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Genetic Relationship between Carcass Traits and Carcass Price of Korean Cattle

  • Kim, Jong-Bok;Kim, Dae-Jung;Lee, Jeong-Koo;Lee, Chae-Young
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.848-854
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    • 2010
  • The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for the carcass price and carcass traits contributing to carcass grading and to investigate the influence of each carcass trait on the carcass price using multiple regression and path analyses. Data for carcass traits and carcass prices were collected from March 2003 to January 2009 on steers of Korean cattle raised at private farms. The analytical mixed animal model, including slaughter house-year-month combination, linear and quadratic slaughter age as fixed effects and random animal and residual effects, was used to estimate genetic parameters. The effects of carcass traits on the carcass price were evaluated by applying multiple regression analyses. Heritability estimates of carcass traits were $0.20{\pm}0.08$ for carcass weight (CWT), $0.33{\pm}0.10$ for back fat thickness (BFT), $0.07{\pm}0.05$ for eye-muscle area (EMA) and $0.25{\pm}0.10$ for marbling score (MS), and those of carcass prices were $0.21{\pm}0.10$ for auction price per 1 kg of carcass weight (AP) and $0.13{\pm}0.07$ for total price (CP). Genetic correlation coefficients of AP with CWT and MS were $-0.35{\pm}0.29$ and $0.99{\pm}0.04$, respectively, and those of CP with CWT and MS were $0.59{\pm}0.22$ and $0.39{\pm}0.29$ respectively. If an appropriate adjustment for temporal economic value is available, the moderate heritability estimates of AP and CP might suggest their potential use as the breeding objectives for improving the gross incomes of beef cattle farms. The large genetic correlation estimates of carcass price variables with CWT and MS implied that simultaneous selection for both CWT and MS would be also useful in enhancing income.

EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCT DIETS ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR TYPES OF CATTLE IN THE FEEDLOT

  • Dahlan, I.;Rahman-Haron, A.;Sukri, M.H.I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.455-459
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    • 1992
  • Five type of formulated diet from agricultural by-products (ABP) were fed to four breedtype of cattle in feedlot. The ABP used are palm kernel cake (PKC), palm press fibre (PPF), palm oil mill effluent (POME), cocoa pod (COP), coffee pulp (COF) and pineapple waste (PAP). The formulated diets are PS (52% PKC, 15% PPF and 30% POME), PF (57% PKC, 20% PPF and 20% POME), PA (2% PKC and 55% PAP), CO (42% PKC and 55% COP) and CF (67% PKC and 30% COF) with 1% urea, 1% NaCl and 1% vitamins premix. The cattle breedtypes are Kedah-Kelantan (KK), Brahman-KK (BK), Hereford-KK (HK) and Sahiwal-Friesian (SF). The result showed that breedtype significantly affect all the carcass characteristic except dressing percentage. Each breedtype has it's specific carcass characteristics. HK cattle gave high marbling, BK has high % of carcass bone, KK has high % of carcass meat and low % of carcass fat (lean meat type) and SF has high % of carcass fat. Diet-type significantly affect the deposition of fat in the carcass. High moisture diets (PA and CO) produced significantly higher % carcass bone, the lowest % carcass fat and the highest % carcass meat (65.3%). PF, CF, PA and CO diets produced 63.4%, 59.9%, 55.3% and 54.1% carcass meat respectively.

GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF THE OMANI DHOFARI CATTLE 2. DISTRIBUTION OF CARCASS TISSUES

  • Mahgoub, O.;Olvey, F.H.;Jeffrey, D.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.617-625
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    • 1995
  • Distribution of wholesale carcass cuts and tissues was studied in Omani Dhofari bulls and steers raised under intensive management and slaughtered over a range of 110 to 210 kg body weight. The fore quarter of Dhofari cattle carcasses was heavier than the hind quarter with the chuck being the heaviest cut in the half carcass followed by the round whereas the flank was the lightest cut. Proportions of the fore quarter and its cuts increased whereas that of the hind quarter and its cuts decreased with increasing carcass weight. The fore quarter contained higher proportions of carcass tissues especially intermuscular fat than the hind quarter. The chuck and round contained the highest proportions of lean and bone and the flank the least. There was a general trend of increasing proportions of fat and decreasing proportions of lean and bone in carcass cuts and fore and hind quarters with increasing slaughter weight and age. As % total body fat (TBF), total carcass fat (TCF) increased whereas total non-carcass fat (TNCF) decreased. The largest proportion of TBF was deposited in the intermuscular site. Among the TNCF depots, the kidney and omental contributed the highest proportions whereas the pelvic and channel were the lowest. Proportions of M. rhomboideus and M. splenius increased in the half carcass whereas that of M. semitendinosus decreased as the cattle increased in size. The axial skeleton contributed 47.4-51.1, the fore limb 21.6-22.6 and the hind limb 23.9-26.2% of the total carcass bone. Proportions of axial skeleton increased whereas that of fore and hind limbs decreased with increasing slaughter weight and age. There were no major effects of castration on the distribution of weight of carcass cuts or carcass tissues. Steers had higher total body fat at 160 kg body weight and higher proportions of mesenteric, scrotal, pelvic, kidney and total non-carcass fat at 210 kg weight than bulls. As % of total body fat, steers fad significantly higher kidney and total non-carcass fat. There was little effects of castration on proportions of dimensions of individual muscles or bones.

Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

  • Alam, M.;Cho, K.H.;Lee, S.S.;Choy, Y.H.;Kim, H.S.;Cho, C.I.;Choi, T.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1388-1398
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    • 2013
  • The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, $75.26cm^2$, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson's correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea.

Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

  • Zhang, Zhifeng;Sun, Yawei;Du, Wei;He, Sangang;Liu, Mingjun;Tian, Changyan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1234-1238
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods: In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results: The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion: The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

Effect of Mating System, Carcass Grade and Age at Marketing on Carcass Characteristics of Pigs (돼지의 교배조합·도체등급 및 출하일령이 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Seok-Eun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the carcass characteristics of crossbred pigs according to mating system, carcass grade and age at marketing. A total of 656 pigs of 128 gilts and 528 barrows were collected and analyzed at public slaughter house. Differences between LY and LYD crossbred on marbling score and water holding capacity were significantly (p<0.05) found. The influences of LY and LYD crossbred on carcass weight, backfat thickness, meat colour, carcass grade and age at marketing were not significantly showed. The carcass weight of D carcass grade was significantly (p<0.05) heavier than that of the other grade. The backfat thickness was significantly (p<0.05) appeared gradually in accordance with the increase of carcass grade. There was significantly difference among the carcass grades on water holding capacity (p<0.05). The differences among the carcass grades on the meat colour, marbling score and age at marketing were not found significantly. The carcass weight of high age group at marketing was significantly heavier than that of the low age group (p<0.05). The backfat thickness of the group of high age at marketing was significantly thicker than that of the group of low age (p<0.05). There were significant differences among age group at marketing in marbling score, carcass grade, and water holding capacity, respectively (p<0.05). The carcass weight was positively correlated with the backfat thickness but negatively correlated with the carcass grade. The correlation between the backfat and carcass grade was significantly negative. The meat colour was negatively correlated with water holding capacity.

Estimation of Genetic Correlations and Selection Responses for Carcass Traits between Ultrasound and Real Carcass Measurements in Hanwoo Cows

  • Son, Jihyun;Lee, Deukhwan
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine genetic correlations among carcass traits measured by ultrasound and real carcass measurements and to estimate indirect selection responses for real carcass traits based on ultrasound measurements in Hanwoo cows. To accomplish this, 22,080 ultrasound measurement records from 17,926 cows collected from 2001 to 2012 and 11,907 carcass records obtained from fattened cattle from 2008 to 2012 were used. Genetic parameters were estimated based on eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) measured by ultrasound-scanning of live cows and using the official technique on chilled bovine half-carcasses after slaughtering. Heritability and genetic correlation for carcass traits were estimated using a mixed model equation that consisted of environmental effects as fixed parameters and additive genetic effects and residual effects as random parameters, assuming that traits were different between ultrasound and carcass measurements. This statistical method was applied to the average information restricted maximum likelihood method. The heritability of EMA, BF and MS measured by ultrasound were 0.33, 0.61 and 0.46, respectively, while the heritability estimates of the corresponding traits based on carcass measurements were 0.29, 0.40 and 0.38, respectively and the genetic correlation between ultrasound and carcass traits for EMA, BF and MS were 0.41, 0.78 and 0.67, respectively. The genetic correlation between ultrasound and carcass traits was highly positive. Additionally, the selection response for marbling score was estimated to be 0.42 per generation if the cows were selected based on the ultrasound scan marbling score with an assumed selection intensity of 0.8. Overall, these results indicate that the ultrasound scan technique would be applicable to judging cow selection for genetically improved meat quality.

EFFECT OF FEEDING CLOMIPHENE CITRATE ON CARCASS COMPOSITION OF BROILER

  • Ali, M.A.;Shingari, B.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 1989
  • Four seasonal trials were conducted to study the effect of feeding clomiphene citrate on carcass composition of broilers. It was fed at 5, 10, 15 mg levels per kg feed for a period of two weeks, 3-4 weeks ($S_1$), 4-5 weeks ($S_2$) and 5-6 weeks ($S_3$) of age. Total carcasses were analysed for moisture, ether extract and protein. Clomiphene citrate significantly decreased the moisture with concomitant increase in ether extract content of the carcasses at all the ages and seasons. Carcass protein was significantly decreased at all the ages and seasons. The responses in the different level of clomiphene citrate is dose dependent. The carcass moisture decreased with age while protein and ether extract contents increased in all seasons. The females had more ether extract and less moisture contents than male. The carcass ether extract was higher in summer and rainy seasons followed by spring and winter seasons, and the differences were significant. A concomitant significant decrease of carcass moisture was observed. The effect of seasons on carcass protein varied at different ages but there appeared to be a trend towards decreasing carcass protein in summer and rainy seasons than winter and spring seasons.

EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON GROWTH AND CARCASS YIELD PERFORMANCES OF SPENT STARCROSS HENS

  • Salah Uddin, M.;Tareque, A.M.M.;Rahman, M.A.;Howlider, M.A.R.;Jasimuddin Khan, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.237-248
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    • 1992
  • The effect of 16 different dietary rations, computed by the combinations of 13, 16, 19 or 22% CP and 2600, 2800, 3000 or 3100 kcal ME/kg, on growth performances and carcass yield of Starcross layers were assessed in two similar experiments. In both experiments, the body weight, eviscerated carcass yield, edible carcass yield, length of digestive tract and shank length increased but the feed intake decreased linearly with the increase of dietary CP and ME levels. The liver and gizzard weights as percentages of live weight tended to be increased with the increase of dietary CP and ME levels. The carcass dry matter, crude protein, fat, ash and energy content were not influenced by the dietary CP and ME levels. Dietary CP levels had positive correlations with all the parameters (except feed and energy intake and carcass dry matter). However, the dietary ME levels were positively correlated with all the parameters (except feed and energy intake; carcass dry matter and ash) in both experiments. The higher values were noted for all the parameters (except gizzard and carcass fat percentages) studied in Experiment 1 compared to those observed in Experiment 2.

A STANDARD METHOD FOR JOINTING CAMEL CARCASSES WITH REFERENCE TO THE EFFECT OF SLAUGHTER AGE ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN NAJDI CAMELS. I. WHOLESALE CUT WEIGHT

  • Abouheif, M.A.;Basmaeil, S.M.;Bakkar, M.N.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 1990
  • A procedure to standardize camel carcass fabrication is proposed. This includes a definitive method of jointing the carcass into wholesale neck, shoulder, brisket, rib, plate, loin, flank, rump and leg cuts. Carcass cutout data were collected from the right sides of 21 Najdi male camels averaging 8, 16 and 26 months of age in order to determine the influence of age on the weight of each wholesale cut. The weight of body, empty body, hot carcass, cold carcass, hump fat, kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH) and each wholesale cut increased (p < .01) with age. Except for percent shrinkage and wholesale rump weight, all studied traits increased (p < .01) linearly as the age increased. This change was most pronounced in wholesale flank and plate cuts, increasing by 4.2 and 3.4 times, respectively, while the rump and shoulder cuts changed the least, increasing by 1.8 and 1.9 times, respectively. Allometric growth coefficients indicated that as the camel grew, the weight of rib, brisket, plate and flank cuts increased relatively more rapidly than did cold carcass or empty body weight and that the weight of wholesale shoulder, neck, leg and rump increased less rapidly than did cold carcass or empty body weight.