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A Feasibility Study on Thermal Energy Resource in Deep Ocean Water (해양심층수 에너지자원 이용 타당성 분석 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hyop;Kim, Gwang-Tae;Park, Se-Hun;Oh, Wee-Yeong;Kim, Hyeon-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2012
  • Annual power consumption of our country is positioned in the upper percentile in the world, and because the proportion of fossil power generation is high, which ranks the 10th $CO_2$ emission country. In this regard, government has established and is implementing the National Energy Basic Plan to realize to get out of fossilization in energy supply while focusing on securing the technology for renewable energy as well as its commercialization in order to reduce greenhouse gas. Resource recovery technology for deep seawater thermal energy which is one of renewable energies is newly getting attention domestically as well as in overseas for securing resources and environmental improvement as a core technology for multilateral use of marine resources for low carbon and green growth. Economic feasibility analysis was conducted for the research and development as follows on the use of ocean thermal energy conversion and seawater air conditioning. First, in the case of power generation using deep seawater and warm discharge water from ocean thermal energy conversion plant of 1MW level, it is judged that the economic feasibility is insufficient but the feasibility will be significantly improved if we consider not only power generation but also drinking water and certified emission reduction by developing the power plant to the size for commercialization. Second, the economic feasibility for the use of deep seawater as air conditioning for the power plant of 1,000RT level turned out to be very good. Especially, when we consider certified emission reduction, it will be possible to secure sufficient economic feasibility. When we use it in connection with ocean thermal energy conversion, water conversion and agricultural and fishery use, it is judged that economic ripple effect will be significant and therefore it will be necessary to conduct research and development for early commercialization, distribution and diffusion of deep seawater energy.

Analysis of attachment, proliferation and differentiation response of human mesenchymal stem cell to various implant surfaces coated with rhBMP-2 (다양한 rhBMP-2 코팅 임플란트 표면에서의 인간 간엽 줄기세포의 부착, 증식, 분화반응 분석)

  • Lee, In-Ku;Han, In-Ho;Hwang, Sun-Wook;Ryu, Jae-Jun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: In this paper we tried to evaluate the most appropriate surface for rhBMP-2 coating among 4 rough titanium surfaces. Materials and methods: We used machined surface as a control group and anodized, RBM and SLA surfaces as test groups. We coated rhBMP-2 on the 4 surfaces and with uncoated surfaces for each case, we cultured human mesenchymal stem cells on all 8 surfaces. 24 hours after we measured the stem cell' attachment with SEM, and on 3rd, 7th, and 14th days, we checked the cell proliferation and differentiation by using MTT and ALP activity assay. And on the 7th day after the culture, we performed RT-PCR assay to determine whether the expression levels of Type I collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin were changed. Results: We observed with SEM that 4 rhBMP-2 coated surfaces exhibited wider and tighter cell attachment and more cell process spreading than uncoated surfaces. The anodized rhBMP-2 surface caused robustest effects. In MTT assay we could not find any meaningful difference. In ALP assay there was a significant increase (P<.05) in the ALP activity of anodized rhBMP-2 coated surface compared with that of the control (3rd and 14th days) and with that of the RBM rhBMP-2 coated surface (14th day). In RT-PCR assay there was increased expressions in the anodized rhBMP-2 coated surface for osteocalcin, and osteopontin. Conclusion: We found that the anodized rhBMP-2 coated surface were most prominent stem cell attachment and differentiation in compared to control and Machined rhBMP-2 coated, RBM rhBMP-2 coated surface.

Analysis of bone bruise associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury (전방십자인대 손상과 관련된 골멍의 패턴 분석)

  • Jung, Dae-Won;Kim, Chang-Wan;Baik, Jong-Min;Seo, Seung-Suk
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and bone bruise using the survey for location and incidence of bone bruise. Materials and Methods: From Jan. 2006 to Feb. 2010, 87 knees from who had complaint a traumatic knee pain were diagnosed as acute ACL tear using MRI evaluation. Associated injury, location and incidence of bone bruise were analyzed using MRI. The location of bone bruise on the MRI was classified as medial, central and lateral area on anteroposterior and lateral view of femur and tibia. The bone bruise was classified with Costa Paz classification. Results: Bone bruise of injury during daily living activity were located at medial area on coronary view and anterior area on sagittal view of distal femur, at medial area on coronary view and anterior area on sagittal view of proximal tibia (p=0.024, p=0.021, p=0.025 and p=0.029, respectively). Bone bruise of injury during sports activity were located at lateral area on coronary view and central area on sagittal view of distal femur, at lateral area on coronary view and posterior area on sagittal view of proximal tibia (p=0.014, p=0.015, p=0.018 and p=0.017, respectively). Bone bruise patterns due to traffic accident were inconclusive (p=0.264, p=0.254, p=0.229 and p=0.267, respectively). Conclusion: Injury mechanism of acute ACL injury from activities of daily living or sports activities compared to that of traffic accident showed a more consistent bone bruise patterns. Special attention to acute ACL tear must be paid in case of bone bruise at lateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle.

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The study of quantitative analytical method for pH and moisture of Hanji record paper using non-destructive FT-NIR spectroscopy (비파괴 분석 방법인 푸리에 변환 근적외선 분광 분석을 이용한 한지 기록물의 산성도 및 함수율 정량 분석 연구)

  • Shin, Yong-Min;Park, Soung-Be;Lee, Chang-Yong;Kim, Chan-Bong;Lee, Seong-Uk;Cho, Won-Bo;Kim, Hyo-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2012
  • It is essential to evaluate the quality of Hanji record paper without damaging the record paper by previous destructive methods. The samples were Hanji record paper produced in the 1900s. Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer was used as a non destructive method for evaluating the quality of record papers. Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer was used with 12,500 to 4,000 $cm^{-1}$ wavenumber range for quantitative analysis and it has high accuracy and good signal-to-noise ratio. The acidity and moisture content of Hanji record paper were measured by integrating sphere as diffuse reflectance type. The acidity (pH) of chemical factors as a quality evaluated factor of Hanji was correlated to NIR spectrum. The NIR spectrum was pretreated to obtain the coefficients of optimum correlation. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and First derivative of Savitzky-Golay were used as pretreated methods. The coefficients of optimum correlation were calculated by PLSR (partial least square regression). The correlation coefficients ($R^2$) of acidity had 0.92 on NIR spectra without pretreatment. Also the standard error of prediction (SEP) of pH was 0.24. And then the NIR spectra with pretreatment would have better correlation coefficient ($R^2$ = 0.98) and 0.19 as SEP on pH. For moisture contents, the linearity correlation without pretreatment was higher than the case with pretreatment (MSC, $1^{st}$ derivative). As the best result, the $R^2$ was 0.99 and SEP was 0.45. This indicates that it is highly proper to evaluate the quality of Hanji record papers speedily with integrated sphere and FT NIR analyzer as a non-destructive method.

Understanding the Mismatch between ERP and Organizational Information Needs and Its Responses: A Study based on Organizational Memory Theory (조직의 정보 니즈와 ERP 기능과의 불일치 및 그 대응책에 대한 이해: 조직 메모리 이론을 바탕으로)

  • Jeong, Seung-Ryul;Bae, Uk-Ho
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.21-38
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    • 2012
  • Until recently, successful implementation of ERP systems has been a popular topic among ERP researchers, who have attempted to identify its various contributing factors. None of these efforts, however, explicitly recognize the need to identify disparities that can exist between organizational information requirements and ERP systems. Since ERP systems are in fact "packages" -that is, software programs developed by independent software vendors for sale to organizations that use them-they are designed to meet the general needs of numerous organizations, rather than the unique needs of a particular organization, as is the case with custom-developed software. By adopting standard packages, organizations can substantially reduce many of the potential implementation risks commonly associated with custom-developed software. However, it is also true that the nature of the package itself could be a risk factor as the features and functions of the ERP systems may not completely comply with a particular organization's informational requirements. In this study, based on the organizational memory mismatch perspective that was derived from organizational memory theory and cognitive dissonance theory, we define the nature of disparities, which we call "mismatches," and propose that the mismatch between organizational information requirements and ERP systems is one of the primary determinants in the successful implementation of ERP systems. Furthermore, we suggest that customization efforts as a coping strategy for mismatches can play a significant role in increasing the possibilities of success. In order to examine the contention we propose in this study, we employed a survey-based field study of ERP project team members, resulting in a total of 77 responses. The results of this study show that, as anticipated from the organizational memory mismatch perspective, the mismatch between organizational information requirements and ERP systems makes a significantly negative impact on the implementation success of ERP systems. This finding confirms our hypothesis that the more mismatch there is, the more difficult successful ERP implementation is, and thus requires more attention to be drawn to mismatch as a major failure source in ERP implementation. This study also found that as a coping strategy on mismatch, the effects of customization are significant. In other words, utilizing the appropriate customization method could lead to the implementation success of ERP systems. This is somewhat interesting because it runs counter to the argument of some literature and ERP vendors that minimized customization (or even the lack thereof) is required for successful ERP implementation. In many ERP projects, there is a tendency among ERP developers to adopt default ERP functions without any customization, adhering to the slogan of "the introduction of best practices." However, this study asserts that we cannot expect successful implementation if we don't attempt to customize ERP systems when mismatches exist. For a more detailed analysis, we identified three types of mismatches-Non-ERP, Non-Procedure, and Hybrid. Among these, only Non-ERP mismatches (a situation in which ERP systems cannot support the existing information needs that are currently fulfilled) were found to have a direct influence on the implementation of ERP systems. Neither Non-Procedure nor Hybrid mismatches were found to have significant impact in the ERP context. These findings provide meaningful insights since they could serve as the basis for discussing how the ERP implementation process should be defined and what activities should be included in the implementation process. They show that ERP developers may not want to include organizational (or business processes) changes in the implementation process, suggesting that doing so could lead to failed implementation. And in fact, this suggestion eventually turned out to be true when we found that the application of process customization led to higher possibilities of failure. From these discussions, we are convinced that Non-ERP is the only type of mismatch we need to focus on during the implementation process, implying that organizational changes must be made before, rather than during, the implementation process. Finally, this study found that among the various customization approaches, bolt-on development methods in particular seemed to have significantly positive effects. Interestingly again, this finding is not in the same line of thought as that of the vendors in the ERP industry. The vendors' recommendations are to apply as many best practices as possible, thereby resulting in the minimization of customization and utilization of bolt-on development methods. They particularly advise against changing the source code and rather recommend employing, when necessary, the method of programming additional software code using the computer language of the vendor. As previously stated, however, our study found active customization, especially bolt-on development methods, to have positive effects on ERP, and found source code changes in particular to have the most significant effects. Moreover, our study found programming additional software to be ineffective, suggesting there is much difference between ERP developers and vendors in viewpoints and strategies toward ERP customization. In summary, mismatches are inherent in the ERP implementation context and play an important role in determining its success. Considering the significance of mismatches, this study proposes a new model for successful ERP implementation, developed from the organizational memory mismatch perspective, and provides many insights by empirically confirming the model's usefulness.

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A Study on Location Selection for Rainwater Circulation System Elements at a City Level - Focusing on the Application of the Environmental and Ecological Plan of a Development - (도시차원의 빗물순환체계 요소별 입지선정에 관한 연구 - 개발예정지역의 환경생태계획 적용방안을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hyo-Min;Kim, Kwi-Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2012
  • This study focused on establishing a natural rainwater circulation system using rainwater meant for relatively large urban development projects such as a new town development. In particular, when the location selection techniques for individual elements of a natural rainwater circulation system are developed for the integrated rainwater management, changes in hydrological environment will be minimized and the natural water circulation would be restored to realize the low impact development (LID). In that case, not only the excess will be reduced but water space and green areas in a city would also increase to improve the urban sustainability. First of all, there were five elements selected for the location selection of a rainwater circulation system intended for the integrated rainwater management: rainwater collection, infiltration, filtration, retention and movement spaces. After generating these items, the location selection items and criteria were defined for each of the five elements. For a technique to apply the generated evaluation items and criteria, a grid cell analysis was conducted based m the suitability index theory, and thematic maps were overlapped through suitability assessment of each element and graded based on the suitability index. The priority areas were identified for each element. The developed technique was applied to a site where Gim-cheon Innovation City development is planned to review its feasibility and limitations. The combined score of the overlapped map for each element was separated into five levels: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. Finally, it was concluded that creating a rainwater circulation system conceptual map m the current land use plan based on the outcome of the application would be useful in building a water circulation system at the de1ailed space planning stage after environmental and ecological planning. Furthermore, we use the results of this study as a means for environment-friendly urban planning for sustainable urban development.

A Study on Stable Isotope Ratio of Circulated Honey in Korea (국내 유통 벌꿀의 안정동위원소 비율에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Yoon-Jae;Kim, Jae-Young;Chang, Moon-Ik;Kang, Kyung-Mo;Park, Yong-Chjun;Kang, Il-Hyun;Do, Jung-Ah;Kwon, Ki-Sung;Oh, Jae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.401-410
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    • 2012
  • This study examines the authenticity discrimination of the circulated honey by using stable isotope ratio methods. In the case of domestic honey, the range of ${\delta}^{13}C$ for the samples labeled as pure honey was about -27- -21‰ at the $C_3$ origin, and the range of that for artificial honey was over -19‰ at the $C_4$ origin. The range of ${\delta}^{13}C$ for all imported honey was over -27- -23‰ originating from the $C_3$ plant. According to the nectar-source, ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$ for domestic honey were significantly different for 6 and 5 groups, respectively. However, we could not explain the detailed relationship as well as the geographical feature of ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$. The difference for ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$ in the wide range of latitude, such as between Australia and Canada, was more or less shown. However, it was difficult to find out the trends of ${\delta}^2H$ and ${\delta}^{18}O$ for imported honey versus the geographical information in the similar latitudinal country.

Evaluation of Runoff‧Peak Rate Runoff and Sediment Yield under Various Rainfall Intensities and Patterns Using WEPP Watershed Model (다양한 강우강도 및 패턴에 따른 WEPP 모형의 유출‧첨두유출‧토양유실량 평가)

  • Choi, Jae-Wan;Ryu, Ji-Chul;Kim, Ik-Jae;Lim, Kyoung-Jae
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.795-804
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    • 2012
  • Recently, changes in rainfall intensity and patterns have been causing increasing soil loss worldwide. As a result, the water ecosystem becomes worse and crops yield are reduced with soil loss and nutrient loss with it. Many studies have been proposed to estimate runoff and soil loss to predict or decrease non-point source pollution. Although the USLE has been used for many years in estimating soil losses, the USLE cannot reflect effects on soil loss of changes in rainfall intensity and patterns. The WEPP, physically based model, is capable of predicting soil loss and runoff using various rainfall intensity. In this study, the WEPP model was simulated for sediment yield, runoff and peak runoff using data of 5, 10, 30, 60 minute term rainfall, Huff's method and design rainfall. In case of rainfall interval of 5 minutes and 60 minutes, the sediment and runoff values decreased by 24% and 19%, respectively. The peak rate runoff values decreased by 16% when rainfall interval changed from 5 minutes to 60 minutes, indicating the peak rate runoff values are affected by rainfall intensity to some degrees. As a result of simulating using Huff's method, all values (sediment yield, runoff, peak runoff) were found to be the greatest at third quartile. According to the analysis under various design rainfall conditions (2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300 years frequency), sediment yield, runoff, and peak runoff of 906.2%, 249.4% and 183.9% were estimated using 2 year to 300 year frequency rainfall data.

Role Formation by Interaction Function and Pattern for Group Discussion Activity using the case of Environmental Education Camp for Undergraduate Student (대학생 환경교육캠프 사례에서의 집단 토의 활동에 있어서 상호작용 기능과 양상에 따른 역할 형성 양상)

  • Jung, Won-Young;Lee, Go-Eun;Shin, Hyeon-Jeong;Cha, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Chan-Jong
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.555-569
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    • 2012
  • Many science education research and practices are recently emphasizing the importance of collaborative learning. This study also understands learning in aspects of socio-cultural context, and regarded the creation of meaning in a same-age group as an important learning process. This is most especially true in the premise that the formation of roles in a collaborative learning is important for successful interactive learning. This study aims to find out how roles form in a group. For this purpose, university students participating in a group discussion activity about energy flow and circulation of material were selected as research participants. Discussions among the nine students in one group consisted of cognitive conversations on the topic and operational conversations for preparing a presentation. Video-clips of the discussions were made and transcribed. For the analysis, we developed a framework that includes four interaction functions (cognitive, organizational, meta-cognitive, operational), four action elements (question, simple answer, providing opinion, response to opinion), and two to four intention elements by each action elements. As a result, a total of nine roles were revealed through the interaction function and element; cognitive questioner, operational questioner, simple answerer, operational suggester, organizational commander, operational commander, cognitive explainer, terminator, reflective thinker. These roles are re-classified into seven utterance patterns by the utterance order and object, and they were categorized into three role groups (facilitating interaction, sustaining interaction, finishing interaction). The result means that role formation and function can have influence on learning and interaction. This study is meaningful to the suggestion to collaborative learning including project-based learning, investigation, club activity, and for the re-illumination of the role in an aspect of the interaction.

Evaluation of Setup Uncertainty on the CTV Dose and Setup Margin Using Monte Carlo Simulation (몬테칼로 전산모사를 이용한 셋업오차가 임상표적체적에 전달되는 선량과 셋업마진에 대하여 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Cho, Il-Sung;Kwark, Jung-Won;Cho, Byung-Chul;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Ahn, Seung-Do;Park, Sung-Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2012
  • The effect of setup uncertainties on CTV dose and the correlation between setup uncertainties and setup margin were evaluated by Monte Carlo based numerical simulation. Patient specific information of IMRT treatment plan for rectal cancer designed on the VARIAN Eclipse planning system was utilized for the Monte Carlo simulation program including the planned dose distribution and tumor volume information of a rectal cancer patient. The simulation program was developed for the purpose of the study on Linux environment using open source packages, GNU C++ and ROOT data analysis framework. All misalignments of patient setup were assumed to follow the central limit theorem. Thus systematic and random errors were generated according to the gaussian statistics with a given standard deviation as simulation input parameter. After the setup error simulations, the change of dose in CTV volume was analyzed with the simulation result. In order to verify the conventional margin recipe, the correlation between setup error and setup margin was compared with the margin formula developed on three dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The simulation was performed total 2,000 times for each simulation input of systematic and random errors independently. The size of standard deviation for generating patient setup errors was changed from 1 mm to 10 mm with 1 mm step. In case for the systematic error the minimum dose on CTV $D_{min}^{stat{\cdot}}$ was decreased from 100.4 to 72.50% and the mean dose $\bar{D}_{syst{\cdot}}$ was decreased from 100.45% to 97.88%. However the standard deviation of dose distribution in CTV volume was increased from 0.02% to 3.33%. The effect of random error gave the same result of a reduction of mean and minimum dose to CTV volume. It was found that the minimum dose on CTV volume $D_{min}^{rand{\cdot}}$ was reduced from 100.45% to 94.80% and the mean dose to CTV $\bar{D}_{rand{\cdot}}$ was decreased from 100.46% to 97.87%. Like systematic error, the standard deviation of CTV dose ${\Delta}D_{rand}$ was increased from 0.01% to 0.63%. After calculating a size of margin for each systematic and random error the "population ratio" was introduced and applied to verify margin recipe. It was found that the conventional margin formula satisfy margin object on IMRT treatment for rectal cancer. It is considered that the developed Monte-carlo based simulation program might be useful to study for patient setup error and dose coverage in CTV volume due to variations of margin size and setup error.