• Title, Summary, Keyword: Catfish By-product

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Effect of Additive on the Chemical Composition of Tra Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) By-product Silages and Their Nutritive Value for Pigs

  • Thuy, Nguyen Thi;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.762-771
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine i) the fermentation characteristics of catfish by-product (C) ensiled with rice bran (RB) or sugarcane molasses (M) in different ratios, and ii) the digestibility of the silages in growing pigs. In the ensiling experiment, there were three ratios of C, ensiled with RB or M, of 8:2, 7:3 and 6:4 (wet basis for C and air-dry basis for RB and M). The six treatments were CRB8:2, CRB7:3, CRB6:4, CM8:2, CM7:3 and CM6:4, with 3 replications per treatment and seven sampling times. The pH of CRB7:3 and CRB6:4 decreased (p<0.05) from the first week and stayed stable until 8 weeks of ensiling, but the pH did not decrease in CRB8:2. The pH of CM8:2, CM7:3 and CM6:4 decreased rapidly from the first week until week 8. Dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) contents were slightly lower when catfish by-product was ensiled with RB than with M. Ammonia content in all treatments increased (p<0.05) during ensiling. Lactic acid content in silages with molasses increased from the first week, with the highest value at week 4. However, the lactic acid content in CRB8:2 did not increase with time and had the lowest value of all treatments. Acetic acid proportions of total volatile fatty acids were low at day 0, with the highest value at day 7, decreasing slowly until 8 weeks. The butyric acid proportion was highest at day 0 and decreased up to week 8. The proportion of propionic acid increased during ensiling. The digestibility experiment had a 4${\times}$4 Latin-square design and included 4 castrated crossbreed (Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace) male pigs fed four diets. The basal diet (BD) included rice bran, broken rice and maize meal, and the other three diets included fish meal (FMD) or catfish by-product ensiled with rice bran (CRBD) or sugarcane molasses (CMD). The silages chosen were those which gave the best results in the ensiling experiment for each additive. The coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of DM and organic matter (OM) was not significantly different among treatments. The CTTAD of CP was not different among the silage diets, but was lower in BD (p<0.01). The CTTAD of ether extract (EE) was higher in the catfish by-product silage diets than in FMD and BD. There was no significant difference in the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and EE between the fish meal and the by-product silages. In conclusion, catfish by-product can be successfully preserved by ensiling. Moreover, the total tract apparent digestibility of OM, CP and EE in ensiled catfish by-product was comparable with that of fish meal.

Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance of Diets that Include Marine Fish Meal, Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) By-product Meal and Silage, and Processing Waste Water in Growing Pigs

  • Thuy, Nguyen Thi;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.924-930
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    • 2010
  • Ileal and total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance of diets with four different protein sources were determined in growing pigs. The diets were based on rice bran, broken rice and maize meal and contained Tra catfish by-product (CBP), processed using three different methods, and marine fish meal (FM). The CBP diets consisted of the by-product in meal form, ensiled with molasses, and CBP waste water (WWBD). The four diets were fed to four growing pigs fitted with post-valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulas in a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square design. All experimental diets included $Cr_2O_3$ at 5 g/kg feed as an indigestible marker. The ileal apparent digestibility of organic matter and ether extract was higher on diet WWBD than on the other three diets (p<0.05), and the total tract apparent digestibility was higher on diet WWBD than on the FM diet (p<0.05). The ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein and amino acids was not significantly different among diets (p>0.05). No significant effects of diet were found on N-retention and N utilization. In conclusion, the catfish by-product meal, ensiled catfish by-product and processing waste water diets and the fish meal diet had similar ileal and total tract apparent digestibility, and similar N utilization in growing pigs.

Molecular cloning and characterization of metallothionein cDNA gene in channel catfish (챠넬메기의 metallothionein cDNA 유전자의 cloning 및 그 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, In-Jung;Song, Young-Hwan
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 1992
  • Metallothionein is an essential and common protein to regulate the intracellular concentration of heavy metals, which exist in most organisms from bacteria to vertebrates. Although the detailed function of metallothianein has not been fully identified until yet, it may be involoved in the cellular protection against the heavy metal toxicity and in the global regulation of several other genes and the expression of metalloproteins. We have cloned the full cDNA clone of metallothionein gene in Channel Catfish by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR) starting from poly(A)-containing mRNAs. All PCR fragments have been subcloned into EcoRV site of pBluescript SK+ and dT-tailed at Smal site of pUC19, then PCR products are recovered by the double digestion of recombinant plasmids wiht EcoRI and HindIII, which are adjacent to EcoRV site in multicloning sites or by rapid PCR screening. The nucleotide sequence analysis of pMT150(one of the PCR clones) showed high homology with several other piscine metallothionein cDNA genes.

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Nutritional Assessment and Mineral Content of Wild and Cultured Catfish Silurus asotus (자연산 및 양식산 메기의 미네랄 함량 및 영양평가)

  • GYE, Hyeon-Jin;SHIM, Kil-Bo;LIM, Chi-Won;SONG, Mi-Young;KIM, Dae-Hee;KIM, Bo-Kyoung;CHO, Young-Je
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.1364-1368
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to evaluate mineral contents of catfish Silurus asotus. As a result of mineral content, the mean content of the macro mineral was (in descending order): K (310.36-412.66 mg/100 g), P (186.42-223.02 mg/100 g), Na (35.32-57.87 mg/100 g), Mg (22.88-31.87 mg/100 g), Ca (9.05-13.07 mg/100 g). In comparison, the mean content of the micro mineral was (in descending order): Fe (0.26-0.95 mg/100 g), Zn (0.26-1.02 mg/100 g), Cu (ND-0.08 mg/100 g), Mn (0.01-0.03 mg/100 g). A proportion of mineral intakes with the dietary reference intakes for Koreans (KDRIs) set by the Korean Nutrition Society. Nutrient uptake proportion of mineral intakes was (in descending order): P (62.16%), K (20.71%), Mg (16.82%), Fe (13.02%), Zn (11.38%) Cu (10.94%), Na (6.59%), Ca (3.09%), Mn (0.96%). The mineral content was compared with the major protein food sources according to the Korea Health Statistics (2013) such as polished rice, pork, chicken, beef, eggs and milk. The calcium content contains; lower level of milk and eggs, chicken whereas higher levels of rice, pork and beef. Catfish has less iron content than major protein food source. Phosphorus and potassium contain higher level of major protein food sources.

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fermented By-product of Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as a Fish Meal Replacer in Juvenile Amur Catfish, Silurus asotus: Effects on Growth, Serological Characteristics and Immune Responses

  • Katya, Kumar;Yun, Yong-Hyun;Park, Gunhyun;Lee, Jeong-Yeol;Yoo, Gwangyeol;Bai, Sungchul C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1478-1486
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    • 2014
  • The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary fermented by-product of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, (FBPM) as a fish meal (FM) replacer in juvenile Amur catfish, Silurus asotus. A total number of 225 fish averaging $5.7{\pm}0.1g$ ($mean{\pm}standard$ deviation) were fed one of the five experimental diets formulated to replace FM with FBPM at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% ($FBPM_0$, $FBPM_5$, $FBPM_{10}$, $FBPM_{20}$, and $FBPM_{30}$, respectively). At the end of eight weeks of the experiment, average weight gain (WG) of fish fed $FBPM_0$ or $FBPM_5$ were significantly higher than those of fish fed $FBPM_{20}$ or $FBPM_{30}$ diets (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in WG among the fish fed $FBPM_0$, $FBPM_5$ or $FBPM_{10}$, and between fish fed $FBPM_{10}$ or $FBPM_{20}$, and also between those fed $FBPM_{20}$ or $FBPM_{30}$ diets. Lysozyme activity of fish fed $FBPM_0$ or $FBPM_5$ were significantly higher than those of fish fed $FBPM_{10}$, $FBPM_{20}$ or $FBPM_{30}$ diets (p<0.05). The chemiluminescent response of fish fed $FBPM_5$ was significantly higher than those of fish fed $FBPM_0$, $FBPM_{20}$ or $FBPM_{30}$ diets (p<0.05). Broken line regression analysis of WG suggested that the maximal dietary inclusion level for FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% without any adverse effects on whole body composition and on serological characteristics. Therefore, these results may indicate that the maximal dietary inclusion level of FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% in juvenile Amur catfish.

Genetic Stock Identification of Spotted Flounder, Verasper variegatus from Yeocheun, Korea (범가자미에 대한 유전학적 동정)

  • KIM Kyung Kil;KIM Yoon;NAM Yoon Kwan;KIM Dong Soo
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.221-233
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    • 1993
  • Cell size, DNA content, chromosome and PCR-based mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene analyses were conducted to obtain basic informations for genetic stock identification of spotted flounder (Verasper variegatus) from Yeocheun, Korea. The mean erythrocytic and nuclear volumes of spotted flounder were $211.10{\mu}m^3$ and $23.03{\mu}m^3$, respectively. The haploid DNA content of this species was 0.79 pg/cell which correspond to $46.5\%$ of carp and to $22.6\%$ of mammals. Spotted flounder had the 2n = 46 acrocentric chromosomes but no heteromorphic sex chromosomes was found. Mitochondrial DNA gene for 12S ribosomal RNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR products were subjected to digestion with 15 restriction endonucleases. Restriction enzyme analyses revealed that Ava I, Mae II, Sma I and Xba I had one restriction site in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene segment of spotted flounder, while Mae I had two. Segments of 12S rRNA gene from mitochondria in spotted flounder were sequenced and compared with channel catfish and human as controls. The 12S rRNA gene of this species was more similar to that of channel catfish than to human's.

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Development of Species-Specific PCR to Determine the Animal Raw Material (종 특이 프라이머를 이용한 동물성 식품원료의 진위 판별법 개발)

  • Kim, Kyu-Heon;Lee, Ho-Yeon;Kim, Yong-Sang;Kim, Mi-Ra;Jung, Yoo Kyung;Lee, Jae-Hwang;Chang, Hye-Sook;Park, Yong-Chjun;Kim, Sang Yub;Choi, Jang Duck;Jang, Young-Mi
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.347-355
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the detection method was developed using molecular biological technique to distinguish authenticity of animal raw materials. The genes for distinction of species about animals targeted at Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), Cytochrome b (Cytb), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes in mitochondrial DNA. The species-specific primers were designed by that Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) product size was around 200 bp for applying to processed products. The target 24 raw materials were 2 species of domestic animals, 6 species of poultry, 2 species of freshwater fishes, 13 species of marine fishes and 1 species of crustaceans. The results of PCR for Rabbit, Fox, Pheasant, Domestic Pigeon, Rufous Turtle Dove, Quail, Tree Sparrow, Barn Swallow, Catfish, Mandarin Fish, Flying Fish, Mallotus villosus, Pacific Herring, Sand Lance, Japanese Anchovy, Small Yellow Croaker, Halibut, Jacopever, Skate Ray, Ray, File Fish, Sea Bass, Sea Urchin, and Lobster raw materials were confirmed 113 bp ~ 218 bp, respectively. Also, non-specific PCR products were not detected in compare species by species-specific primers. The method using primers developed in this study may be applied to distinguish an authenticity of food materials included animal raw materials for various processed products.