• Title, Summary, Keyword: Case-control study

Search Result 5,615, Processing Time 0.062 seconds

The Effect of Increasing Control-to-case Ratio on Statistical Power in a Simulated Case-control SNP Association Study

  • Kang, Moon-Su;Choi, Sun-Hee;Koh, In-Song
    • Genomics & Informatics
    • /
    • v.7 no.3
    • /
    • pp.148-151
    • /
    • 2009
  • Generally, larger sample size leads to a greater statistical power to detect a significant difference. We may increase the sample size for both case and control in order to obtain greater power. However, it is often the case that increasing sample size for case is not feasible for a variety of reasons. In order to look at change in power as the ratio of control to case varies (1:1 to 4:1), we conduct association tests with simulated data generated by PLINK. The simulated data consist of 50 disease SNPs and 300 non-disease SNPs and we compute powers for disease SNPs. Genetic Power Calculator was used for computing powers with varying the ratio of control to case (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1). In this study, we show that gains in statistical power resulting from increasing the ratio of control to case are substantial for the simulated data. Similar results might be expected for real data.

A review of analysis methods for secondary outcomes in case-control studies

  • Schifano, Elizabeth D.
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.103-129
    • /
    • 2019
  • The main goal of a case-control study is to learn the association between various risk factors and a primary outcome (e.g., disease status). Particularly recently, it is also quite common to perform secondary analyses of the case-control data in order to understand certain associations between the risk factors of the primary outcome. It has been repeatedly documented with case-control data, association studies of the risk factors that ignore the case-control sampling scheme can produce highly biased estimates of the population effects. In this article, we review the issues of the naive secondary analyses that do not account for the biased sampling scheme, and also the various methods that have been proposed to account for the case-control ascertainment. We additionally compare the results of many of the discussed methods in an example examining the association of a particular genetic variant with smoking behavior, where the data were obtained from a lung cancer case-control study.

Sample Size and Power Estimation in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies

  • Ahn Chul
    • Genomics & Informatics
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.51-56
    • /
    • 2006
  • In planning a genetic association study, it is necessary to determine the number of samples to be collected for the study in order to achieve sufficient power to detect the hypothesized effect. The case-control design is increasingly used for genetic association studies due to the simplicity of its design. We review the methods for the sample size and power calculations in case-control genetic association studies between a marker locus and a disease phenotype.

Study of Advanced Control for Chemical Process Using the Commercial Package PCTP Based on Model Predictive Control Algorithm (모델예측제어기반 상용 Package PCTP를 이용한 화학공정의 제어 고도화 연구)

  • Park, Jun-Ho;Park, Ho-Cheol;Lee, Moon-Yong
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
    • /
    • v.13 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1128-1136
    • /
    • 2007
  • This paper presents an application study of a model predictive control based commercial package PCTP to real chemical processes. The first case study concerns a product purity control of a splitter process which distillates styrene from undesired component ethyl-benzene produced from ethyl-benzene dehydrogenation reaction. The second case study is about a temperature control of ethyl-benzene dehydrogenation reactor and an excess oxygen control of the fired heater. Optimum control structure for MPC application is developed for each case study. The application results show a significant improvement in control performance and stability.

Sample Size and Statistical Power Calculation in Genetic Association Studies

  • Hong, Eun-Pyo;Park, Ji-Wan
    • Genomics & Informatics
    • /
    • v.10 no.2
    • /
    • pp.117-122
    • /
    • 2012
  • A sample size with sufficient statistical power is critical to the success of genetic association studies to detect causal genes of human complex diseases. Genome-wide association studies require much larger sample sizes to achieve an adequate statistical power. We estimated the statistical power with increasing numbers of markers analyzed and compared the sample sizes that were required in case-control studies and case-parent studies. We computed the effective sample size and statistical power using Genetic Power Calculator. An analysis using a larger number of markers requires a larger sample size. Testing a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker requires 248 cases, while testing 500,000 SNPs and 1 million markers requires 1,206 cases and 1,255 cases, respectively, under the assumption of an odds ratio of 2, 5% disease prevalence, 5% minor allele frequency, complete linkage disequilibrium (LD), 1:1 case/control ratio, and a 5% error rate in an allelic test. Under a dominant model, a smaller sample size is required to achieve 80% power than other genetic models. We found that a much lower sample size was required with a strong effect size, common SNP, and increased LD. In addition, studying a common disease in a case-control study of a 1:4 case-control ratio is one way to achieve higher statistical power. We also found that case-parent studies require more samples than case-control studies. Although we have not covered all plausible cases in study design, the estimates of sample size and statistical power computed under various assumptions in this study may be useful to determine the sample size in designing a population-based genetic association study.

The Effect of Neuro-Muscular Control Training on Vastus Medialis Oblique Activity After Menisectomy of Knee : Case Study (무릎 반월판 절제술 후 신경근 조절 운동이 안쪽빗넓은근의 근활성에 미치는 영향 : 단일사례연구)

  • Kim, Gi-Chul;Seo, Hyun-Kyu
    • The Journal of Korean of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-45
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: The purpose of this study is to identify effects of neuro-muscular control training on vastus medialis oblique (VMO) after menisectomy of the knee. Methods: The subjects of this study are women aged 42 and 39 each who did menisectomy. Case 1 was applied quadriceps setting exercise and neuro-muscular contrlol training and case 2 was applied quadriecps setting. Intervention was done 5 times a week for 2 weeks. Measurement of muscle activity on VMO and vastus lateralis (VL) was standardized signals of each muscle to %RVC using surface EMG. Results: On comparison of exercise before and after on VMO and VL, VL activation of case 2 was increased more than case 1. Conclusion: Quadriecps-setting exercise and selective neuro-muscular control training of VMO is effective intervention on VMO activity and muscle activity ratio of VMO to VL.

Adjusting sampling bias in case-control genetic association studies

  • Seo, Geum Chu;Park, Taesung
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
    • /
    • v.25 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1127-1135
    • /
    • 2014
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are designed to discover genetic variants such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with human complex traits. Although there is an increasing interest in the application of GWAS methodologies to population-based cohorts, many published GWAS have adopted a case-control design, which raise an issue related to a sampling bias of both case and control samples. Because of unequal selection probabilities between cases and controls, the samples are not representative of the population that they are purported to represent. Therefore, non-random sampling in case-control study can potentially lead to inconsistent and biased estimates of SNP-trait associations. In this paper, we proposed inverse-probability of sampling weights based on disease prevalence to eliminate a case-control sampling bias in estimation and testing for association between SNPs and quantitative traits. We apply the proposed method to a data from the Korea Association Resource project and show that the standard estimators applied to the weighted data yield unbiased estimates.

Abdominal Obesity as a Risk Factor of Ischemic Stroke in Case-control study (복부비만과 허혈성 뇌졸중)

  • Yim, Hee-Sun;Ko, Seong-Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.25-36
    • /
    • 2002
  • Objective: The purposes of this study are to know the relations of abdominal obesity and ischemic stroke and to know what index could represent the abdominal obesity appropriately. Methods. We have done case-control study and recruited 97 ischemic stroke patients and 117 controls. Case is matched by control by individual matching. All participants had questionnaire, interview and then were examined waist-hip ratio, waist circumference and body mass index. Results : WC, WHR and Hypertension history had differences in two groups, case and control groups. But BMI and other factors weren't significant. According to Quartile of Waist Circumference, the two groups had the differences in hypertension history, diabetes history, smoking status, WHR, BMI, and weight and in the Quartile of Waist-Hip Ratio Quartile, past history of hypertension and diabetes, WC, BMI and weight had the significances. Sex, Age Adjusted and Multivariate Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) of WC Quartile are 2.083, 1.628, 4.491 and 4.418, 4.964, 12.306, and in WHR, the Ors are 2.252, 5.743, 15.776 and 2.632, 8.918, 23.596. Conclusions: We knew from these results that abdominal obesity is very important risk factor of ischemic stroke and WHR more than WC is a good indicator of abdominal obesity, so we should reduce the WHR to prevent of ischemic stroke.

  • PDF

Circulating folate levels and colorectal adenoma: a case-control study and a meta-analysis

  • Park, Yeong Mi;Youn, Jiyoung;Cho, Chang Ho;Kim, Sung Hi;Lee, Jung Eun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.11 no.5
    • /
    • pp.419-429
    • /
    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The relationship between folate and colorectal neoplasia remains controversial. We examined the association between serum folate concentrations and colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of Korean adults and conducted a meta-analysis. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Our case-control study included 113 pairs of case and control who underwent colonoscopy and provided blood samples. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression models to obtain the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CIs). For meta-analysis, we identified the relevant studies by searching the PubMed database up to February 2017, included our case-control study and combined the study-specific relative risks (RRs) using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In this case-control study, we included 58 men and 55 women with colorectal adenomas and sex and fasting status matched the controls. We did not find any significant association between the serum folate levels and colorectal adenomas in either men or women. For meta-analysis, a total of eleven studies were included in our analysis and classified into two groups; polyp clearance group (PC) for the studies that included participants who underwent endoscopies and had their polyps removed at baseline; and no polyp clearance group (NPC) for the studies that included participants whose histories of endoscopies were unknown or who underwent their first endoscopies. Four PC (1,311 cases and 1,672 non-cases) and eight NPC studies (3,501 cases and 11,347 non-cases) were included. The combined RRs (95% CIs) comparing the bottom with the top categories of circulating folate levels were 1.07 (0.97-1.18) for the NPC group but 1.45 (1.16-1.74) for the PC group. CONCLUSIONS: Low circulating folate levels were associated with new adenoma formation.

The Effectiveness of a Participatory Road Traffic Safety Education Program for the Elementary School Students (참여 중심 어린이 교통안전교육 프로그램 효과 평가)

  • Shon, Ju-Hyun;Lee, Myung-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.49-60
    • /
    • 2010
  • Objectives: The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of participatory road safety education program for the lower grade in elementary schools. This program was developed based on the Activated Health Education model. Methods: Study design was compromise experimental group pre-post design. 456 students in 8 schools were nonrandomly assigned to study group(n=224) or control(n=232). The students finished self-administered questionnaire before and after education. Collected data was analyzed by using the SPSS. Results: 1. The common relevant factors in road safety knowledge and attitude were 'residential state' and 'experience of traffic accident'. 2. The knowledge showed that the case and control scored at 6.48 and 6.41 points before. After this intervention, the case and control scored at 8.38 and 6.51. The difference of the case was significant(p<0.001). 3. The attitude showed that the case and control scored at 19.67 and 19.63 before. After this, the case and control scored at 19.86 and 19.63. The difference of the case was significant(p<0.05). Conclusion: In order to implement the road safety education, children's socio-demographic characteristics were considered. Because this education was effective in both improving knowledge and attitude and bringing interest, various participatory program will be applied in road safety education for children.