• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carcass Weight

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GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF THE OMANI DHOFARI CATTLE 2. DISTRIBUTION OF CARCASS TISSUES

  • Mahgoub, O.;Olvey, F.H.;Jeffrey, D.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.617-625
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    • 1995
  • Distribution of wholesale carcass cuts and tissues was studied in Omani Dhofari bulls and steers raised under intensive management and slaughtered over a range of 110 to 210 kg body weight. The fore quarter of Dhofari cattle carcasses was heavier than the hind quarter with the chuck being the heaviest cut in the half carcass followed by the round whereas the flank was the lightest cut. Proportions of the fore quarter and its cuts increased whereas that of the hind quarter and its cuts decreased with increasing carcass weight. The fore quarter contained higher proportions of carcass tissues especially intermuscular fat than the hind quarter. The chuck and round contained the highest proportions of lean and bone and the flank the least. There was a general trend of increasing proportions of fat and decreasing proportions of lean and bone in carcass cuts and fore and hind quarters with increasing slaughter weight and age. As % total body fat (TBF), total carcass fat (TCF) increased whereas total non-carcass fat (TNCF) decreased. The largest proportion of TBF was deposited in the intermuscular site. Among the TNCF depots, the kidney and omental contributed the highest proportions whereas the pelvic and channel were the lowest. Proportions of M. rhomboideus and M. splenius increased in the half carcass whereas that of M. semitendinosus decreased as the cattle increased in size. The axial skeleton contributed 47.4-51.1, the fore limb 21.6-22.6 and the hind limb 23.9-26.2% of the total carcass bone. Proportions of axial skeleton increased whereas that of fore and hind limbs decreased with increasing slaughter weight and age. There were no major effects of castration on the distribution of weight of carcass cuts or carcass tissues. Steers had higher total body fat at 160 kg body weight and higher proportions of mesenteric, scrotal, pelvic, kidney and total non-carcass fat at 210 kg weight than bulls. As % of total body fat, steers fad significantly higher kidney and total non-carcass fat. There was little effects of castration on proportions of dimensions of individual muscles or bones.

A STANDARD METHOD FOR JOINTING CAMEL CARCASSES WITH REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF SLAUGHTER AGE ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN NAJDI CAMELS. I. WHOLESALE CUT WEIGHT

  • Abouheif, M.A.;Basmaeil, S.M.;Bakkar, M.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 1990
  • A procedure to standardize camel carcass fabrication is proposed. This includes a definitive method of jointing the carcass into wholesale neck, shoulder, brisket, rib, plate, loin, flank, rump and leg cuts. Carcass cutout data were collected from the right sides of 21 Najdi male camels averaging 8, 16 and 26 months of age in order to determine the influence of age on the weight of each wholesale cut. The weight of body, empty body, hot carcass, cold carcass, hump fat, kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH) and each wholesale cut increased (p < .01) with age. Except for percent shrinkage and wholesale rump weight, all studied traits increased (p < .01) linearly as the age increased. This change was most pronounced in wholesale flank and plate cuts, increasing by 4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively, while the rump and shoulder cuts changed the least, increasing by 1.8 and 1.9 times, respectively. Allometric growth coefficients indicated that as the camel grew, the weight of rib, brisket, plate and flank cuts increased relatively more rapidly than did cold carcass or empty body weight and that the weight of wholesale shoulder, neck, leg and rump increased less rapidly than did cold carcass or empty body weight.

Effects of Carcass Weight and Back-fat Thickness on Carcass Properties of Korean Native Pigs

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2017
  • Our study analyzed the carcass properties of 170 Korean native pigs in relation to carcass weight and back-fat thickness to provide general data for the production and distribution of high quality pig meat. The 70-74 kg group showed highest yield (73.41%). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the highest thickest back-fat (24.13 mm) (p<0.05). The ${\geq}80kg$ group showed the best quality grade (1.00). Back-fat thickness showed significant differences in the weight among groups (p<0.05). The ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest carcass weight (75.93 kg). The thickest back-fat group (${\geq}25mm$) showed the highest yield (73.03%). There were significant differences in back-fat thickness among groups (p<0.05), and the ${\geq}25mm$ group showed the highest thickness back-fat (27.60 mm). We found a strong positive correlation between carcass weight and back-fat thickness (r=0.346) as well as meat quality grade (r=0.739). Backfat thickness had a relatively strong positive correlation with meat quality grade (r=0.444). Therefore, there are required to manage the breeding through selection of excellent native species for increasing their carcass weight and enhance meat quality.

Relationships of Concentrations of Endocrine Factors at Antemortem and Postmortem Periods to Carcass Weight and Backfat Thickness in Pigs

  • Yun, J.S.;Seo, D.S.;Rhee, M.S.;Oh, S.;Kim, B.C.;Ko, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 2003
  • Carcass weight and backfat thickness are two of important elements in determining the carcass trait in pigs and are studied on animal genetics, nutrition, and endocrinology. Growth factors stimulate or inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of various cells. In particular, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-$\beta$, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are involved in the growth and maintenance of muscle. Also, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol are known to be related to the obesity and subcutaneous fat depth in pigs. Therefore, this study was performed to relate growth factors (IGFs, TGF-${\beta}1$, and EGF) and hormones (cortisol and DHEA-S) concentrations at antemortem and postmortem periods to carcass traits including carcass weight and backfat thickness. Blood and m. Longissimus were collected in pigs at antemortem (30 days before slaughter) and postmortem periods. After slaughtered, carcass weight and backfat thickness were measured. Growth factors and hormones in serum and m. Longissimus were measured by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked imuunosorbent assay. Before antemortem period, serum IGF-I and -II concentrations were positively correlated with the carcass weight and backfat thickness in gilts, and the concentrations of TGF- ${\beta}1$ and cortisol in barrows show the correlation with only carcass weight. Also, the positive correlations of muscular IGFs and TGF-${\beta}1$ at postmortem 45 min with the carcass weight and backfat thickness were detected. Consequently, these results suggest that the serum and muscular endocrine factors are involved in the carcass weight and backfat thickness in pigs.

Effect of Levels of Concentrate Supplement on Live Weight Gain and Carcass Characteristics in Sheep on Restricted Grazing

  • Mazumder, M.A.R.;Hossain, M.M.;Akhter, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.17-20
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    • 1998
  • Sixteen local sheep (8 male + 8 female) of about six months old with average live weight 10.78 $({\pm}1.11)$ kg were allocated into four treatments. The treatments (T) are : $T_0$ = Restricted grazing without concentrate; $T_1$, $T_2$ and $T_3$ = Grazing + 100, 200 and 300 g concentrate per sheep daily. Live weight of grazing (7.30 hrs daily) sheep was recorded in each week. The uncastrated male sheep were slaughtered for carcass and non-carcass parameters. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed in live weight gain (g/day) among the treatments ($T_0=15.71$; $T_1=22.66$; $T_2 =32.66$ and $T_3=40.47$). The dressing % were : ($T_0=32.75$, $T_1=38.50$, $T_2=36.90 $ and $T_3=37.75$). The warm carcass weight represented 37.21% of live weight. Significant (p < 0.01) correlation were observed for live weight with carcass weight (r = 0.99) and dressing % (r = 0.88). Concentrate supplement increase live weight gain in sheep on grazing. Live weight is a good indicator to assess carcass characteristics.

Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

  • Zhang, Zhifeng;Sun, Yawei;Du, Wei;He, Sangang;Liu, Mingjun;Tian, Changyan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1234-1238
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods: In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results: The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion: The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

Effects of Sex and Market Weight on Performance, Carcass haracteristics and Pork Quality of Market Hogs

  • Piao, J.R.;Tian, J.Z.;Kim, B.G.;Choi, Y.I.;Kim, Y.Y.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1452-1458
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    • 2004
  • An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sex and market weight on performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality. A total of 224 crossbred pigs (initially 26.64 kg BW) were allotted in a $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. The variables were sex (gilts and barrows) and different market weights (100, 110, 120 and 130 kg). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher (p<0.01) in barrows than gilts, ADFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased as body weight increased (p<0.05). Gender differences were observed in carcass characteristics. Backfat thickness and drip loss were greater in barrows (p<0.01), while loin eye area (p<0.01), flavor score (p<0.05) and lean content (p<0.001) were higher in gilts. Carcass grade and water holding capacity were the highest in 110 kg market weight pigs. The 100 kg arket weight pigs showed lower juiciness, tenderness, shear forces and total palatability than the other market weights (p<0.01). Hunter values (L*, a* and b*) were increased as market weight increased (p<0.05). Hunter a* value was greater in gilts (p<0.01) but L* value and b* value were not affected by sex of pigs. Net profit [(carcass weight${\times}$price by carcass grade)-(total feed cost+cost of purchased pig)] was higher in gilts than barrows (p<0.01), and was higher (p<0.05) in the pigs marketed at 110 and 120 kg market weight compared with 100 kg market weight. These results demonstrated that gilts showed higher carcass characteristics, pork quality, feed cost per kg body weight gain and net profit compared with barrows. Moreover, 110 or 120 kg body weight would be the recommended market weight based on pork quality and net profit for swine producers.

Comparison of Carcass and Pork Physical Characteristics by Market Weight and Gender of Berkshire (버크셔의 출하체중과 성별에 따른 도체 및 돈육의 물리적 특성 비교)

  • 이제룡;주영국;신원주;조규제;이진우;이정일;이중동;도창희
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 2004
  • In a trial involving 72 pigs, the effects of market weight and gender on the carcass and pork quality characteristics were investigated. A total of 72 pigs were divided into 3 groups(95-104, 105-110 or 111-120kg), market weight was assigned to 2 gender group (gilt or boar). The carcass characteristics (carcass weight, backfat thickness or grades) were determined on those carcass, longissimus muscle was removed from each left side at 5th to 13th rib and meat qualities were evaluated. The carcass weight and backfat thickness of pigs slaughtered at 111-120kg were increases than the other weights. The carcass grade of pigs slaughtered at 105-110kg had higher then at pigs slaughtered 94-104kg. Compared with boars, gilts carcass had higher in carcass weight and backfat fat. The pH$\_$u/, drip loss and cooking loss tended to similar for market weight and gender, meat of boars had higher shear force values than gilts (p<0.05). The meat color tended to similar for market weight and gender. The total myoglobin content of gilts slaughtered at 95-104kg and boars slaughtered at 111-120kg had higher than the other weight and gender. The meat of gilts had higher springiness and brittleness than boars (p<0.05). These results imply that the carcass characteristics (carcass weight and backfat thickness) could be affected by market weight and gender, meat of gilts was improved the shear force values and texture properties when compared to boars.

Estimation of Correlation Coefficients between Histological Parameters and Carcass Traits of Pig Longissimus Dorsi Muscle

  • Ryu, Y.C.;Rhee, M.S.;Kim, B.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.428-433
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the histochemical parameters of muscle fibers, and to estimate the correlation between these histological parameters and carcass traits in pigs. A total of 230 crossbred Duroc$\times$(Yorkshire$\times$Landrace) pigs (149 gilts and 81 castrated male pigs) was evaluated. Carcass traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, and loin eye area), muscle fiber size (crosssectional area, diameter, and perimeter), muscle fiber number (density of fibers/$mm^2$ and total number of fibers), and fiber type composition (percentages of myofibers and relative areas of each fiber type) were evaluated. Mean cross-sectional area (CSA) and type IIB fiber CSA were positively correlated to carcass weight, backfat thickness and loin eye area. Mean fiber CSA was mostly related to type IIB CSA (r=0.98) as a result of the high percentage of type IIB fibers in the longissimus muscle. Correlations between fiber diameters and perimeters were also high, and showed similar results with CSA. Mean fiber density was negatively correlated to carcass weight (r=-0.24), backfat thickness (r=-0.18) and loin eye area (r=-0.27). To the contrary, total fiber number was positively correlated with carcass weight (r=0.27) and loin eye area (r=0.53). Carcass weight and loin eyZe area were not significantly related to muscle fiber composition. For backfat thickness, there was an opposition between type IIA percentage, which was positively related and type IIB percentage, which was negatively related. Fiber type composition of type I and IIA fibers were negatively correlated to that of type IIB fibers (r=-0.67 to -0.74). In the present study, carcass weight and loin eye area were positively correlated to CSA and negatively correlated to fiber density. But, these relationships were generally low. The fiber density was strongly affected by muscle fiber size and the total fiber number was affected either by CSA of muscle fiber and loin eye area. Fiber type composition was much more related to their numerical abundance than their CSA.

Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets with increasing levels of crude glycerin

  • Costa, Caio Alves da;Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos de;Guim, Adriana;Andrade, Gilcifran Prestes de;Cardoso, Daniel Barros;Maciel, Michel do Vale;Silva, Gabriela Goncalves da;Nascimento, Andreza Guedes de Oliveira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1882-1888
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    • 2019
  • Objective: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin (0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%) used as a substitute for corn in lamb feed on the quantitative characteristics of the carcass. Methods: A total of 40 crossbred Santa $In{\hat{e}}s$ lambs that were four months old with a mean initial weight of $21.0{\pm}0.8kg$ were randomly distributed in four treatments with ten replicates. The animals were slaughtered after 66 days of confinement. The effects of crude glycerin as a replacement for corn in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield and carcass measurements were studied. Results: There was an increasing linear effect for body weight at slaughter with the replacement of corn by crude glycerin. The dry matter and metabolizable energy intakes, weight of the empty body, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight showed a quadratic effect, with maximum crude glycerin levels estimated at 10.9%, 9.8%, 10.83%, 11.78%, and 11.35%, respectively. The initial pH was not influenced by the replacement of corn for crude glycerin, while the final pH presented a quadratic effect. The other parameters of the carcass and the weights and yields of commercial cuts were not influenced. There was also no effect of the diets on carcass morphometric measurements, except for the thoracic perimeter and the carcass compactness index, which presented quadratic and linear effects, respectively. Conclusion: Crude glycerin can replace up to 18% of corn because it favours muscle tissue deposition without promoting changes in the main carcass characteristics of lambs.