• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cash Flow

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The Effects of the Elements of Cash Flow and Accrual on the Consistency of Cash Flow and on the Firm's Value (현금흐름과 발생액 및 구성요소들이 현금흐름의 지속성과 기업가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chang-Rae;Lee, Sang-Hee
    • Korean Business Review
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.61-86
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this article is to investigate the effects of cash flow and accrual, which are the elements of earnings, and those of the elements of cash flow and accrual on the consistency of cash flow and firm's value. We analyzed 4 kinds of regression models, of which the independent variables are this period's cash flow, the elements of cash flow, accrual, and the elements of accrual, and the dependent variables are the next period's cash flow, and the stock price at the end of financial statements disclosure months, respectively. The sample firms were the manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange 1980 through 2006, of which the fiscal year ended in December. And, the results of the analyses are as follows: Cash flow and accrual are shown to have significant relationships with cash flow consistency and the evaluations of firms' value. And, the elements of cash flow or accrual proved to have more influence than the total amount of them, on cash flow consistency and the evaluation of firms' value. Also, the results present that some of the elements of cash flow and accrual differently affect cash flow consistency and the evaluation of firms' value. Accordingly, this study indicates that each of the elements of cash flow and accrual needs to be considered respectively rather than the total amount of them, in the case that cash flow and accrual are used in the decision-making concerned with the forecast of cash flow and the evaluation of firms' value. This study also shows that each element of cash flow and accrual needs to be used differently for cash flow forecast and the evaluation of firms' value.

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The impact of cash holdings on investment-cash flow sensitivity (현금보유가 기업의 투자-현금흐름민감도에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Tae, Jeong-Hyeon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.1654-1662
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    • 2011
  • This paper investigates how does cash holdings have effect on investment-cash flow sensitivity in korea firms over the period 1981-2009. According to $\"{O}$.Arslan et al.(2006), I expect that financially constrained firms have more cash holdings. and financially constrained cash-rich firms are likely to have less investment-cash flow sensitivity especially in the financial crisis period. Using financial constraint classification variables(firm size, dividend, cash holdings), we divide whole sample firms into financially constrained firms and financially unconstrained firms, and then I compare investment-cash flow sensitivity in pre-financial crisis(1981-1996), financial crisis(1997-1998) and after-financial crisis(1999-2009) period. This paper's findings are as follows: First, under no financial constraint classification conditions, cash-poor firms exhibit greater investment-cash flow sensitivity than cash-rich firms do during 1981-2009 period except financial crisis period. These findings support the hypothesis that firms have more cash holdings less investment-cash flow sensitivity except in financial crisis period. In financial crisis period, cash holdings have no effect on investment-cash flow sensitivity. Second, this paper findings are somewhat different as $\"{O}$.Arslan et al.(2006)'s. Under the financial constraint classification conditions, financially unconstrained firms have more investment-cash flow sensitivity rather than constrained firms have. The reason is that both dividend and firm size are not a complete classification criteria variables. And there exists other possible determinants of investment-cash flow sensitivity. Finally, this paper find that there are common determinants of corporate cash holdings in all periods. This paper suggests that cash flow and market to book ratio are positive determinants of corporate cash holdings but short-term debt, investment and firm size are negative determinants of corporate cash holdings.

Free Cash Flow, Agency Conflicts, and Compensation Plans in a Non-growing Industry

  • Park, Sang-Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Studies
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.249-269
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    • 2004
  • Free cash flow is known as a typical type of agency conflict between managers and shareholders in a firm. The insurance industry, which is not growing, is particularly susceptible to such excessive cash flow. We herein investigate the effects of stock ownership plans on reducing agency conflicts. We adopt undistributed cash flow to proxy free cash flow, and size, default risk, group membership, leverage, investment opportunity, and stock options are selected as explanatory variables. We find that stock option plans are effective(at a 10% level) in reducing free cash flow.

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A Study on the Predictability of Hospital's Future Cash Flow Information (병원의 미래 현금흐름 정보예측)

  • Moon, Young-Jeon;Yang, Dong-Hyun
    • Korea Journal of Hospital Management
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.19-41
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    • 2006
  • The Objective of this study was to design the model which predict the future cash flow of hospitals and on the basis of designed model to support sound hospital management by the prediction of future cash flow. The five cash flow measurement variables discussed in financial accrual part were used as variables and these variables were defined as NI, NIDPR, CFO, CFAI, CC. To measure the cash flow B/S related variables, P/L related variables and financial ratio related variables were utilized in this study. To measure cash flow models were designed and to estimate the prediction ability of five cash flow models, the martingale model and the market model were utilized. To estimate relative prediction outcome of cash flow prediction model and simple market model, MAE and MER were used to compare and analyze relative prediction ability of the cash flow model and the market model and to prove superiority of the model of the cash flow prediction model, 32 Regional Public Hospital's cross-section data and 4 year time series data were combined and pooled cross-sectional time series regression model was used for GLS-analysis. To analyze this data, Firstly, each cash flow prediction model, martingale model and market model were made and MAE and MER were estimated. Secondly difference-test was conducted to find the difference between MAE and MER of cash flow prediction model. Thirdly after ranking by size the prediction of cash flow model, martingale model and market model, Friedman-test was evaluated to find prediction ability. The results of this study were as follows: when t-test was conducted to find prediction ability among each model, the error of prediction of cash flow model was smaller than that of martingale and market model, and the difference of prediction error cash flow was significant, so cash flow model was analyzed as excellent compare with other models. This research results can be considered conductive in that present the suitable prediction model of future cash flow to the hospital. This research can provide valuable information in policy-making of hospital's policy decision. This research provide effects as follows; (1) the research is useful to estimate the benefit of hospital, solvency and capital supply ability for substitution of fixed equipment. (2) the research is useful to estimate hospital's liqudity, solvency and financial ability. (3) the research is useful to estimate evaluation ability in hospital management. Furthermore, the research should be continued by sampling all hospitals and constructed advanced cash flow model in dimension, established type and continued by studying unified model which is related each cash flow model.

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A Method of Evaluating Profitability and Risk of Multiple Investments Applying Internal Rate of Return

  • Mizumachi, Tadahiro
    • Industrial Engineering and Management Systems
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2010
  • In today's uncertain economic environment, economic risk is inherent in making large investments on manufacturing facilities. It is, therefore, practically meaningful to divide investment over multiple periods, reducing the risk of investment. Then, the cash-flow over the entire planning horizon would comprise positive inflow and negative outflow. In this case, in general, evaluation by internal rate of return (IRR) is not feasible, because multiple IRRs are involved. This paper deals with a problem of evaluating profitability, as well as risk, of investment alternatives made in multiple times of investment over the entire horizon. Typically, an additional investment is required after the initial one, for expanding manufacturing capacity or other reasons. The paper pays attention to a unit cash-flow over two periods, decomposing the total cash-flow into a series of unit cash-flow patterns. It is easy to evaluate profitability of a unit cash-flow by using IRR. The total cash-flow can be decomposed into the series of two types of unit cash-flows: an investment type one (negative-positive) and the borrowing type one (positive-negative). This paper, therefore, proposes a method in which only the borrowing type unit cash-flow is eliminated in the series by converting total cash-flow using capital interest rate. Then, a unique IRR can be obtained and the profitability is evaluated. Thus, the paper extends the method of IRR so that it may help decision making in complicated cash-flow pattern observed in practice.

The Impact of Operating Cash Flow in Decision-Making of Individual Investors in Vietnam's Stock Market

  • NGUYEN, Dung Duc;NGUYEN, Cong Van
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 2020
  • The paper examines the impact of information about cash flow from operating activities of firms listed on Vietnam's stock market to the decision making of individual investors. Data were collected from interviews with 160 individual investors about their investment decisions based on information on profit growth and cash flow growth from operating activities. T-test was conducted to research on Vietnam's stock market - a market considered as information that is not really public, transparent and ineffective. The research results show that: (1) investors do not care about cash flow from operating activities when making investment decisions if the company's profits grow positively, (2) information about cash flow from operating activities only affects the decisions of individual investors once profit growth is negative, and (3) conflicting information between profit growth and cash flow growth from business activities significantly affects the confidence and comfort of investors in Vietnam's stock market when they make investment decisions. Then, the study points out the mistake of investors when making investment decisions, and offers recommendations to investors when making investment decisions, not only concerned with profit growth, but also paying special attention to cash flow growth, especially cash flow from the company's business operations.

The Impact of Cash Flow Statement on Lending Decision of Commercial Banks: Evidence from Vietnam

  • NGUYEN, Dung Duc;NGUYEN, Anh Huu
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2020
  • The paper investigates the impact of the statement of cash flows of listed companies on lending decisions of commercial banks in the context of Vietnam. Survey data for the research were collected from 160 credit officers of Vietnamese commercial banks for short-term and long-term lending decisions, whether the cash flow statement includes complete information or has a lack of information. The cash flow statement, in which the information on the cash flow is completely contrary to the profit information on the income statement is examined. This paper employed T-tests to address the research issues in a market considered to be ineffective, like Vietnam. The research results show: (1) the information on the cash flow statement affects both the short-term and long-term lending decisions of credit officers, and (2) the lack of information on the cash flow statement in both cases of positive and negative profits affects the comfort and confidence of credit officers in making decisions. The research findings also indicate that cash flow statements are important for lending decisions of credit institutions in Vietnam. Therefore, this paper provides a new insight to managers on how to improve the quality of cash flow statement to meet the needs of lenders.

Preparing a Construction Cash Flow Analysis Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) Technology

  • Kim, Hyunjoo;Grobler, Francois
    • Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2013
  • Construction is a competitive industry and successful contractors must be able to win bids to obtain projects. Cash flow analysis not only determines actual profit at the end of the project, but also estimates required cash resources or cash ballances at the end of every month. Cash flow analysis is important in managing a construction project; however, it requires extensive information that is not immediately available to the general contractor. Before contractors can perform cash flow analysis, they must first complete a series of pre-requisites such as the quantity take off, scheduling, and cost estimating, followed by accurate assessments of project costs incurred and billable progress made. Consequently, cash flow analysis is currently a lengthy, uncertain process. This paper suggests improved cash flow analysis can be developed using data extraction in Building Information Modeling (BIM). BIM models contain a wealth of information and tools have been developed to automate a series of process such as quantity takeoff, scheduling, and estimating. This paper describes a prototype tool to support BIM-based, automated cash flow analysis.

Robustness of Cash Flow Value: Investment in ASEAN

  • LAU, Wei Theng;MAHAT, Fauziah Binti
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.247-255
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    • 2019
  • This study examines the different roles of cash flow in assessing investment returns in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The analysis covers over 900 listed firms across Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand for the period post the Asian financial crisis of 2001-2017. Firm-level panel data analysis shows that cash flow factors are important in all contexts of cash return on assets, earnings quality and market value multiple across the region even after controlling for typical measures of profitability. The results suggest that firms should manage cash flow prudently in considerations of firm value from the shareholder's perspective, measured directly using stock return. Cash profitability on assets should become an important firm performance indicator, whilst higher cash component over reported earnings is preferred. The market also tends to respond favourably to cash flow yield as a price multiple in valuation, outpacing the role of earnings yield. Such findings are robust across the pre and post subprime crisis periods, across estimation methods pertaining to finance panel standard errors, as well as across static and dynamic considerations of returns. It is hence sensible to consider cash flow factors in the research pertaining to asset pricing and factor investing in the ASEAN region.

Development and Implementation of Extension Models Based on the Review of Cash Flow Models (현금흐름모형 고찰에 의한 확장모형의 개발 및 적용)

  • Choi, Sungwoon
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.435-448
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study is to investigate and develop the extended models for Economic Cash Amount(ECA), Cash Break Even-Point(BEP), and Cash Flow Statement(CFS) by referencing systematic literature review in the field. The study develops three extended models to determine the optimal cash amount: ECA model with interest opportunity cost, financing transaction cost and financing fail cost, ECA model with daily cash supply and interest opportunity cost, ECA model with financing fail cost and interest opportunity cost. Earnings Before Interests, Tax, Depreciation and Amortization(EBITDA) is obtained by subtracting noncash depreciation costs from Earning Before Interest and Tax(EBIT), which is efficient metric to evaluate operating cash flow. The research also develops two extended Cash BEP models, considered as interest and corporate tax, in order to indentify the break-even point as EBITDA equals zero. Furthermore, this paper proposes the modified version of CFS by introducing the reclassification of operating and financing accounts in the statement of financial position. In addition, the study also present the reclassification of five types of profit, such as gross profit, EBIT, ordinary profit, special profit, and net profit within the statement of comprehensive income. In order to provide a better understanding of the proposed cash flow models, numerical examples, such as two-sample t test and Analysis of Variance(ANOVA), are presented to demonstrate the statistical significance according to the industrial types for net working capital(i.e cash-to-cash), net profit, operating cash flow and free cash flow.