• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cattle Production

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THE BENEFITS OF CATTLE IN MIXED FARM SYSTEMS IN PABNA, BANGLADESH

  • Udo, H.M.J.;Meijer, J.;Dawood, F.;Dijkhuizen, A.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.495-503
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    • 1992
  • The internal and external outputs of the agricultural sub-systems of mixed livestock-crop farms in Pabna Bangladesh were analysed, to clarify the multiple functions of cattle in farm systems. Production systems with grazing areas were relatively more productive than those with no grazing. There was a tremendous variation in farm income, largely because of land area. An increase of one ha in land area was estimated to boost farm income by about 50%. Number of cattle, cattle off-take percentage and milk off-take per average cow related positively to farm income. As land area decreased the relative importance of cattle production increased. Crops were dominant in producing food for home consumption. Cattle contributed only 5-6 per cent to home consumption. Cattle supplied a significant cash income: 45 per cent in the villages with grazing areas and 57 per cent in the other villages. In future, the cash output from cattle will decline and emphasis will shift to the role of cattle in supporting crop production. Any research or development strategy for livestock needs to focus first on the importance of the complex relation between livestock and crops.

Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review

  • Nyamushamba, G.B.;Mapiye, C.;Tada, O.;Halimani, T.E.;Muchenje, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.603-621
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    • 2017
  • The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

The Bioenergy Conversion Characteristics of Feedlot Manure Discharging from Beef Cattle Barn

  • Oh, Seung-Yong;Kim, Chang-Hyun;Yoon, Young-Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.697-704
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to assess bioenergy conversion efficiency by biogas and solid fuel production in the cattle feedlot manure discharged from beef cattle barn. Feedlot manure was sampled from the cattle farmhouse located in Yong-in, Gyeonggi during the mid-fattening stage, periodically. The chemical characteristics, BMP (Biochemical methane potential) and HV (Heating values) of feedlot cattle manures were analyzed. Total solid contents of cattle feedlot manure were in the range of 29.98~44.28%, and volatile solid contents were in the range of 23.53~24.47%. In the anaerobic digestion of cattle feedlot manure, the methane production potential has increased from 0.141 to $0.187Nm^3kg^{-1}-VS_{added}$. The methane production of fresh cattle feedlot manure showed the range $0.141{\sim}0.187Nm^3kg^{-1}$-Manure (average $0.047Nm^3kg^{-1}$-Manure), the LHVs (lower heating values) of the produced methane were in the range of $316{\sim}560kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure (average $400kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure). In the direct combustion of fresh cattle feedlot manure, the LHVs were measured in the range of $747{\sim}1,271kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure (average $916kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure), and LHVs of solid fuel which have the water content of 20% were in the range of $2,694{\sim}2,876kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure (average $2,791kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure). Then, the drying energy of average $443kcalkg^{-1}$-Manure was consumed in the production of solid fuel which has a water content of 20%. Therefore, the direct combustion of cattle feedlot manure showed about 2.3 times higher LHV than the LHV of methane produced by anaerobic digestion. And LHV of solid fuel was about 6.0 times higher than the LHV of methane produced by anaerobic digestion. Then, the production of solid fuel presented more bioenergy conversion efficiency than the biogas production in the bioenergy use of cattle feedlot manure.

GENOTYPE (BREED) AND ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO CATTLE IN THE TROPICS - Review

  • Vercoe, J.E.;Frisch, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.401-409
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    • 1992
  • Genotype $\times$ environment (G $\times$ E) interactions must be understood if they are to be exploited to improve animal production, particularly in production systems associated with large environmental variations. The measurement and evaluation of G $\times$ E are discussed. Examples are presented that demonstrate G $\times$ E in different breeds of beef cattle for high temperatures, internal and external parasites and changes in quantity and quality of nutrition. It is demonstrated that productivity differences between genotypes or breeds under grazing conditions arise because of differences between genotypes in the combination of production potential and resistance to environmental stresses in relation to the levels of the relevant environmental stresses that are operating at the time. The $F_1$ cross between genotypes with high production potential (e.g. European Bos Taurus breeds) and those with high resistance to environmental stress (e.g. Asian and African Bos indicus and sanga breeds) is an exceptional genotype with a unique combination of these two sets of attributes. The principles for G $\times$ E developed for beef cattle are briefly discussed in relation to dairy cattle, pigs, poultry and buffalo.

Association of Beta-lactoglobulin Polymorphism with Milk Production Traits in Cattle

  • Badola, S.;Bhattacharya, T.K.;Biswas, T.K.;Kumar, Pushpendra;Sharma, Arjava
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1560-1564
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    • 2003
  • The study was carried out in Sahiwal, Holstein Friesian, Jersey and crossbred cattle to find out the effect of genotype of beta-lactoglobulin gene on milk production traits. The polymorphism at beta-lactoglobulin gene was identified by conducting PCRRFLP studies. A 398 bp fragment of the gene was amplified and digested with Hae III restriction enzyme. The two alleles A and B and three genotypes AA, AB and BB were identified in all cattle breeds. The frequency of B allele was comparatively higher than that of A allele. The AA genotype produced significantly higher milk yield in Sahiwal cattle whereas BB genotype yielded higher milk in Holstein friesian cattle. In other cattle breeds the genotypic effect was non-significant. In conclusion it may be stated that the genotype with significantly higher milk yield may be favoured in the farm along with other conventional selection criteria to enhance the milk production of animals.

A GENERAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR CATTLE GROWTH AND BEEF PRODUCTION

  • Hirooka, H.;Yamada, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.205-218
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    • 1990
  • A general model was developed to simulate cattle growth and beef production. The present model was constructed, based on ARC metabolizable energy system in principle, and incorporated up-to-date knowledge and information into previous models, which were reported by Sanders and Cartwright (1979a,b) and Kahn (1982). The model may apply to cover a wide range of genetic and environmental conditions, because many factors relating to cattle growth and beef production are taken into consideration. The model may provide better understanding of various components and processes of beef cattle production systems.

Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Lao People's Democratic Republic - A review

  • Napasirth, Pattaya;Napasirth, Viengsakoun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.961-967
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    • 2018
  • Lao-native beef cattle are primarily Bos indicus, and most ruminant production in Laos is still dominated by small-scale or backyard producers that use traditional practices, resulting in low productivity. The cattle herd size in Laos has grown by an average of 5 percent per year from 1.52 million in 2010/11 to 1.81 million in 2014/15. In 2016, the Laos cattle population was 1.88 million head, with smallholder farmers representing 98% of production despite efforts by the Laos government to develop commercial-scale farms. There were 170 commercial cattle farms in 2016, with 56 percent in the Central region of Laos. Although, overall, ruminant meat production has tended to increase but with consumption at 7.29 kg/capita/yr in 2013, it remains insufficient to meet demand. Crop residues and agro-industrial by-products used in ruminant diets include rice straw, cassava pulp and wet brewers' grains as roughage, energy and protein sources, respectively. The Belt and Road Initiative proposed by China in 2013 will connect China closely with all countries in Southeast Asia. This initiative will change landlocked Laos to land linked for investors who will benefit from convenient transport at a lower cost, promoting agricultural production in Laos.

A Case Study on Production and Distribution Situations of Korean Organic Beef Cattle (유기한우 생산 및 유통실태에 관한 사례연구)

  • Soung, Joung-Hyun;Kim, Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.173-188
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    • 2008
  • This study focused on production and distribution situations of Korean organic beef cattle at Hongseong Chungnam. Case Farmers have raised cattle organically based on interchange between a few Consumers' Life Cooperatives(CLC) and them. CLC furnished with funding to purchase calves and bought the cattle beef. However, they have many problems related to procuring organic feed in producing organic beef. Presently, they have used organic byproducts from sowing farming and prepared grass places. But they don't breed organic beef cattle in a large scale because of the limitation of organic feed output.

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Historical Look at the Genetic Improvement in Korean Cattle - Review -

  • Kim, J.B.;Lee, C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1467-1481
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    • 2000
  • The Korean cattle industry is important to farming households, the national economy, and the security of foodstuffs in Korea. Since Korean cattle have had inferior ability to produce meat, the Korean cattle industry aimed to improve the meat production ability and to increase numbers to meet the demand from the growing beef cattle market in Korea. This paper reviews the history of the Korean cattle industry and surveys the efforts devoted to improve genetic abilities of the Korean cattle. Discussed are current situations of the Korean cattle industry, projects related to improvement of Korean cattle, Korean cattle's genetic characteristics of economic traits, and some issues to deal with.

Current situation and future prospects for beef cattle production in Indonesia - A review

  • Agus, Ali;Widi, Tri Satya Mastuti
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.976-983
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    • 2018
  • Increasing demand in developing countries for animal sources of food including red meat is predicted to double by 2050. In Indonesia, there has always been a gap between supply and demand of beef with national beef production only satisfying about 45% of demand. This paper aims to describe the current features and prospects for beef production systems in Indonesia. The first part of the article reviews and analyses Indonesian beef cattle production systems. The second part addresses issues related to the current systems for beef production that could become important for future development of the beef industry in Indonesia. Recommendations to improve breeding and reproduction, to empower smallholder farmers, to improve the capacity of industry-related institutions to enhance technology transfer, and to develop systems for industry development such as integration of palm oil or plantations with beef cattle production are briefly discussed.