• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cell counting method

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Quantification of $Cu(In_xGa_{1-x})Se_2$ Solar Cell by SIMS

  • Jang, Jong-Shik;Hwang, Hye-Hyen;Kang, Hee-Jae;Min, Hyung-Sik;Han, Myung-Sub;Suh, Jung-Ki;Cho, Kyung-Haeng;Chung, Yong-Duck;Kim, Je-Ha;Kim, Kyung-Joong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.275-275
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    • 2012
  • The relative composition of $Cu(InGa)Se_2$ solar cells is one of the most important measurement issues. However, quantitative analysis of multi-component alloy films is difficult by surface analysis methods due to severe matrix effect. In this study, quantitative depth profiling analysis of CIGS films was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The compositions were measured by SIMS using the alloy reference relative sensitivity factors derived from the certified compositions and the total counting numbers of each element. The compositions measured by SIMS were linearly proportional to those by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using isotope dilution method. In this study, the quantification measured by ICP-MS method is compared with the composition calculated by SIMS depth profiles with AR-RSFs obtained from the reference. The SIMS depth profile of CIGS thin films according to the manufacturing condition was converted into compositional depth profile.

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Real-time Micro-algae Flocculation Analysis Method Based on Lens-free Shadow Imaging Technique (LSIT) (렌즈프리 그림자 이미징 기술을 이용한 실시간 미세조류 응집현상 분석법)

  • Seo, Dongmin;Oh, Sangwoo;Dong, Dandan;Lee, Jae Woo;Seo, Sungkyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 2016
  • Micro-algae, one of the biological resources for alternative energy, has been heavily studied. Among various methods to analyze the status of the micro-algae including counting, screening, and flocculation, the flocculation approach has been widely accepted in many critical applications such as red tide removal study or microalgae resource study. To characterize the flocculation status of the micro-alga. A traditional optical modality, i.e., photospectrometry, measuring the optical density of the flocs has been frequently employed. While this traditional optical method needs shorter time than the counting method in flocculation status analysis, it has relatively lower detection accuracy. To address this issue, a novel real-time micro-algae flocculation analysis method based on the lens-free shadow imaging technique (LSIT) is introduced. Both single cell detection and floc detection are simultaneously available with a proposed lens-free shadow image, confirmed by comparing the results with optical microscope images. And three shadow parameters, e.g., number of flocs, effective area of flocs, and maximum size of floc, enabling quantification of the flocculation phenomenon of micro-alga, are firstly demonstrated in this article. The efficacy of each shadow parameter is verified with the real-time flocculation monitoring experiments using custom developed cohesive agents.

Seasonal Variation of Heterotrophic Bacteria of the Marine Ranching Ground of Tongyeong Coastal Water, Korea (통영 바다목장 해역의 종속영양세균의 계절적 변화)

  • 김말남;임아현;이진환;김종만
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2004
  • Surface and bottom sea water samples were harvested from the 5 stations in the marine ranching ground of Tongyeong coastal water from year 2000 to 2002. Cell number of heterotrophic bacteria was determined by using the plate counting method to explore the variation of the cell population of heterotrophic bacteria. Sea water samples collected in summer (in July and August) contained much larger number of heterotrophic bacteria than those harvested in spring, autumn and winter. Heterotrophic bacteria were usually more abundant in surface sea than in bottom sea water. However the reverse was true for sea water collected in December 2001 and February 2002 due to suspended solids accumulating more abundantly in seabed area because of the slower convective current of the sea water in winter. Number of heterotrophic bacteria did not have a strong relationship with frequency of typhoon indicating that the path and powerfulness of the typhoon, localized torrential downpour and temperature variation accompanying the typhoon should be considered all together at the same time as well as the frequency of typhoon to explain clearly the variation of cell number of heterotrophic bacteria. The dominant species isolated from the marine ranching ground of Tongyeong were identified to be Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Sphingomonas paucimobilis.

Taxol Produced from Endophytic Fungi Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast, Cervical and Ovarian Cancer Cells

  • Wang, Xin;Wang, Chao;Sun, Yu-Ting;Sun, Chuan-Zhen;Zhang, Yue;Wang, Xiao-Hua;Zhao, Kai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2015
  • Currently, taxol is mainly extracted from the bark of yews; however, this method can not meet its increasing demand on the market because yews grow very slowly and are a rare and endangered species belonging to first-level conservation plants. Recently, increasing efforts have been made to develop alternative means of taxol production; microbe fermentation would be a very promising method to increase the production scale of taxol. To determine the activities of the taxol extracted from endophytic fungus N. sylviforme HDFS4-26 in inhibiting the growth and causing the apoptosis of cancer cells, on comparison with the taxol extracted from the bark of yew, we used cellular morphology, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, staining (HO33258/PI and Giemsa), DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry (FCM) analyses to determine the apoptosis status of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, cervical cancer HeLa cells and ovarian cancer HO8910 cells. Our results showed that the fungal taxol inhibited the growth of MCF-7, HeLa and HO8910 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. IC50 values of fungal taxol for HeLa, MCF-7 and HO8910 cells were $0.1-1.0{\mu}g/ml$, $0.001-0.01{\mu}g/ml$ and $0.01-0.1{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The fungal taxol induced these tumor cells to undergo apoptosis with typical apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes for chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation, apoptotic body formation and G2/M cell cycle arrest. The fungal taxol at the $0.01-1.0{\mu}g/ml$ had significant effects of inducing apoptosis between 24-48 h, which was the same as that of taxol extracted from yews. This study offers important information and a new resource for the production of an important anticancer drug by endofungus fermentation.

The Effect of Hwangryunhaedoktang on Proliferations of Various Human Cancer Cells (황련해독탕이 수종의 인간 암세포 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Sung, Hyun Kyung;Min, Sang Yeon;Kim, Jang Hyun
    • The Journal of Pediatrics of Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2013
  • Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate whether hwang-ryun-haedok-tang (HDT) affect proliferations of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, androgen-independent PC-3, DU-145 prostate cancer cells, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A549, NCI-H292 human pulmonary cancer cells and K-562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Materials and Methods Effects of HDT on proliferations of each cancer cell line were investigated. 20,000 cells/well were plated in each well of 96-well culture plate. After 24 hrs, 0.01-10% of HDT in culture medium was added to cancer cells. The number of cells was counted by using SRB assay or direct cell counting method after 72 hours from drug treatment. Effect of baicalein or berebrine on proliferation was assessed according to the same method. Results (1) HDT inhibited proliferations of LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells. (2) HDT inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (3) HDT also inhibited proliferations of A549, NCI-H292 pulmonary cancer cells and K-562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. (4) Baicalein and berberine also showed inhibitory effects on proliferations of prostate and breast cancer cells. Conclusion : HDT inhibited proliferations of human prostate, breast, pulmonary and blood cancer cells. These results suggest us the potential use of HDT as a chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent. Effect of HDT on human cancer should be further investigated using in vivo experimental models that can reflect pathophysiology of human cancer through another studies.

Helicobacter pylori inhibited cell proliferation in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts through the Cdc25C/CDK1/cyclinB1 signaling cascade

  • Li, Huanying;Liang, Dongsheng;Hu, Naiming;Dai, Xingzhu;He, Jianing;Zhuang, Hongmin;Zhao, Wanghong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.138-147
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Several studies have shown that the oral cavity is a secondary location for Helicobacter pylori colonization and that H. pylori is associated with the severity of periodontitis. This study investigated whether H. pylori had an effect on the periodontium. We established an invasion model of a standard strain of H. pylori in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs), and evaluated the effects of H. pylori on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Methods: Different concentrations of H. pylori were used to infect hPDLFs, with 6 hours of co-culture. The multiplicity of infection in the low- and high-concentration groups was 10:1 and 100:1, respectively. The Cell Counting Kit-8 method and Ki-67 immunofluorescence were used to detect cell proliferation. Flow cytometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blots were used to detect cell cycle progression. In the high-concentration group, the invasion of H. pylori was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results: It was found that H. pylori invaded the fibroblasts, with cytoplasmic localization. Analyses of cell proliferation and flow cytometry showed that H. pylori inhibited the proliferation of periodontal fibroblasts by causing G2 phase arrest. The inhibition of proliferation and G2 phase arrest were more obvious in the high-concentration group. In the low-concentration group, the G2 phase regulatory factors cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) were upregulated, while cyclin B1 was inhibited. However, in the high-concentration group, cyclin B1 was upregulated and CDK1 was inhibited. Furthermore, the deactivated states of tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK1 (CDK1-Y15) and serine phosphorylation of Cdc25C (Cdc25C-S216) were upregulated after H. pylori infection. Conclusions: In our model, H. pylori inhibited the proliferation of hPDLFs and exerted an invasive effect, causing G2 phase arrest via the Cdc25C/CDK1/cyclin B1 signaling cascade. Its inhibitory effect on proliferation was stronger in the high-concentration group.

Development of Gas Production Measurement System by Bubble Counting during Fermentation (기포계수식 발효가스 발생량 계측시스템의 개발)

  • Lee, Young-Jin;Chun, Jae-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.195-198
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    • 1994
  • A bubble counter was designed and fabricated for the measurement of gas production rate on the basis of number of bubbles produced from yeast fermentor. The sensor was consisted of bubble forming device and electronic signal processing circuitry. The bubble forming device was built with bubble collector and liquid cell to form uniform size of bubble. Bubbles were counted by pulses formed by photo-interrupter circuitry having 8-bit binary latch counter. The gas production rate curves on the basis of bubble counted showed a good agreement to that of growth curves obtained by the optical measurement method. The sensor was succesfully applied to monitoring of the nutrient utilization test with glucose and galactose media.

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Evaluation of a Waterless, Scrubless Chlorhexidine Gluconate/Ethanol Surgical Scrub and Povidone-Iodine for Antimicrobial Efficacy (물과 솔 없이 사용하는 외과적 손 소독제 Chlorhexidine/Ethanol 혼합제와 Povidone-iodine의 소독 효과)

  • Choi, Jeong-Sil
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare 1% chlorhexidine-gluconate/61% ethanol (CHG/Ethanol) emollient and 7.5% povidone-iodine (PVI) scrub for antimicrobial, residual effect, and skin condition. Method: CHG/Ethanol emollient hand hygiene was performed waterless, and brushless by operating doctors and nurses (N=20). PVI hand washing was performed with water and a brush (N=20) for 5 min. The subjects were asked to press their left hand in hand-shaped agar before a surgical scrub, immediately after a surgical scrub and after the operation. The amount of isolated microorganisms were calculated by counting the number of divided areas($1{\times}1cm$, 160 cell) which were culture positive in the hand culture plate. The skin condition was evaluated. Result: The antimicrobial count of CHG/Ethanol emollient and PVI immediately post surgical scrub was 0.0 vs. 4.1 (p>.05), and after the operation was 0.1 vs. 37.8 (p>.05)respectively. The Residual effect of CHG/Ethanol emollient immediately post surgical scrub and after the operation were 0.0 vs. 0.1 (p>.05), and PVI were 4.1 vs. 37.8 (p>.05)respectively. The skin condition and satisfaction of CHG/Ethanol emollient was higher than PVI (p<.05). Conclusion: The antimicrobial effect between CHG/Ethanol emollient and PVI were the same. Considering skin condition, satisfaction and allergic reaction CHG/Ethanol emollient for surgical scrub is recommended in Korea.

The Influence of Water Temperature and Food Concentration on the Filtration Rates of the Asiatic Clam, Corbicula fluminea (수온과 먹이생물의 농도 변화에 따른 재첩의 여과율 변동)

  • Lim, Kyeong-Hun;Shin, Hyun-Chool;Yang, Jae-Sam
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 2005
  • This study was undertaken with the intent to describe the influence of water temperature and food concentration on the filtration rates of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea. The clams were collected at Lake Geumho near Yeongsan river, during March 2001. Food organism, Scenedesmus sp. (KMCC FC-34), was indoor-cultured in f/2 medium, and was used to measure the filtration rate of the clams. Filtration rate of the clams was measured by indirect method. Cell concentrations of food organisms were determined by direct counting cells using the hemacytometer under the light microscope. The filtration rate of the clams increased with water temperature up to circa $25^{\circ}C$. Above this temperature, the filtration rate decreased rapidly. The minimal filtration rate of the clams was recorded at $5^{\circ}C$. Thermal coefficient, $Q_10$ values at low temperature range were much higher than those at high temperature range. These results indicate the asiatic clam is more sensitive in cold water like most of marine bivalves. There was a strong reversed correlation between filtration rate and food concentration. Filtration rate of the clams was reduced as food concentration was increased.

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A Study on Proliferation and Phenotypical Stability of Schwann Cell on Keratin/PLGA Film (케라틴이 첨가된 PLGA 필름에서 케라틴 함량별 SC세포의 증식 및 형태유지에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, A-Young;Kim, Soon-Hee;Kim, Yun-Tae;Jeon, Na-Ri;Yang, Jae-Chan;Lee, Sang-Jin;Yoo, James-J.;Van Dyke, Mark;Shin, Hyung-Sik;Rhee, John-M.;Khang, Gil-Son
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.118-123
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    • 2009
  • Keratin contains regulatory molecules that can enhance neuronal cell activity. We fabricated keratin/ PLGA films using 0, 10, 20, and 50 wt% of keratin using solvent casting method. We measured the contact angle of each film and cell proliferation was assayed by counting the cells attached on the film. Adhered cell morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscope. RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the gene expression of NF, NSE, and S-100, the Schwann cell markers. The keratin content of 20 and 50 wt% provided higher wettability than PLGA. The 20 wt% keratin was better in cell adhesion and proliferation of SCs than other keratin/PLGA films. The phenotypic stability of SC was maintained with the keratin content of 10 and 20 wt%.