• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cell type-specific

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Cell type-specific gene expression profiling in brain tissue: comparison between TRAP, LCM and RNA-seq

  • Kim, TaeHyun;Lim, Chae-Seok;Kaang, Bong-Kiun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2015
  • The brain is an organ that consists of various cell types. As our knowledge of the structure and function of the brain progresses, cell type-specific research is gaining importance. Together with advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics, cell type-specific transcriptome studies are providing important insights into brain cell function. In this review, we discuss 3 different cell type-specific transcriptome analyses i.e., Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM), Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP)/RiboTag, and single cell RNA-Seq, that are widely used in the field of neuroscience. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(7): 388-394]

Effects of Squalene on the Immune Responses in Mice(II):Cellular and Non-specific Immune Response and Antitumor Activity of Squalene

  • Ahn, Young-Keun;Kim, Joung-Hoon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 1992
  • Effects of squalene on cellular and non-specific immune responses and antitumor activity in mice were investigated. Cellular and non-specific immunological assay parameters adopted in the present study were delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and resette forming cells (RFC) for cellular immunity, activities of natural killer (NK) cells and phagocyte for non-specific immunity. Squalene resulted in marked increases of cellular and non-specific immune functions and enhancement of host resistance to tumor challenge in dose-dependent manner.

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Methylation of the Mouse Dlx5 and Osx Gene Promoters Regulates Cell Type-specific Gene Expression

  • Lee, Ji Yun;Lee, Yu Mi;Kim, Mi Jin;Choi, Je Yong;Park, Eui Kyun;Kim, Shin Yoon;Lee, Sam Poong;Yang, Jae Sup;Kim, Dong Sun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.182-188
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    • 2006
  • Dlx5 and Osx are master regulatory proteins essential for initiating the cascade leading to osteoblast differentiation in mammals, but the mechanism of osteoblast-specific expression is not fully understood. DNA methylation at CpG sequences is involved in tissue and cell type-specific gene expression. We investigated the methylation status of Dlx5 and Osx in osteogenic and nonosteogenic cell lines by methylationspecific PCR (MSP). The CpG dinucleotides of the Dlx5 and Osx promoter regions were unmethylated in osteogenic cell lines transcribing these genes but methylated in nonosteogenic cell lines. Treatment of C2C12 cells with 5-AzadC induced dose- and timedependent expression of Dlx5 and Osx mRNA by demethylating the corresponding promoters. Furthermore the mRNAs for the osteoblast markers ALP and OC, which were undetectable in untreated cells, gradually increased after 5-AzadC treatment. In addition, BMP-2 stimulation induced Dlx5 expression by hypomethylating its promoter. These findings suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in cell type-specific expression of Dlx5 and Osx.

Distinct Humoral and Cellular Immunity Induced by Alternating Prime-boost Vaccination Using Plasmid DNA and Live Viral Vector Vaccines Expressing the E Protein of Dengue Virus Type 2

  • George, Junu A.;Eo, Seong-Kug
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.268-280
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    • 2011
  • Background: Dengue virus, which belongs to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, causes fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) with infection risk of 2.5 billion people worldwide. However, approved vaccines are still not available. Here, we explored the immune responses induced by alternating prime-boost vaccination using DNA vaccine, adenovirus, and vaccinia virus expressing E protein of dengue virus type 2 (DenV2). Methods: Following immunization with DNA vaccine (pDE), adenovirus (rAd-E), and/or vaccinia virus (VV-E) expressing E protein, E protein-specific IgG and its isotypes were determined by conventional ELISA. Intracellular CD154 and cytokine staining was used for enumerating CD4+ T cells specific for E protein. E protein-specific CD8+ T cell responses were evaluated by in vivo CTL killing activity and intracellular IFN-${\gamma}$ staining. Results: Among three constructs, VV-E induced the most potent IgG responses, Th1-type cytokine production by stimulated CD4+ T cells, and the CD8+ T cell response. Furthermore, when the three constructs were used for alternating prime-boost vaccination, the results revealed a different pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. i) Priming with VV-E induced higher E-specific IgG level but it was decreased rapidly. ii) Strong CD8+ T cell responses specific for E protein were induced when VV-E was used for the priming step, and such CD8+ T cell responses were significantly boosted with pDE. iii) Priming with rAd-E induced stronger CD4+ T cell responses which subsequently boosted with pDE to a greater extent than VV-E and rAd-E. Conclusion: These results indicate that priming with live viral vector vaccines could induce different patterns of E protein-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses which were significantly enhanced by booster vaccination with the DNA vaccine. Therefore, our observation will provide valuable information for the establishment of optimal prime-boost vaccination against DenV.

Cell-type specific expression of vanilloid receptor 1 in the taste cells of rat circumvallate papillae

  • Moon, Young-Wha;Han, Ji-Won;Kang, Wha-Sun
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2011
  • The present study demonstrates the first-ever characterization of cell types that express the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) in the taste buds of rat circumvallate papillae. We performed electron microscopy to identify the subcellular location. The VR1 immunoreactivity was associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasmic vesicles, and plasma membrane of taste cells. These results demonstrate the localization of the VR1 in membranous structures of the taste cells. We used double immunofluorescence histochemistry with taste cell type-specific markers to identify the cell types that express the VR1. The VR1 was detected in all functional taste cell types (Type I, Type II, and Type III cells). Together, our data suggest that the VR1 might play different roles according to the cell types within a taste bud.

Radiological Findings of Lung Cancer: Focus on Atypical Pattern (폐암의 방사선 소견(비전형적 소견을 중심으로))

  • Sung, Dong-Wook
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.554-561
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    • 2005
  • The clinical and radiographic findings of lung cancer have been well established many journals. Even if the radiographic findings of lung cancer show a typical pattern, the specific cell type of lung cancer sometimes needs to be determined prior to a pathological diagnosis. For example, the usual finding of a squamous cell carcinoma is similar to other cancer types such as an adenocarcinoma or a small cell carcinoma but with a lower incidence. Therefore, it should not be used to make a diagnosis of the cell type prior to a pathological diagnosis. Many unusual findings of lung cancer, so called atypical pattern have been reported, but atypical findings are widely accepted. The more important thing is not to diagnose a specific cell type of cancer but to differentiate it from other benign conditions such as tuberculosis, fungal infections or organizing pneumonia. This paper presents typical information of the cell type of lung cancer along with the atypical radiographic findings.

Opposite Roles of B7.1 and CD28 Costimulatory Molecules for Protective Immunity against HSV-2 Challenge in a gD DNA Vaccine Model

  • Weiner, David B.;Sin, Jeong-Im
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 2005
  • Background: Costimulation is a critical process in Ag-specific immune responses. Both B7.1 and CD28 molecules have been reported to stimulate T cell responses during antigen presentation. Therefore, we tested whether Ag-specific immune responses as well as protective immunity are influenced by coinjecting with B7.1 and CD28 cDNAs in a mouse HSV-2 challenge model system. Methods: ELISA was used to detect levels of antibodies, cytokines and chemokines while thymidine incorporation assay was used to evaluate T cell proliferation levels. Results: Ag-specific antibody responses were enhanced by CD28 coinjection but not by B7.1 coinjection. Furthermore, CD28 coinjection increased IgG1 production to a significant level, as compared to pgD+pcDNA3, suggesting that CD28 drives Th2 type responses. In contrast, B7.1 coinjection showed the opposite, suggesting a Th1 bias. B7.1 coinjection also enhanced Ag-specific Th cell proliferative responses as well as production of Th1 type cytokines and chemokines significantly higher than pgD+pcDNA3. However, CD28 coinjection decreased Ag-specific Th cell proliferative responses as well as production of Th1 types of cytokines and chemokine significantly lower than pgD+pcDNA3. Only MCP-1 production was enhanced by CD28. B7.1 coimmunized animals exhibited an enhanced survival rate as well as decreased herpetic lesion formation, as compared to pgD+pcDNA3. In contrast, CD28 vaccinated animals exhibited decreased survival from lethal challenge. Conclusion: This study shows that B7.1 enhances protective Th1 type cellular immunity against HSV-2 challenge while CD28 drives a more detrimental Th2 type immunity against HSV-2 challenge, supporting an opposite role of B7.1 and CD28 in Ag-specific immune responses to a Th1 vs Th2 type.

The role of cell type-specific mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

  • Kim, Dong Kyu;MookJung, Inhee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.12
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    • pp.679-688
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    • 2019
  • The decrease of metabolism in the brain has been observed as the important lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the early stages of diagnosis. The cumulative evidence has reported that the failure of mitochondria, an organelle involved in diverse biological processes as well as energy production, maybe the cause or effect of the pathogenesis of AD. Both amyloid and tau pathologies have an impact upon mitochondria through physical interaction or indirect signaling pathways, resulting in the disruption of mitochondrial function and dynamics which can trigger AD. In addition, mitochondria are involved in different biological processes depending on the specific functions of each cell type in the brain. Thus, it is necessary to understand mitochondrial dysfunction as part of the pathological phenotypes of AD according to each cell type. In this review, we summarize that 1) the effects of AD pathology inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and 2) the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction in each cell type to AD pathogenesis.

Glucose Effects on Cell Growth, Antibody Production, and Cell Metabolism of Hybridoma Cells (Hybridoma 세포의 세포성장, 항체생산 및 세포대사에 미치는 Glucose의 영향)

  • ;Shaw S.Wang
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.323-334
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    • 1995
  • The effects of glucose on cell growth kinetics, monoclonal antibody productivity, and cell metabolism or hybridoma cells were investigated. The mouse-mouse hybridoma cell line VIII H-8 producing mouse IgG2a was used as a modal system. Glucose showed substrate inhibition type dependence on specific growth raie. The maximum cell density increased as initial glucose concentration increased up to 4 g/$\ell$. Glucose showed a strong influence on cell death kinetics, and an inverse relationship between specific death rate and glucose concentration was found. Cell viability and monoclonal antibody production increased as initial glucose concentration increased. The specific glucose consumption rate increased with glucose concentration, and cumulative specific lactate production rate increased with increasing initial glucose concentration. The overall kinetics of ammonium ion production was almost invariant with respect to initial glucose concentration, while the cumulative specific ammonium ion production rate was dependent on initial glucose concentration.

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Generation of Renal Cell Carcinoma-specific CD4+/CD8+ T Cells Restricted by an HLA-39 from a RCC Patient Vaccinated with GM-CSF Gene-Transduced Tumor Cells

  • Jun, Do Youn;Moutner, Joseph;Jaffee, Elizabeth
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.96-102
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    • 2003
  • Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines induce very potent systemic anti-tumor immunity in preclinical and clinical models. Our previous phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has demonstrated both immune cell infiltration at vaccine sites and T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to whole tumor cell vaccines. Methods: To investigate the immune responses to autologous genetically- modified tumor cell vaccines, tumor-specific $CD8^+$ T cell lines were generated from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a RCC patient 1.24 by repeated in vitro stimulation with either B7.1-transduced autologous RCC tumor cells or B7.1-transduced autologous tumor cells treated with interferon gamma ($IFN{\gamma}$), and cloned by limiting dilution. Results: Among several RCC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), a $CD4^+/CD8^+$ double positive T cell clone (17/A2) appeared to recognize $IFN{\gamma}$-treated autologous RCC restricted by HLA-B39. The 17/A2 also recognized other HLA-B39 positive RCC tumor cells after $IFN{\gamma}$ treatment. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that autologous RCC vaccination successfully generates the tumor-specific CTL 17/A2, and suggest that the presentation and recognition of the tumor antigen by the 17/A2 might be upregulated by $IFN{\gamma}$.