• Title, Summary, Keyword: Catch fluctuation

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Stock Identification of Todarodes pacificus in Northwest Pacific (북서태평양에 서식하는 살오징어(Todarodes pacificus) 계군 분석에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jeong-Yun;Moon, Chang-Ho;Yoon, Moon-Geun;Kang, Chang-Keun;Kim, Kyung-Ryul;Na, Taehee;Choy, Eun Jung;Lee, Chung Il
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.292-302
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    • 2012
  • This paper reviews comparison analysis of current and latest application for stock identification methods of Todarodes pacificus, and the pros and cons of each method and consideration of how to compensate for each other. Todarodes pacificus which migrates wide areas in western North Pacific is important fishery resource ecologically and commercially. Todarodes pacificus is also considered as 'biological indicator' of ocean environmental changes. And changes in its short and long term catch and distribution area occur along with environmental changes. For example, while the catch of pollack, a cold water fish, has dramatically decreased until today after the climate regime shift in 1987/1988, the catch of Todarodes pacificus has been dramatically increased. Regarding the decrease in pollack catch, overfishing and climate changes were considered as the main causes, but there has been no definite reason until today. One of the reasons why there is no definite answer is related with no proper analysis about ecological and environmental aspects based on stock identification. Subpopulation is a group sharing the same gene pool through sexual reproduction process within limited boundaries having similar ecological characteristics. Each individual with same stock might be affected by different environment in temporal and spatial during the process of spawning, recruitment and then reproduction. Thereby, accurate stock analysis about the species can play an efficient alternative to comply with effective resource management and rapid changes. Four main stock analysis were applied to Todarodes pacificus: Morphologic Method, Ecological Method, Tagging Method, Genetic Method. Ecological method is studies for analysis of differences in spawning grounds by analysing the individual ecological change, distribution, migration status, parasitic state of parasite, kinds of parasite and parasite infection rate etc. Currently the method has been studying lively can identify the group in the similar environment. However It is difficult to know to identify the same genetic group in each other. Tagging Method is direct method. It can analyse cohort's migration, distribution and location of spawning, but it is very difficult to recapture tagged squids and hard to tag juveniles. Genetic method, which is for useful fishery resource stock analysis has provided the basic information regarding resource management study. Genetic method for stock analysis is determined according to markers' sensitivity and need to select high multiform of genetic markers. For stock identification, isozyme multiform has been used for genetic markers. Recently there is increase in use of makers with high range variability among DNA sequencing like mitochondria, microsatellite. Even the current morphologic method, tagging method and ecological method played important rolls through finding Todarodes pacificus' life cycle, migration route and changes in spawning grounds, it is still difficult to analyze the stock of Todarodes pacificus as those are distributed in difference seas. Lately, by taking advantages of each stock analysis method, more complicated method is being applied. If based on such analysis and genetic method for improvement are played, there will be much advance in management system for the resource fluctuation of Todarodes pacificus.

On the Influence of the Oceanographic Condition in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea on the fluctuation of the Gang-dal-i fishing ground (동지나해 .황해의 해황이 강달이 어장의 변동에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seong-Gi;Jo, Gyu-Dae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 1982
  • In order to analyze the formation mechanism for the fishing ground of the Gang-dal-i, the relationship between the fish grounds of the Gang-dal-i and the oceanographic structure of the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea is investigated by using the data of the catches of stow net fishery (Fisheries Research and Development Agency, 1970-1979) and the oceanographic observation data (Japan Meteorological Agency). The main fishing grounds of the Gang-dal-i concentrated in the adjacent seas of Daeheugsan island and Sokotra Rock. In these areas, the fishing conditions are generally stable, because about 70% of the total catch of the Gang-dal-i for the ten years is occupied, CPUE also is relatively great, and the coefficients of variation of the catches are relatively small as 0.9 to 1.4. The main fishing periods are roughly from February to March and June to July, and the years of good catches are from 1974 to 1976. In general, the main fishing grounds are formed in the marginal areas of the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water. They are the frontal areas in which the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water is intermixed with the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The range of the temperature and the salinity in these regions are from 10 to 13$^{\circ}C$ and 32.5 to 34.4$\textperthousand$, respectively.

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A Study on the Stock Assessment and Management Implications of the Hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus Linne in Korean Waters 2. Variations in Population Biomass of the Hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus Linne in Korean Waters (한국 연근해 갈치의 자원평가 및 관리방안 연구 2. 한국 연근해 갈치의 자원량 변동)

  • ZHANG Chang Ik;SOHN Myoung Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.620-626
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    • 1997
  • Annual biomasses of the hairtail, Trichiurus lepturus, were estimated from the biomass-based cohort analysis (Zhang, 1987), using data of annual catch in weight at age during $1970\~1988$ in Korean waters. Annual biomass of the hairtail was peaked at about 240,000 mt in 1975, and thereafter declined with a slight fluctuation. Adult biomass showed a peak in 1978 with about 55,000 mt. However, it has continuously decreased untill 1980 to the level of 9,000 mt and remained at this level till 1988. Age compositions of the hairtail in the 1980s differed greatly from those in the 1970s. The proportions of older hairtail (>4 years) were very low in the 1980s and even the biomasses of young hairtail $(1\~3\;years)$ were at a low evel in the 1980s compared with the level in 1970s. The 1973 and 1974 year classes appeared to be relatively dominant. The mean value of instantaneous rate of fishing mortality (F) in the 1980s was significantly different from that of the 1910s (P<0.05). Recruitment of the hairtail exhibited a similar trend with stock biomass until 1974, indicating the density-dependent Ricker curve.

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International Trends in Development, Commercialization and Market of Bio-Plastics (국내외 바이오 플라스틱의 연구개발, 제품화 및 시장 동향)

  • You, Young-Sun;Oh, Yu-Sung;Hong, Seung-Hoi;Choi, Sung-Wook
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 2015
  • As environmental issues are emerging, bio-plastic suppliers in leading countries have been foreseeing the strong needs for environment-friendly materials such as eco-packing materials due to increased attention and regulation on recycle. To catch up with the demand, various types of bio-plastics based on natural feedstocks were developed and released on a market. These bio-plastic products drew the great attention even in domestic industries. At present, international oil price fluctuation and heavy charge on waste raise the unit cost of production and disposal expense of conventional plastic materials. These conditions make bio-plastic an alternative, because it is not restrained by oil prices and problem in the disposal. It is also expected that bio-plastic will be applied to various types of products including containers, industrial supplies, disposables, and medical supplies. However, the bio-plastic is still in its infancy, thus more research and understanding should be followed to put it to application. Bio-plastic is considered as environment-friendly material with high potential which has the advantages of production and disposal.

History and Status of the Chum Salmon Enhancement Program in Korea (연어 방류사업의 역사와 현황)

  • Lee, Hae-Sung;Seong, Ki-Baik;Lee, Cheul-Ho
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2007
  • The chum salmon enhancement program in Korea started at Gowon in Hamgyeong nam-do in 1913 and the program has been more active since Yeongdong Inland Fisheries Research Institute was established at Yangyang in 1984. The major activities were the release of chum salmon fingerlings and the catch of adult chum salmon for artificial fertilization. The range of return rate to Korean waters was in $0.72{\sim}1.57%$ during 1990s, but it has declined seriously since 2000. To overcome the low return rate and enhance chum salmon resources in Korean waters, we must understand the mechanisms of mass mortality of chum salmon during their early life in rivers and coastal areas in conjuction with the fluctuation of return rates and climate. In addition, comprehensive and effective habitat protection and restoration policies will be needed.

A New Understanding on Environmental Problems in China - Dilemma between Economic Development and Environmental Protection - (중국 환경문제에 대한 재인식 -경제발전과 환경보호의 딜레마-)

  • Won, Dong-Wook
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.45-70
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    • 2006
  • China has achieved great economic growth above 9% annual since it changed to more of a market economy system by its reform and open-door policy. At the same time, China has experienced severe ecological deterioration, such as air and water pollutions caused by its rapid urbanization and industrialization. China is now confronted with environmental pollution and ecological deterioration at a critical point, at which economic development in China is limited. Moreover, environmental problems in China have become a lit fuse for social fluctuation beyond pollution problems. The root and background of environmental problems in China, firstly, are its government's lack of understanding of these problems and incorrect economic policies affected by political and ideological prejudice. Secondly, the plundering of resources, 'the principle of development first' which didn't consider environmental sustainability is another source of environmental deterioration in China. In addition, a huge population and poverty in China have increased the difficulty in solving its environmental problems, and in fact have accelerated them. The Chinese government has established many environmental laws and institutions, increased environmental investments, and is enlarging the participation of NGOs and the general public in some limited scale to solve its environmental problems. However, it has not obtained effective results because of the lack of environmental investments owing to the government's limit of the development phase, a structural limit of law enforcement and local protectionism, and the limit of political independency in NGOs and the lack of public participation in China. It seems that China remains in the stage of 'economic development first, environmental protection second', contrary to its catch-phrase of 'the harmony between economic development and environmental protection'. China is now confronted with dual pressure both domestically and abroad because of deepening environmental problems. There are growing public's protests and demonstrations in China in response to the spread of damage owing to environmental pollution and ecological deterioration. On the other hand, international society, in particular neighboring countries, regard China as a principal cause of ecological disaster. In the face of this dual pressure, China is presently contemplating a 'recycling economy' that helps sustainable development through the structural reform of industries using too much energy and through more severe law enforcement than now. Therefore, it is desirable to promote regional cooperation more progressively and practically in the direction of building China's ability to solve environmental problems.

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APPROXIMATE ESTIMATION OF RECRUITMENT IN FISH POPULATION UTILIZING STOCK DENSITY AND CATCH (밀도지수와 어획량으로서 수산자원의 가입량을 근사적으로 추정하는 방법)

  • KIM Kee Ju
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 1975
  • For the calculation of population parameter and estimation of recruitment of a fish population, an application of multiple regression method was used with some statistical inferences. Then, the differences between the calculated values and the true parameters were discussed. In addition, this method criticized by applying it to the statistical data of a population of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus of the Indian Ocean. The method was also applied to the available data of a population of Pacific saury, Cololabis saira, to estimate its recuitments. A stock at t year and t+1 year is, $N_{0,\;t+1}=N_{0,\;t}(1-m_t)-C_t+R_{t+1}$ where $N_0$ is the initial number of fish in a given year; C, number o: fish caught; R, number of recruitment; and M, rate of natural mortality. The foregoing equation is $$\phi_{t+1}=\frac{(1-\varrho^{-z}{t+1})Z_t}{(1-\varrho^{-z}t)Z_{t+1}}-\frac{1-\varrho^{-z}t+1}{Z_{t+1}}\phi_t-a'\frac{1-\varrho^{-z}t+1}{Z_{t+1}}C_t+a'\frac{1-\varrho^{-z}t+1}{Z_{t+1}}R_{t+1}......(1)$$ where $\phi$ is CPUE; a', CPUE $(\phi)$ to average stock $(\bar{N})$ in number; Z, total mortality coefficient; and M, natural mortality coefficient. In the equation (1) , the term $(1-\varrho^{-z}t+1)/Z_{t+1}$s almost constant to the variation of effort (X) there fore coefficients $\phi$ and $C_t$, can be calculated, when R is a constant, by applying the method of multiple regression, where $\phi_{t+1}$ is a dependent variable; $\phi_t$ and $C_t$ are independent variables. The values of Mand a' are calculated from the coefficients of $\phi_t$ and $C_t$; and total mortality coefficient (Z), where Z is a'X+M. By substituting M, a', $Z_t$, and $Z_{t+1}$ to the equation (1) recruitment $(R_{t+1})$ can be calculated. In this precess $\phi$ can be substituted by index of stock in number (N'). This operational procedures of the method of multiple regression can be applicable to the data which satisfy the above assumptions, even though the data were collected from any chosen year with similar recruitments, though it were not collected from the consecutive years. Under the condition of varying effort the data with such variation can be treated effectively by this method. The calculated values of M and a' include some deviation from the population parameters. Therefore, the estimated recruitment (R) is a relative value instead of all absolute one. This method of multiple regression is also applicable to the stock density and yield in weight instead of in number. For the data of the bigeye tuna of the Indian Ocean, the values of estimated recruitment (R) calculated from the parameter which is obtained by the present multiple regression method is proportional with an identical fluctuation pattern to the values of those derived from the parameters M and a', which were calculated by Suda (1970) for the same data. Estimated recruitments of Pacific saury of the eastern coast of Korea were calculated by the present multiple regression method. Not only spring recruitment $(1965\~1974)$ but also fall recruitment $(1964\~1973)$ was found to fluctuate in accordance with the fluctuations of stock densities (CPUE) of the same spring and fall, respectively.

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