• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carcass traits

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Analysis of environment effects on the carcass traits Hanwoo cows using ultrasonic measurement

  • Choi, Tae-Jeong;Lee, Sang-Jae;Park, Jong-Eun;Lim, Dajeong;Cho, Yong-Min;Park, Byoungho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2018
  • Hanwoo is an important livestock resource in Korea. Its genetic improvements of economic traits have mainly focused on the steers in the past. However, there is a great necessity to extend the breed improvement programs to the cows as well. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various environmental factors (person taking the measurement, region, year of measurement, month of measurement, image interpreter, birth-year and birth-year) on ultrasound measured carcass traits. A total of 27,215 ultrasound measurements of carcass traits were recorded between 2004 and 2012 for 22,620 cows born from 1997 to 2011. The ultrasound measures included backfat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR). The mean values for the BFT, EMA and MAR were 4.46 mm, $56.24cm^2$, and 4.12 point, respectively. Seven environmental factors, person taking the measurement, region, year of measurement, month of measurement, image interpreter, birth-year and birth-month, were tested to determine if they had a significant effect on the studied traits using the GLM procedure in SAS. All factors were found to significantly affect all the ultrasound carcass traits in this study. Unlike in previous studies, among the environmental effects, the significant effect of the image interpreter on the ultrasound carcass traits was shown for the first time in this study. These results indicate that future genetic evaluations of ultrasound carcass traits of Hanwoo cows should include all of the above environmental factors as well as the effect from people taking the measurements.

Genetic correlation between live body measurements and beef cutability traits in Hanwoo steers

  • Choy, Yun Ho;Lee, Jae Goo;Mahboob, Alam;Choi, Tae Jeong;Rho, Seung Hee
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.1074-1080
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The growth, carcass and retail cut yield records on 1,428 Hanwoo steers obtained through progeny testing were analyzed in this study, and their heritability and genetic relationships among the traits were estimated using animal models. Methods: Two different models were compared in this study. Each model was fitted for different fixed class effects, date of slaughter for carcass traits and batch of progeny test live measurement traits, and a choice of covariates (carcass weight in Model 1 or backfat thickness in Model 2) for carcass traits. Results: The differences in body composition among individuals were deemed being unaffected by their age at slaughter, except for carcass weight and backfat thickness. Heritability estimates of body size measurements were 0.21 to 0.36. Heritability estimates of retail cut percentage were high (0.56 from Model 1 and 0.47 from Model 2). And the heritability estimates for loin muscle percentage were 0.36 from Model 1 and 0.42 from Model 2, which were high enough to consider direct selection on carcass cutability traits as effective. The genetic correlations between body size measurements and retail cut ratio (RCR) were close to zero. But, some negative genetic correlations were found with chest girths measured at yearling (Model 1) or at 24 months of age or with chest widths. Loin muscle ratio (LMR) was genetically negatively correlated with body weights or body size measurements, in general in Model 1. These relationships were low close to zero but positive in Model 2. Phenotypic correlation between cutability traits (RCR, LMR) and live body size measurements were moderate and negative in Model 1 while those in Model 2 were all close to zero. Conclusion: Therefore, the body weights or linear body measurements at an earlier age may not be the most desirable selection traits for exploitation of correlated responses to improve loin muscle or lean meat yield.

Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase α(ACACA) Gene on Carcass Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

  • Shin, Sung-Chul;Heo, Jae-Pil;Chung, Eui-Ryong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.744-751
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    • 2011
  • Meat production and quality traits in beef cattle are largely affected by genetic factors. Acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase-${\alpha}$ (ACACA) plays a key role in the regulation and metabolism of fatty acid biosynthesis in mammalian animals. The gene encoding ACACA enzyme was chosen as a candidate gene for carcass and meat traits. In this study, we investigated effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ACACA gene on beef carcass and meat traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) populations. We have sequenced a fragment of intron I region of the Hanwoo ACACA gene and identified two SNPs. Genotyping of the two SNP markers (g.2344T>C and g.2447C>A) was carried out using PCR-SSCP analysis in 309 Hanwoo steers to evaluate their association with carcass and meat production traits. The g.2344C SNP marker showed a significant increasing effect on LW (p = 0.009) and CW (p = 0.017). Animals with the CC genotype had higher CW and LW compared with TT and TC genotypes (p<0.05). The g.2447A SNP marker was associated with higher MC (p = 0.019). Animals with the AA genotype had higher MC than animals with CC and CA genotypes (p<0.05). Although the degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) was not strong between g.2344T>C and g.2447C>A in the LD analysis, four major haplotype classes were formed with two SNP information within the ACACA gene. We constructed haplotypes using the HaploView software package program and analyzed association between haplotypes and carcass traits. The haplotype of ACACA gene significantly affected the LW (p = 0.027), CW (p = 0.041) and MC (p = 0.036). The effect of h1 haplotype on LW and CW was larger than that of h3 haplotype. Animals with the h1 haplotype also had greater MC than did animals with h2 haplotype. Consequently, the ACACA gene could be useful as a DNA marker for meat production traits such as carcass yield and meat contents in Hanwoo.

Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

  • Koh, Daeyoung;Lee, Jeongkoo;Won, Seunggun;Lee, Chaeyoung;Kim, Jongbok
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1387-1393
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye muscle area (EMA), marbling (MAR), and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP) as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP), trimmed fats (TFW and TFP) and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP) as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95) and TFW (0.73), but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02). The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (-0.63), but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70). Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60) and RCP (0.72). The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (-0.64). The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, -0.90, and -0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass.

Analysis of the influence of sex, slaughter season, and feeding system on carcass traits in Hanwoo

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Ji-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sex, environmental factors, and feeding system on the carcass traits of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle). Data were collected from 7,866 heads slaughtered in Chungnam province during one-year period. Using the collected carcass traits data which greatly influence a Hanwoo's carcass grade, the effects of sex class, slaughter season, and feeding system were estimated. Backfat thickness of steers was significantly higher than that of bulls (p < 0.05). Marbling score was also the highest in steers when compared with cows and bulls (p < 0.05). Live weight and carcass weight were significantly higher in winter than in summer (p < 0.05). However, backfat thickness was significantly lower in summer than in other seasons (p < 0.05). Marbling score was higher in spring and fall than in summer and winter (p < 0.05). In terms of feeding systems, TMR (Total mixed ration) and TMF (Total mixed fermentation feed) fed groups showed the highest carcass grade (p < 0.05). However, the group fed TMR and formula feed at the final fattening period showed the lowest performance (p < 0.05) and it is assumed that some stress was associated to the feed change. The results reconfirm that castration may be recommended in order to improve meat quality and marbling scores in bulls. There was no consistent trend of seasonal effects of slaughter on carcass traits although some traits were significantly affected. Regarding the feeding system, either TMR or TMF can be supplied to achieve high feed efficiency and good carcass characteristics in Hanwoo.

Estimation of Relative Economic Weights of Hanwoo Carcass Traits Based on Carcass Market Price

  • Choy, Yun-Ho;Park, Byoung-Ho;Choi, Tae-Jung;Choi, Jae-Gwan;Cho, Kwang-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Soo;Choi, You-Lim;Koh, Kyung-Chul;Kim, Hyo-Sun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1667-1673
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of Hanwoo carcass traits that can be used to build economic selection indexes for selection of seedstocks. Data from carcass measures for determining beef yield and quality grades were collected and provided by the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation (KAPE). Out of 1,556,971 records, 476,430 records collected from 13 abattoirs from 2008 to 2010 after deletion of outlying observations were used to estimate relative economic weights of bid price per kg carcass weight on cold carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) and the phenotypic relationships among component traits. Price of carcass tended to increase linearly as yield grades or quality grades, in marginal or in combination, increased. Partial regression coefficients for MS, EMA, BF, and for CW in original scales were +948.5 won/score, +27.3 $won/cm^2$, -95.2 won/mm and +7.3 won/kg when all three sex categories were taken into account. Among four grade determining traits, relative economic weight of MS was the greatest. Variations in partial regression coefficients by sex categories were great but the trends in relative weights for each carcass measures were similar. Relative economic weights of four traits in integer values when standardized measures were fit into covariance model were +4:+1:-1:+1 for MS:EMA:BF:CW. Further research is required to account for the cost of production per unit carcass weight or per unit production under different economic situations.

A whole genome association study to detect additive and dominant single nucleotide polymorphisms for growth and carcass traits in Korean native cattle, Hanwoo

  • Li, Yi;Gao, Yuxuan;Kim, You-Sam;Iqbal, Asif;Kim, Jong-Joo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.8-19
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    • 2017
  • Objective: A whole genome association study was conducted to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with additive and dominant effects for growth and carcass traits in Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. Methods: The data set comprised 61 sires and their 486 Hanwoo steers that were born between spring of 2005 and fall of 2007. The steers were genotyped with the 35,968 SNPs that were embedded in the Illumina bovine SNP 50K beadchip and six growth and carcass quality traits were measured for the steers. A series of lack-of-fit tests between the models was applied to classify gene expression pattern as additive or dominant. Results: A total of 18 (0), 15 (3), 12 (8), 15 (18), 11 (7), and 21 (1) SNPs were detected at the 5% chromosome (genome) - wise level for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA) and marbling score, respectively. Among the significant 129 SNPs, 56 SNPs had additive effects, 20 SNPs dominance effects, and 53 SNPs both additive and dominance effects, suggesting that dominance inheritance mode be considered in genetic improvement for growth and carcass quality in Hanwoo. The significant SNPs were located at 33 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions on 18 Bos Taurus chromosomes (i.e. BTA 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 26, 28, and 29) were detected. There is strong evidence that BTA14 is the key chromosome affecting CWT. Also, BTA20 is the key chromosome for almost all traits measured (WWT, YWT, LMA). Conclusion: The application of various additive and dominance SNP models enabled better characterization of SNP inheritance mode for growth and carcass quality traits in Hanwoo, and many of the detected SNPs or QTL had dominance effects, suggesting that dominance be considered for the whole-genome SNPs data and implementation of successive molecular breeding schemes in Hanwoo.

Relationship of Slaughter Age and Carcass Traits of Hanwoo Cattle

  • Panjono, Panjono;Kang, Sun-Moon;Lee, Ik-Sun;Kim, Yeong-Jong;Lee, Sung-Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.550-556
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    • 2009
  • Two experiments were carried out to investigate the relationship of slaughter age and carcass traits of Hanwoo cattle. A total number of 11,284 heads of cattle (4,624 bulls, 6,120 steers, and 540 females) were used in the experiment (Exp.) 1. In the Exp. 2, 3,887 heads of steers slaughtered at age of 24-36 mon were used. After 24 h post-slaughter chilling, the carcasses were weighed and evaluated by an official grader of carcass traits according to the Korean carcass grading standard. Backfat thickness was the main variable in yield index and grade whereas marbling score was the main variable in carcass quality grade. Meat color was an important factor affecting carcass quality grade of bulls; fat color was an important factor affecting those of steers and females; and maturity was an important factor affecting that of females. After 24-mon-old, extension of slaughter age did not automatically increase the quantity and quality of meat. However, 29 mon of age can be regarded as the optimum time to slaughter steers to attain the highest take home money for farmers.

Effects of Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy on the Body Weight, Muscle Fiber Number, Carcass Traits, and Pork Quality Traits of Offspring

  • Choe, J.H.;Choi, Y.M.;Ryu, Y.C.;Lee, S.H.;Kim, B.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.965-971
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of different maternal nutrition treatments during pregnancy on body weight, muscle fiber number, carcass traits, and pork quality traits of offspring. A total of 18 crossbred sows (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire${\times}$Duroc) were randomly assigned to one of three nutritional treatment groups; control, high energy, and high protein. The control group was fed a standard diet, the high energy group was fed a diet that contained 30% increased metabolizable energy, and the high protein group was fed a diet that contained 30% increased limiting amino acids compared to the control. The sows in each group were fed equal quantities of each diet (1.9 kg/d) for the entire gestational period. A total of 36 piglets from each sow were used to evaluate changes in body weight, muscle fiber number in the longissimus dorsi muscle at birth, carcass traits, and pork quality traits. Birth weight of offspring born to sows in the high energy diet group was significantly higher compared to the high protein diet group (p<0.05). However, body weight of offspring after birth was not significantly different between the groups. Muscle fiber number for the longissimus dorsi muscle at birth was not significantly different between the groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in carcass traits or pork quality traits between offspring born to sows in the control group and those born to sows that received high energy or high protein diets during pregnancy. Based on these results, it appears that maternal nutrition treatment during pregnancy, regardless of whether it is with high energy or high protein diets, does not have a significant effect on body weight, muscle fiber number at birth, carcass traits, or pork quality traits.

Genetic Effects of Molecular Markers Related to Carcass Traits in Hanwoo Cattle (한우 도체형질 관련 분자표지의 유전적 효과)

  • Shin, Sung-Chul;Chung, Eui-Ryong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 2020
  • Carcass traits are the most economically important traits in Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Recently, the development of the field of genomics has made it possible to identify DNA markers for the genetic evaluation of carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers related to carcass traits by field evaluations in a commercial Hanwoo population. We evaluated 15 SNP markers (TG g.371T>C, APM1 g.1454G>A, FABP4 g.2834C>G, FABP4 g.3533T>A, FABP4 g.3691G>A, SCD g.10153A>G, SCD g.10329T >C, CPE g.601T>C, EDG1 g.166A>G, NPY g.4271T>C, GPD1 g.2766C>T, PDE1B g.17122A>G, PDE1B g.17507A>C, TNNT1 g.6650C>T, and RORC g.20152A>G) related to carcass traits in Hanwoo. Genotyping of these SNP markers was performed using PCR-RFLP analysis in Hanwoo steers (n = 1,536) to evaluate their association with carcass traits. Seven SNPs, APM1 g.1454G>, FABP4 g.3691G>A, SCD g.10153A>G, CPE g.601T>C, PDE1B g.17122A>G, TNNT1 g.6650C>T, and RORC g.20152A>G, were significantly associated with carcass traits such as marbling score (MS), backfat thickness (BF), musculus longissimus dorsi area (LDA), carcass weight (CW), meat grade (MG), meat color (MC), and maturity score (MA). The results suggest that these SNPs may be used as DNA markers for the selection of Hanwoo with higher meat quality.