• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cellulose Digestion

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EFFECT OF PLANT PHENOLIC ACIDS ON CELLULOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF MIXED RUMEN POPULATIONS

  • Ushida, K.;Watase, H.;Kojima, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1990
  • Influences of plant phenolic acids and their possible metabolites(non-phenolic aromatic acids involved) in the rumen on the cellulolytic activity of mixed rumen populations were examined by a simple in vitro culture technique. Initial concentrations of aromatic acids were 1, 5, 10 and 20 mM/l. All the tested aromatic acids reduced microbial cellulose digestion especially at the higher initial concentration. P-Coumaric acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid, those having unhydrogenated propenoic side chain were more inhibitory than were 3-phenylpropinic acid and phloretic acid, those having hydrogenated propanoic side chain. Lag-time for cellulose digestion was prolonged by former three acids by 16 h. Apparent reduction in p-coumaric acid concentration was observed at 24 h when cellulose digestion began. Volatile fatty acid productions from cellulose fermentation were shifted by former three aromatic acids to produce more acetate and less propionate. This suggests that the selection of celluloytic organisms was induced by these aromatic acids.

A REVIEW OF THE MICROBIAL DIGESTION OF FEED PARTICLES IN THE RUMEN

  • McAllister, T.A.;Bae, H.D.;Yanke, L.J.;Cheng, K.J.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.303-316
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    • 1994
  • Microbial digestion of feed in the rumen involves a sequential attack culminating in the formation of fermentation products and microbial cells that can be utilized by the host animal. Most feeds are protected by a cuticular layer which is in effect a microbial barrier that must be penetrated or circumvented for digestion to proceed. Microorganisms gain access to digestible inner plant tissues through damage to the cuticle, or via natural cell openings (e.g., stomata) and commence digestion from within the feed particles. Primary colonizing bacteria adhere to specific substrates, divide to form sister cells and the resultant microcolonies release soluble substrates which attract additional microorganisms to the digestion site. These newly attracted microorganisms associate with primary colonizers to form complex multi-species consortia. Within the consortia, microorganisms combine their metabolic activities to produce the diversity of enzymes required to digest complex substrates (e.g., cellulose, starch, protein) which comprise plant tissues. Feed characteristics that inhibit the microbial processes of penetration, colonization and consortia formation can have a profound effect on the rate and extent of feed digestion in the rumen. Strategies such as feed processing or plant breeding which are aimed at manipulating feed digestion must be based on an understanding of these basic microbial processes and their concerted roles in feed digestion in the rumen.

Study on Improvement of Cooking Rice Method for Acceleration of Consumption of the Rice (쌀소비 촉진을 위한 쌀밥 조리 개선 연구 (I) - 취반시 조리수에 산, 지방, Cellulose 첨가에 따른 texture 변화)

  • 김경자;양화영;오미향;구정선
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 1993
  • This study was attempted to enhance taste and quality value of cooked rice by adding fat, vinegar, cellulose in cooking water. Cooked rice with five different levels of material in cooking water (100% water A: 10% vinegar B: 10% fat C: 10% fat and 10% vinegar D: 10% fat, 10% vinegar and 10% celloulose) was tested for rheology, fine structural changes, sensory evaluation, in vitro digestion. 1) Cooked rice by adding 10% fat rate was higher than A, B, D, E samples for softness, Jelly and increased in vitro digestion. 2) sensory evaluation conducted by tweenty university students a panelists showed that B, D sample were low value in flavour, texture and taste, but higher than A sample for softness, Jelly and in Vitro digestion. 3) E sample (l0% fat, 10%s vinegar, 10% cellulose) was more significant for taste, texture, and digestion than A sample. From these results, it was concluded that rice cooked with 10% of fat in cooking water was quite acceptable, in terms of practical food value consisting of palatability rheology and digestibility.

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Influences of Surfactant Tween 80 on the Gas Production, Cellulose Digestion and Enzyme Activities by Mixed Rumen Microorganisms

  • Lee, Sung S.;Ha, Jong K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.1151-1157
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    • 2003
  • The surfactant Tween 80 was evaluated for its ability to influence cumulative gas production, cellulose digestion, and enzyme activities by mixed ruminal microorganisms grown on barley grain or Orchardgrass hay. The addition of Tween 80 at a level of 0.10% significantly (p<0.05) decreased the cumulative gas production rate from both barley grain or Orchardgrass hay substrates. However, 0.05% Tween 80 did not affect gas production rates compared to the control treatment. The addition of 0.05% Tween 80 to cultures growing on barley grain resulted in a significant increase in cellulase (90.01%), xylanase (90.73%) and amylase (487.25%) activities after 30 h incubation. Cultures utilizing Orchardgrass hay had a significant increase in cellulase (124.43%), xylanase (108.86%) and amylase (271.22%) activities after 72 h incubation. These increases in activities were also observed with cultures supplemented with 0.10% Tween 80 throughout all the incubation times tested. These results indicated that the addition of 0.05% Tween 80 could greatly stimulate the release of some of key enzymes without decreasing cell growth rate in contrast to trends reported with aerobic microorganism. Our data indicates potential uses of the surfactant Tween 80 as a feed additive for ruminant animals.

Effect of Grass Lipids and Long Chain Fatty Acids on Cellulose Digestion by Pure Cultures of Rumen Anaerobic Fungi, Piromyces rhizinflata B157 and Orpinomyces joyonii SG4

  • Lee, S.S.;Ha, J.K.;Kim, K.H.;Cheng, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2000
  • The effects of grass lipids and long chain fatty acids (LCFA; palmitic, stearic and oleic acids), at low concentrations (0.001~0.02%), on the growth and enzyme activity of two strains of anaerobic fungi, monocentric strain Piromyces rhizinflata B157 and polycentric strain Orpinomyces joyonii SG4, were investigated. The addition of grass lipids to the medium significantly (p<0.05) decreased filter paper (FP) cellulose digestion, cellulase activity and fungal growth compared to control treatment. However, LCFA did not have any significant inhibitory effects on fungal growth and enzyme activity, which, however, were significantly (p<0.05) stimulated by the addition of oleic acid as have been observed in rumen bacteria and protozoa. This is the first report to our knowledge on the effects of LCFA on the rumen anaerobic fungi. Continued work is needed to identify the mode of action of LCFA in different fungal strains and to verify whether these microorganisms have ability to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

Enhancing anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste and cellulose by bioaugmentation with rumen culture

  • Jo, Yeadam;Hwang, Kwanghyun;Lee, Changsoo
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 2019
  • Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been widely used to valorize food waste (FW) because of its ability to convert organic carbon into $CH_4$ and $CO_2$. Korean FW has a high content of fruits and vegetables, and efficient hydrolysis of less biodegradable fibers is critical for its complete stabilization by AD. This study examined the digestates from different anaerobic digesters, namely Rs, Rr, and Rm, as the inocula for the AD of vegetable waste (VW) and cellulose (CL): Rs inoculated with anaerobic sludge from an AD plant, Rr inoculated with rumen fluid, and Rm inoculated with anaerobic sludge and augmented with rumen fluid. A total of six conditions ($3\;inocula{\times}2\;substrates$) were tested in serial subcultures. Biogas yield was higher in the runs inoculated with Rm than in the other runs for both VW (up to 1.10 L/g VS added) and CL (up to 1.05 L/g VS added), and so was biogas production rate. The inocula had different microbial community structures, and both substrate type and inoculum source had a significant effect on the formation and development of microbial community structures in the subcultures. The overall results suggest that the bioaugmentation with rumen microbial consortium has good potential to enhance the anaerobic biodegradability of VW, and thereby can help more efficiently digest high fiber-content Korean FW.

Anaerobic Digestion Efficiency of Remainder from Bacterial Cellulose Production Process using Food Wastes (음식 폐기물을 이용한 박테리아 셀룰로오스 생산 공정 잔류물의 혐기성 소화효율)

  • Jin, Sheng-De;Kim, Seong-Jun
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to examine the availability of anaerobic digestion of the remainders caused by bacterial cellulose production process using food wastes. They maybe to be considered as others second pollution sources. Thus, this study was targeted to minimize content of organic material and to obtain more energy in those remnants using two-phase UASB reactor. The working volume of first hydrolysis fermentor was 35 L (total 55 L) and the second methane fermentor was 40 L (total 50 L). The organic loading rate of hydrolysis fermentor was 3 g-VS/L${\cdot}$day and 25,000 ppm of $COD_{cr}$ for methane fermentor. The hydraulic retention time was 18 days for hydrolysis reactor and 33 days for methane reactor. The hydrolysis reactor and methane reactor were performed at 35, 40$^{\circ}C$ respectively. For the efficient stable performance, the composition of organic wastes at each stage was as follow; Food waste with bacterial culture remnants (1 : 1), bacterial cellulose remnants, bacterial cellulose culture remnants with food wastes saccharified solids (1 : 1). When the anaerobic digestion was performed stably at each stage, the COD removal efficiency was 88, 90, 91 % respectively. At this time, methane production rate was 0.26, 0.34, $0.32m^3\;CH_4/kg-COD_{remove}$. As well as the values of anaerobic digestion at third stage were more higher than values of anaerobic digestion using food wastes. It is clearly to say that the food wastes zero-emission system constructed in our lab is more efficient way to treat and reclaim food wastes.

Effects of LCFA on the Gas Production, Cellulose Digestion and Cellulase Activities by the Rumen Anaerobic Fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis RE1

  • Lee, S.S.;Ha, J.K.;Cheng, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1110-1117
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    • 2001
  • Responses of the rumen fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis RE1, to long chain fatty acid (LCFA) were evaluated by measuring gas production, filter paper (FP) cellulose digestion and polysaccharidase enzyme activities. LCFA (stearic acid, $C_{18:0}$; oleic acid, $C_{18:1}$; linoleic acid, $C_{18:2}$ and linolenic acid, $C_{18:3}$) were emulsitied by ultrasonication under anaerobic condition, and added to the medium. When N frontalis RE1 was grown in culture with stearic, oleic and linoleic acid, the cumulative gas production, gas pool size, FP cellulose digestion and enzymes activities significantly (p<0.05) increased at some incubation times(especially, exponential phases of fungal growth, 48~120 h of incubation) relative to that for control cultures. However, the addition of linolenic acid strongly inhibited all of the investigated parameters up to 120 h incubation, but not after 168 and 216 h of incubation. These results indicated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids tended to have great stimulatory effects on fungal cellulolysis, whereas linolenic acid caused a significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effects on the cellulolysis by the rumen fungus. These results are the first report of the effect of LCFAs on the ruminal fungi. Further research is needed to identify the mode of action of LCFAs on fungal strains and to verify whether or not ruminal fungi have ability to hydrate unsaturated LCFAs to saturated FAs. There was high correlation between cumulative in vitro gas production and fungal growth (94.78%), FP cellulose degradation (96.34%), CMCase activity(90.86%) or xylanase activity (87.67%). Thus measuring of cumulative gas production could be a useful tool for evaluating fungal growth and/or enzyme production by ruminal fungi.

The Effect of Saturated Fatty Acids on Cellulose Digestion by the Rumen Anaerobic Fungus, Neocallimatix frontalis C5-1

  • Ha, J.K.;Lee, S.S.;Gao, Z.;Kim, C.-H.;Kim, S.W.;Ko, Jong Y.;Cheng, K.-J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.941-946
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    • 2001
  • The effects of various concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA; caprylic, capric and stearic acids) on the growth of the anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis C5-1 isolated from the rumen of a Korean native goat were investigated. At higher concentrations of fatty acids (0.1%, w/v), the addition of SFA strongly decreased filter paper (FP) cellulose digestion and polysaccharide-degrading enzyme activity. The sensitivity of the rumen anaerobic fungus to the added fatty acids increased in the following order: caprylic ($C_{8:0}$)>capric($C_{10:0}$)>stearic($C_{18:0}$) acid, although stearic acid had no significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effects at any of the concentrations tested. However, the addition of SFA at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.001% levels), did not inhibit FP cellulose degradation and enzyme activity. Furthermore, although these parameters were slightly stimulated by the addition of SFA, they were not statistically different from control values. This is the first report examining the effects of fatty acids on anaerobic gut fungi. We found that the lower levels of fatty acids used in this experiment were able to stimulate the growth and specific enzyme activities of rumen anaerobic fungi, whereas the higher levels of fatty acids were inhibitory with respect to fungal cellulolysis.