• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carbon ion therapy

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Review of the Existing Relative Biological Effectiveness Models for Carbon Ion Beam Therapy

  • Kim, Yejin;Kim, Jinsung;Cho, Seungryong
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2020
  • Hadron therapy, such as carbon and helium ions, is increasingly coming to the fore for the treatment of cancers. Such hadron therapy has several advantages over conventional radiotherapy using photons and electrons physically and clinically. These advantages are due to the different physical and biological characteristics of heavy ions including high linear energy transfer and Bragg peak, which lead to the reduced exit dose, lower normal tissue complication probability and the increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Despite the promising prospects on the carbon ion radiation therapy, it is in dispute with which bio-mathematical models to calculate the carbon ion RBE. The two most widely used models are local effect model and microdosimetric kinetic model, which are actively utilized in Europe and Japan respectively. Such selection on the RBE model is a crucial issue in that the dose prescription for planning differs according to the models. In this study, we aim to (i) introduce the concept of RBE, (ii) clarify the determinants of RBE, and (iii) compare the existing RBE models for carbon ion therapy.

An Analysis on Treatment Schedule of Carbon Ion Therapy to Early Stage Lung Cancer

  • Sakata, Suoh;Miyamoto, Tadaaki;Tujii, Hirohiko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.174-176
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    • 2002
  • A total of 134 patients with stage 1 of non-small cell lung cancer treated by carbon ion beam of HIMAC NIRS were investigated for control rate and delivered dose. The delivered dose of every patient was converted to biological effective dose (BED) of LQ model using fraction number, dose per fraction and alpha beta ratio which shows the maximum correlation between BED and tumor control. The BED of every patient was classified to establish a BED response curve for control. Assuming fraction numbers, dose response curves were introduced from BED response curve. The total doses to realize several control rates were obtained for the treatment of small fraction number.

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Simulation Study on the Feasibility of Using Heavier Ions in Charged Particle Therapy

  • Woo, Jong-Kwan;Ko, Jewou;Lee, Sue Lynn;Liu, Dong
    • New Physics: Sae Mulli
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    • v.67 no.12
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    • pp.1445-1449
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    • 2017
  • Proton therapy is a type of advanced radiotherapy that applies a high-energy proton beam to kill target cells by using the special physical properties of protons. In some institutes, instead of proton beams, carbon-ion beams are also utilized due to carbon ions having more ideal physical properties than protons. According to the interaction principle of particles of matter, a heavy ion, such as oxygen ions or heavier ions, could produce a sharper Bragg peak. In other words, heavy ions may show advantages in the dose distribution in comparison to protons or carbon ions. In order to confirm this, we used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the radiotherapy using various heavy ions, and we calculated the dose in the target volume and the normal volumes. The results show that the heavier ion will deposit a higher energy the target volume in the case of the same dose deposition in the normal volumes. In conclusion, in particle radiotherapy, a heavier ion could provide a more ideal physical dose distribution compared to those of protons and carbon.

Literature Review of Clinical Usefulness of Heavy Ion Particle as an New Advanced Cancer Therapy (첨단 암 치료로서 중입자치료의 임상적 유용성에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Sang Gyu
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.413-422
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    • 2019
  • Heavy ion particle, represented carbon ion, radiotherapy is currently most advanced radiation therapy technique. Conventional radiation therapy has made remarkable changes over a relatively short period of time and leading various developments such as intensity modulated radiation therapy, 4D radiation therapy, image guided radiation therapy, and high precisional therapy. However, the biological and physical superiority of particle radiation, represented by Bragg peak, can give the maximum dose to tumor and minimal dose to surrounding normal tissues in the treatment of cancers in various areas surrounded by radiation-sensitive normal tissues. However, despite these advantages, there are some limitations and factors to consider. First, there is not enough evidence, such as large-scale randomized, prospective phase III trials, for the clinical application. Secondly, additional studies are needed to establish a very limited number of treatment facilities, uncertainty about the demand for heavy particle treatment, parallel with convetional radiotherapy or indications. In addition, Bragg peak of the heavy particles can greatly reduce the dose to the normal tissues front and behind the tumor compared to the photon or protons. High precision and accuracy are needed for treatment planning and treatment, especially for lungs or livers with large respiratory movements. Currently, the introduction of the heavy particle therapy device is in progress, and therefore, it is expected that more research will be active.

Measurement of Neutron Production Double-differential Cross-sections on Carbon Bombarded with 430 MeV/Nucleon Carbon Ions

  • Itashiki, Yutaro;Imahayashi, Youichi;Shigyo, Nobuhiro;Uozumi, Yusuke;Satoh, Daiki;Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi;Sanami, Toshiya;Koba, Yusuke;Matsufuji, Naruhiro
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2016
  • Background: Carbon ion therapy has achieved satisfactory results. However, patients have a risk to get a secondary cancer. In order to estimate the risk, it is essential to understand particle transportation and nuclear reactions in the patient's body. The particle transport Monte Carlo simulation code is a useful tool to understand them. Since the code validation for heavy ion incident reactions is not enough, the experimental data of the elementary reaction processes are needed. Materials and Methods: We measured neutron production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) on a carbon bombarded with 430 MeV/nucleon carbon beam at PH2 beam line of HIMAC facility in NIRS. Neutrons produced in the target were measured with NE213 liquid organic scintillators located at six angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and $90^{\circ}$. Results and Discussion: Neutron production double-differential cross-sections for carbon bombarded with 430 MeV/nucleon carbon ions were measured by the time-of-flight method with NE213 liquid organic scintillators at six angles of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and $90^{\circ}$. The cross sections were obtained from 1 MeV to several hundred MeV. The experimental data were compared with calculated results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation codes PHITS, Geant4, and FLUKA. Conclusion: PHITS was able to reproduce neutron production for elementary processes of carbon-carbon reaction precisely the best of three codes.

Estimation of Dose Distribution on Carbon Ion Therapy Facility using Monte Carlo Simulation (몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 이용한 중입자 치료실의 선량분포 추정)

  • Song, Yongkeun;Heo, Seunguk;Cho, Gyuseok;Choi, Sanghyun;Han, Moojae;Park, Jikoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.437-442
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    • 2017
  • Heavy ion therapy has a high cure rate for cancer cell. So many countries are introducing heavy ion therapy facility. When treating a cancer using heavy ion therapy, neutrons and gamma rays are generated and affect electronic equipment. A budget of about KRW 200 billion is needed to build a heavy ion therapy facility, and it takes more than five years to build it. Therefore it is important to observe the dose distribution in the treatment room using the monte carlo simulation before construction. In this study, we used the FLUKA of monte carlo simulation to investigate the dose distribution in the heavy ion treatment room.

Basics of particle therapy I: physics

  • Park, Seo-Hyun;Kang, Jin-Oh
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.135-146
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    • 2011
  • With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfi ll the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest.

Evaluation of dose distribution from 12C ion in radiation therapy by FLUKA code

  • Soltani-Nabipour, Jamshid;Khorshidi, Abdollah;Shojai, Faezeh;Khorami, Khazar
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.10
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    • pp.2410-2414
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    • 2020
  • Heavy ions have a high potential for destroying deep tumors that carry the highest dose at the peak of Bragg. The peak caused by a single-energy carbon beam is too narrow, which requires special measures for improvement. Here, carbon-12 (12C) ion with different energies has been used as a source for calculating the dose distribution in the water phantom, soft tissue and bone by the code of Monte Carlobased FLUKA code. By increasing the energy of the initial beam, the amount of absorbed dose at Bragg peak in all three targets decreased, but the trend for this reduction was less severe in bone. While the maximum absorbed dose per bone-mass unit in energy of 200 MeV/u was about 30% less than the maximum absorbed dose per unit mass of water or soft tissue, it was merely 2.4% less than soft tissue in 400 MeV/u. The simulation result showed a good agreement with experimental data at GSI Darmstadt facility of biophysics group by 0.15 cm average accuracy in Bragg peak positioning. From 200 to 400 MeV/u incident energy, the Bragg peak location increased about 18 cm in soft tissue. Correspondingly, the bone and soft tissue revealed a reduction dose ratio by 2.9 and 1.9. Induced neutrons did not contribute more than 1.8% to the total energy deposited in the water phantom. Also during 12C ion bombardment, secondary fragments showed 76% and 24% of primary 200 and 400 MeV/u, respectively, were present at the Bragg-peak position. The combined treatment of carbon ions with neutron or electron beams may be more effective in local dose delivery and also treating malignant tumors.

Reconstruction of In-beam PET for Carbon therapy with prior-knowledge of carbon beam-track

  • Kim, Kwangdon;Bae, Seungbin;Lee, Kisung;Chung, Yonghyun;An, Sujung;Joung, Jinhun
    • IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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    • v.4 no.6
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    • pp.384-390
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    • 2015
  • There are two main artifacts in reconstructed images from in-beam positron emission tomography (PET). Unlike generic PET, in-beam PET uses the annihilation photons that occur during heavy ion therapy. Therefore, the geometry of in-beam PET is not a full ring, but a partial ring that has one or two openings around the rings in order for the hadrons to arrive at the tumor without prevention of detector blocks. This causes truncation in the projection data due to an absence of detector modules in the openings. The other is a ring artifact caused by the gaps between detector modules also found in generic PET. To sum up, in-beam PET has two kinds of gap: openings for hadrons, and gaps between the modules. We acquired three types of simulation results from a PET system: full-ring, C-ring and dual head. In this study, we aim to compensate for the artifacts that come from the two types of gap. In the case of truncation, we propose a method that uses prior knowledge of the location where annihilations occur, and we applied the discrete-cosine transform (DCT) gap-filling method proposed by Tuna et al. for inter-detector gap.

Estimation of Nuclear Interaction for $^{11}C$ Cancer Therapy

  • Maruyama, Koichi;Kanazawa, Mitsutaka;Kitagawa, Atsushi;Suda, Mitsuru;Mizuno, Hideyuki;Iseki, Yasushi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.199-201
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    • 2002
  • Cancer therapy using high-energy $^{12}$ C ions is successfully under way at HIMAC, Japan. An alternative beam to $^{12}$ C is $^{11}$ C ions. The merit of $^{11}$ C over $^{12}$ C is its capability for monitoring spatial distribution of the irradiated $^{11}$ C by observing the $\beta$$^{+}$ decay with a good position resolution. One of the several problems to be solved before its use for therapy is the amount of nuclear interaction that deteriorates the dose concentration owing to the Bragg curve. Utilizing the dedicated secondary beam course for R&D studies at HIMAC, we measured the total energy loss of $^{11}$ C ions in a scintillator block that simulates the soft tissue in human bodies. In addition to the total absorption $^{11}$ C peak, non-negligible bump-shaped contribution is observed in the energy spectrum. The origin of the bump contribution can be nuclear interaction of the incident $^{11}$ C ions with hydrogen and carbon atoms. Further studies to reduce the ambiguity in dose distribution are mentioned.

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