters, who had more vaccine specific knowledge (p<0.01). However, the total mean knowledge score was similar for the groups. Girls not fully vaccinated had a lower mean knowledge score than fully vaccinated girls (p<0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the purpose of the HPV vaccine was clearly messaged; however, some misconceptions about cervical cancer and HPV still exist. Limited knowledge about the magnitude of cervical cancer, HPV as a cause of cervical cancer, and HPV vaccines may have contributed to incomplete vaccination.

Cervical Cancer Screening: Recommendations for Muslim Societies

  • Khodakarami, Nahid;Farzaneh, Farah;Yavari, Parvin;Akbari, Mohamad Esmaeil
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2016
  • Background: The overall cervical cancer incidence rate is low in Iran; however, because of a higher risk of death for cervical cancer, a disease that kills women in middle age, a cervical cancer control program is needed. The aim of this study was to provide consensus recommendation for cervical cancer prevention in Iran and other Muslim societies with low incidences of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Through a practical guideline development cycle, we developed six questions that were relevant to produce the recommendation. We reviewed 190 full text records of cervical cancer in Iran (1971 to 2013) of which 13 articles were related to the data needed to answer the recommendation questions. We also reviewed World Health Organization, IARC, GLOBOCAN report, Iran Ministry of Health cancer registry report and 8 available foreign countries guidelines. Lastly, we also evaluated the Pap smear results of 825 women who participated in the Iranian HPV survey, of whom 328 were followed-up after a 5-year interval. Results: The obtained data highlighted the burden of HPV and cervical cancer situation in Iran. Experts emphasized the necessity of a cervical cancer screening program for Iranian women, and recommended an organized screening program with a cytological evaluation (Pap smear) that would start at the age of 30 years, repeated every 5 years, and end at the age of 69 years. Meanwhile, there is no need for screening among women with a hysterectomy, and screening should be postponed to post-partum among pregnant women. Conclusions: An organized cervical cancer screening is a necessity for Iran as more than 500-900 women in middle age diagnosed with an invasive cervical cancer every year cannot be ignored. This recommendation should be taken into account by the National Health System of Iran and Muslim countries with shared culture and behavior patterns. CUBA HPV test could be consideration in countries Muslim country with appropriate budget, resources and facility.

Evaluation of an Educational Program on Cervical Cancer for Rural Women in Mangalore, Southern India

  • Mary, Bright;D'Sa, Juliana Linnette
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6603-6608
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer in women worldwide. One way by which the incidence of this malignant disease can be minimized is by imparting knowledge through health education. This study aimed at developing an educational package on cervical cancer (EPCC) and determining its effectiveness in terms of significant increase in knowledge of rural women regarding cervical cancer. A one group pre-test, post-test design was adopted. Thirty rural women were selected using a convenient sampling method. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a structured knowledge questionnaire developed by the researchers. The EPCC was designed for a duration of one hour and 10 minutes. The structured knowledge questionnaire was first administered as the pre-test, following which knowledge on cervical cancer was imparted using the EPCC. On the 8th day, the post-test was administered. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The mean post-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was significantly higher than that of their mean pre-test score, indicating that the EPCC was effective in improving the knowledge of rural women on cervical cancer. The association between pre-test knowledge scores and selected demo-graphic variables were computed using chi-square test showed that pre-test knowledge score of the women regarding cervical cancer was independent of all the socio-demographic variables. It was concluded that the EPCC is effective in improving the knowledge of women, regarding cervical cancer. Since the prevalence of cervical cancer is high, there is an immediate need to educate women on prevention of cervical cancer.