• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cellular senescence

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Cellular senescence: a promising strategy for cancer therapy

  • Lee, Seongju;Lee, Jae-Seon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2019
  • Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest, is believed to have originally evolved to limit the proliferation of old or damaged cells. However, it has been recently shown that cellular senescence is a physiological and pathological program contributing to embryogenesis, immune response, and wound repair, as well as aging and age-related diseases. Unlike replicative senescence associated with telomere attrition, premature senescence rapidly occurs in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic insults. Thus, cellular senescence has also been considered suppressive mechanism of tumorigenesis. Current studies have revealed that therapy-induced senescence (TIS), a type of senescence caused by traditional cancer therapy, could play a critical role in cancer treatment. In this review, we outline the key features and the molecular pathways of cellular senescence. Better understanding of cellular senescence will provide insights into the development of powerful strategies to control cellular senescence for therapeutic benefit. Lastly, we discuss existing strategies for the induction of cancer cell senescence to improve efficacy of anticancer therapy.

Autophagy Is Pro-Senescence When Seen in Close-Up, but Anti-Senescence in Long-Shot

  • Kwon, Yoojin;Kim, Ji Wook;Jeoung, Jo Ae;Kim, Mi-Sung;Kang, Chanhee
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.607-612
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    • 2017
  • When mammalian cells and animals face a variety of internal or external stresses, they need to make homeostatic changes so as to cope with various stresses. To this end, mammalian cells are equipped with two critical stress responses, autophagy and cellular senescence. Autophagy and cellular senescence share a number of stimuli including telomere shortening, DNA damage, oncogenic stress and oxidative stress, suggesting their intimate relationship. Autophagy is originally thought to suppress cellular senescence by removing damaged macromolecules or organelles, yet recent studies also indicated that autophagy promotes cellular senescence by facilitating the synthesis of senescence-associated secretory proteins. These seemingly opposite roles of autophagy may reflect a complex picture of autophagic regulation on cellular senescence, including different types of autophagy or a unique spatiotemporal activation of autophagy. Thus, a better understanding of autophagy process will lead us to not only elucidate the conundrum how autophagy plays dual roles in the regulation of cellular senescence but also helps the development of new therapeutic strategies for many human diseases associated with cellular senescence. We address the pro-senescence and anti-senescence roles of autophagy while focusing on the potential mechanistic aspects of this complex relationship between autophagy and cellular senescence.

Exploiting tumor cell senescence in anticancer therapy

  • Lee, Minyoung;Lee, Jae-Seon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2014
  • Cellular senescence is a physiological process of irreversible cell-cycle arrest that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes of aging. Whereas replicative senescence is associated with telomere attrition after repeated cell division, stress-induced premature senescence occurs in response to aberrant oncogenic signaling, oxidative stress, and DNA damage which is independent of telomere dysfunction. Recent evidence indicates that cellular senescence provides a barrier to tumorigenesis and is a determinant of the outcome of cancer treatment. However, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which contributes to multiple facets of senescent cancer cells, may influence both cancer-inhibitory and cancer-promoting mechanisms of neighboring cells. Conventional treatments, such as chemo- and radiotherapies, preferentially induce premature senescence instead of apoptosis in the appropriate cellular context. In addition, treatment-induced premature senescence could compensate for resistance to apoptosis via alternative signaling pathways. Therefore, we believe that an intensive effort to understand cancer cell senescence could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for improving the efficacy of anticancer therapies. This review summarizes the current understanding of molecular mechanisms, functions, and clinical applications of cellular senescence for anticancer therapy.

Recent Advances in Cellular Senescence, Cancer and Aging

  • Lim, Chang-Su;Judith Campisi
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2001
  • How much do we know about the biology of aging from cell culture studies Most normal somatic cells have a finite potential to divide due to a process termed cellular or replicative senescence. A growing body evidence suggests that senescence evolved to protect higher eu-karyotes, particularly mammals, from developing cancer, We now know that telomere shortening due to the biochemistry of DNA replication, induces replicative senescence in human cells. How-ever in rodent cells, replicative senescence occurs despite very long telomeres. Recent findings suggest that replicative senescence is just the tip of the iceberg of a more general process termed cellular senescence. It appears that cellular senescence is a response to potentially oncogenic in-sults, including oxidative damage. In young orgainsms, growth arrest by cell senescence sup-presses tumor development, but later in life, due to the accumulation of senescent cells which se-cret factors that can disrupt tissues during aging, cellular senescence promotes tumorigenesis. Therefore, antagonistic pleiotropy may explain, if not in whole the apparently paradoxical effects of cellular senescence, though this still remains an open question.

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MicroRNA controls of cellular senescence

  • Suh, Nayoung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.10
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    • pp.493-499
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    • 2018
  • Cellular senescence is a state of permanent cell-cycle arrest triggered by different internal and external stimuli. This phenomenon is considered to be both beneficial and detrimental depending on the cell types and biological contexts. During normal embryonic development and after tissue injury, cellular senescence is critical for tissue remodeling. In addition, this process is useful for arresting growth of tumor cells, particularly during early onset of tumorigenesis. However, accumulation of senescent cells decreases tissue regenerative capabilities and induces inflammation, which is responsible for cancer and organismal aging. Therefore cellular senescence has to be tightly regulated, and dysregulation might lead to the aging and human diseases. Among many regulators of cellular senescence, in this review, I will focus on microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs playing critical roles in diverse biological events including cellular senescence.

Nicotinamide Exerts Antioxidative Effects on Senescent Cells

  • Kwak, Ju Yeon;Ham, Hyun Joo;Kim, Cheol Min;Hwang, Eun Seong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2015
  • Nicotinamide (NAM) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in primary human fibroblasts, thereby extending their replicative lifespan when added to the medium during long-term cultivation. Based on this finding, NAM is hypothesized to affect cellular senescence progression by keeping ROS accumulation low. In the current study, we asked whether NAM is indeed able to reduce ROS levels and senescence phenotypes in cells undergoing senescence progression and those already in senescence. We employed two different cellular models: MCF-7 cells undergoing senescence progression and human fibroblasts in a state of replicative senescence. In both models, NAM treatment substantially decreased ROS levels. In addition, NAM attenuated the expression of the assessed senescence phenotypes, excluding irreversible growth arrest. N-acetyl cysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, did not have comparable effects in the tested cell types. These data show that NAM has potent antioxidative as well as anti-senescent effects. Moreover, these findings suggest that NAM can reduce cellular deterioration caused by oxidative damage in postmitotic cells in vivo.

Effects of 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine, Bromodeoxyuridine, Interferons and Hydrogen Peroxide on Cellular Senescence in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

  • Moolmuang, Benchamart;Singhirunnusorn, Pattama;Ruchirawat, Mathuros
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.957-963
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    • 2016
  • Cellular senescence, a barrier to tumorigenesis, controls aberrant proliferation of cells. We here aimed to investigate cellular senescence in immortalized cholangiocyte and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines using five different inducing agents: 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine, bromodeoxyuridine, interferons ($IFN{\beta}$ and $IFN{\gamma}$), and hydrogen peroxide. We analyzed senescence characteristics, colony formation ability, expression of genes involved in cell cycling and interferon signaling pathways, and protein levels. Treatment with all five agents decreased cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence in immortalized cholangiocyte and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines with different degrees of growth-inhibitory effects depending on cell type and origin. Bromodeoxyuridine gave the strongest stimulus to inhibit growth and induce senescence in most cell lines tested. Expression of p21 and interferon related genes was upregulated in most conditions. The fact that bromodeoxyuridine had the strongest effects on growth inhibition and senescence induction implies that senescence in cholangiocarcinoma cells is likely controlled by DNA damage response pathways relating to the p53/p21 signaling. In addition, interferon signaling pathways may partly regulate this mechanism in cholangiocarcinoma cells.

Etoposide Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cellular Senescence in Primary Cultured Rat Astrocytes

  • Bang, Minji;Kim, Do Gyeong;Gonzales, Edson Luck;Kwon, Kyoung Ja;Shin, Chan Young
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.530-539
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    • 2019
  • Brain aging is an inevitable process characterized by structural and functional changes and is a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. Most brain aging studies are focused on neurons and less on astrocytes which are the most abundant cells in the brain known to be in charge of various functions including the maintenance of brain physical formation, ion homeostasis, and secretion of various extracellular matrix proteins. Altered mitochondrial dynamics, defective mitophagy or mitochondrial damages are causative factors of mitochondrial dysfunction, which is linked to age-related disorders. Etoposide is an anti-cancer reagent which can induce DNA stress and cellular senescence of cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether etoposide induces senescence and functional alterations in cultured rat astrocytes. Senescence-associated ${\beta}$-galactosidase (SA-${\beta}$-gal) activity was used as a cellular senescence marker. The results indicated that etoposide-treated astrocytes showed cellular senescence phenotypes including increased SA-${\beta}$-gal-positive cells number, increased nuclear size and increased senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASP) such as IL-6. We also observed a decreased expression of cell cycle markers, including PhosphoHistone H3/Histone H3 and CDK2, and dysregulation of cellular functions based on wound-healing, neuronal protection, and phagocytosis assays. Finally, mitochondrial dysfunction was noted through the determination of mitochondrial membrane potential using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and the measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR). These data suggest that etoposide can induce cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes which may have implications in brain aging and neurodegenerative conditions.

Juxtacrine regulation of cellular senescence

  • Narita, Masashi
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.3-4
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    • 2019
  • Cellular senescence is defined as a state of stable cell cycle exit in response to various stimuli, which include both cytotoxic stress and physiological cues. In addition to the core non-proliferative aspect, senescence is associated with diverse functionalities, which contribute to the role of senescence in a wide range of pathological and physiological processes. Such functionality is often mediated by the capability of senescent cells to communicate with their surroundings. Emerging evidence suggests that senescence is not a single entity, but a dynamic and heterogeneous collective phenotype. Understanding the diverse nature of senescence should provide insights into the complexity of tissue homeostasis and its disruption, such as in aging and tumorigenesis.

Senolytics and Senostatics: A Two-Pronged Approach to Target Cellular Senescence for Delaying Aging and Age-Related Diseases

  • Kang, Chanhee
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.821-827
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    • 2019
  • Aging is the most important single risk factor for many chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative disorders. Targeting aging itself might, therefore, be a better strategy than targeting each chronic disease individually for enhancing human health. Although much should be achieved for completely understanding the biological basis of aging, cellular senescence is now believed to mainly contribute to organismal aging via two independent, yet not mutually exclusive mechanisms: on the one hand, senescence of stem cells leads to exhaustion of stem cells and thus decreases tissue regeneration. On the other hand, senescent cells secrete many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases, collectively termed as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which causes chronic inflammation and tissue dysfunction. Much effort has been recently made to therapeutically target detrimental effects of cellular senescence including selectively eliminating senescent cells (senolytics) and modulating a proinflammatory senescent secretome (senostatics). Here, we discuss current progress and limitations in understanding molecular mechanisms of senolytics and senostatics and therapeutic strategies for applying them. Furthermore, we propose how these novel interventions for aging treatment could be improved, based on lessons learned from cancer treatment.