• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carbon Monoxide

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Optimization of Microbial Production of Ethanol form Carbon Monoxide (미생물을 이용한 일산화탄소로부터 에탄올 생산공정 최적화)

  • 강환구;이충렬
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2002
  • The method to optimize the microbial production of ethanol from CO using Clostridium ljungdahlii was developed. The kinetic parameter study on CO conversion with Clostridium ljungdahlii was carried out and maximum CO conversion rate of 37.14 mmol/L-hr-O.D. and $K_{m}$ / of 0.9516 atm were obtained. It was observed that method of two stage fermentation, which consists of cell growth stage and ethanol production stage, was effective to produce ethanol. When pH was shifted from 5.5 to 4.5 and ammonium solution was supplied to culture media as nitrogen source at ethanol production stage, the concentration of ethanol produced was increased 20 times higher than that without shift. Ethanol production from CO in a fermenter with Clostridium ljungdahlii was optimized and the concentration of ethanol produced was 45 g/L and maximun ethanol productivity was 0.75 g ethanol/L-hr.

Early Response of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in Patients with Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Systemic Chemotherapy (국소진행성 폐암환자에 대한 전신항암화학요법이 운동부하 심.폐기능에 미치는 영향 : 초기변화를 중심으로)

  • Shin, Kyeong-Cheol;Chung, Jin-Hong;Lee, Kwan-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2002
  • Background : The effects of chemotherapy on pulmonary function are mainly a reduced diffusion capacity and a restrictive ventilatory impairment. Exercise can expose cardiovascular and pulmonary abnormalities not evident at rest. Exercise related cardiopulmonary function is important in patients with malignant disease as a determinant of quality of life. We performed this study to evaluate the changes of body composition and cadiopulmonary exercise perfoemance of patients with locally advanced, non-small cell, lung cancer (NSCLC) before and after chemotherapy. Methods : We evaluated resting pulmonary function, body composition, physiologic performance status, and cardiopulmonary exercise function in 11 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, at diagnosis and prior to the fourth cycle of chemotherapy. Results : After chemotherapy, 4 patients (36.4%) showed partial response and 7 (63.4%) had stable disease. After chemotherapy, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was reduced ($89.7{\pm}34.1%$, vs. $71.9{\pm}20.5%$) but not significantly. There were no significant changes in body composition or the state of physiologic performance after chemotherapy. There was a significant impairment of cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance in patients with NSCLC, evidenced by a reduction of maximal oxygen uptake ($VO_2$max, ml/kg/min, $17.9{\pm}2.6$ : $12.6{\pm}6.1$, <0.05) and $O_2$pulse ($O_2$ pulse, ml/beat, $7.0{\pm}1.7$, $5.2{\pm}2.1$, <0.05). Conclusion : Systemic chemotherapy resulted in a loss of cardiopulmonary exercise function in patients with locally advanced NSCLC within the short-term period, but not a physiologic change of body composition within the same period.

Wearable Computers

  • Cho, Gil-Soo;Barfield, Woodrow;Baird, Kevin
    • Fiber Technology and Industry
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.490-508
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    • 1998
  • One of the latest fields of research in the area of output devices is tactual display devices [13,31]. These tactual or haptic devices allow the user to receive haptic feedback output from a variety of sources. This allows the user to actually feel virtual objects and manipulate them by touch. This is an emerging technology and will be instrumental in enhancing the realism of wearable augmented environments for certain applications. Tactual displays have previously been used for scientific visualization in virtual environments by chemists and engineers to improve perception and understanding of force fields and of world models populated with the impenetrable. In addition to tactual displays, the use of wearable audio displays that allow sound to be spatialized are being developed. With wearable computers, designers will soon be able to pair spatialized sound to virtual representations of objects when appropriate to make the wearable computer experience even more realistic to the user. Furthermore, as the number and complexity of wearable computing applications continues to grow, there will be increasing needs for systems that are faster, lighter, and have higher resolution displays. Better networking technology will also need to be developed to allow all users of wearable computers to have high bandwidth connections for real time information gathering and collaboration. In addition to the technology advances that make users need to wear computers in everyday life, there is also the desire to have users want to wear their computers. In order to do this, wearable computing needs to be unobtrusive and socially acceptable. By making wearables smaller and lighter, or actually embedding them in clothing, users can conceal them easily and wear them comfortably. The military is currently working on the development of the Personal Information Carrier (PIC) or digital dog tag. The PIC is a small electronic storage device containing medical information about the wearer. While old military dog tags contained only 5 lines of information, the digital tags may contain volumes of multi-media information including medical history, X-rays, and cardiograms. Using hand held devices in the field, medics would be able to call this information up in real time for better treatment. A fully functional transmittable device is still years off, but this technology once developed in the military, could be adapted tp civilian users and provide ant information, medical or otherwise, in a portable, not obstructive, and fashionable way. Another future device that could increase safety and well being of its users is the nose on-a-chip developed by the Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee. This tiny digital silicon chip about the size of a dime, is capable of 'smelling' natural gas leaks in stoves, heaters, and other appliances. It can also detect dangerous levels of carbon monoxide. This device can also be configured to notify the fire department when a leak is detected. This nose chip should be commercially available within 2 years, and is inexpensive, requires low power, and is very sensitive. Along with gas detection capabilities, this device may someday also be configured to detect smoke and other harmful gases. By embedding this chip into workers uniforms, name tags, etc., this could be a lifesaving computational accessory. In addition to the future safety technology soon to be available as accessories are devices that are for entertainment and security. The LCI computer group is developing a Smartpen, that electronically verifies a user's signature. With the increase in credit card use and the rise in forgeries, is the need for commercial industries to constantly verify signatures. This Smartpen writes like a normal pen but uses sensors to detect the motion of the pen as the user signs their name to authenticate the signature. This computational accessory should be available in 1999, and would bring increased peace of mind to consumers and vendors alike. In the entertainment domain, Panasonic is creating the first portable hand-held DVD player. This device weight less than 3 pounds and has a screen about 6' across. The color LCD has the same 16:9 aspect ratio of a cinema screen and supports a high resolution of 280,000 pixels and stereo sound. The player can play standard DVD movies and has a hour battery life for mobile use. To summarize, in this paper we presented concepts related to the design and use of wearable computers with extensions to smart spaces. For some time, researchers in telerobotics have used computer graphics to enhance remote scenes. Recent advances in augmented reality displays make it possible to enhance the user's local environment with 'information'. As shown in this paper, there are many application areas for this technology such as medicine, manufacturing, training, and recreation. Wearable computers allow a much closer association of information with the user. By embedding sensors in the wearable to allow it to see what the user sees, hear what the user hears, sense the user's physical state, and analyze what the user is typing, an intelligent agent may be able to analyze what the user is doing and try to predict the resources he will need next or in the near future. Using this information, the agent may download files, reserve communications bandwidth, post reminders, or automatically send updates to colleagues to help facilitate the user's daily interactions. This intelligent wearable computer would be able to act as a personal assistant, who is always around, knows the user's personal preferences and tastes, and tries to streamline interactions with the rest of the world.

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The Reactivity for the SO2 Reduction with CO and H2 over Sn-Zr Based Catalysts (Sn-Zr계 촉매 상에서 CO와 H2를 이용한 SO2 환원 반응특성)

  • Han, Gi Bo;Park, No-Kuk;Ryu, Si Ok;Lee, Tae Jin
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2006
  • The $SO_2$ reduction using CO and $H_2$ over Sn-Zr based catalysts was performed in this study. Sn-Zr based catalysts with Sn/Zr molar ratio (0/1, 1/4, 1/1, 2/1, 3/1, 1/0) were prepared by the precipitation and co-precipitation method. The effect of the temperature on the reaction characteristics of the $SO_2$ reduction with a reducing agent such as $H_2$ and CO was investigated under the conditions of space velocity of $10,000ml/g_{-cat.}h$, $([CO(or\;H_2)]/[SO_2])$ of 2.0. As a result, the activity of Sn-Zr based catalysts were higher than $SnO_2$ and $ZrO_2$. The reactivity for the $SO_2$ reduction with CO was higher than that with $H_2$, and sulfur yield in the $SO_2$ reduction by $H_2$ was higher than that by CO. The reactivity for the $SO_2$ reduction with $H_2$ was increased with the reaction temperature regardless of Sn-Zr based catalyst with a Sn/Zr molar ratio. $SnO_2-ZrO_2$ (Sn/Zr=1/4) had highest activity at $550^{\circ}C$, in the $SO_2$ reduction with $H_2$ and $SO_2$ conversion of 94.4% and sulfur yield of 66.4% were obtained at $550^{\circ}C$. On the other hand, in the $SO_2$ reduction by CO, the reactivity was decreased with the increase over $325^{\circ}C$. At the optimal temperature of $325^{\circ}C$, $SO_2$ conversion and sulfur yield were about 100% and 99.5%, respectively, in the $SO_2$ reduction over $SnO_2-ZrO_2$ (Sn/Zr=3/1). Also, the $SO_2$ reduction using syngas with $CO/H_2$ ratio over $SnO_2-ZrO_2$ (Sn/Zr=2/1) was performed in order to investigate the application possibility of the simulated coal gas as the reductant in DSRP. As a result, the reactivity of the $SO_2$ reduction using syngas with $CO/H_2$ ratio was increased with increasing the CO content of syngas. Therefore, it could be known that DSRP using the simulated coal gas over Sn-Zr based catalyst is possible to be realized in IGCC system

Degradation Kinetic and Mechanism of Methyl Tert-butyl Ether (MTBE) by the Modified Photo-Fenton Reaction (Modified Photo-Fenton Reaction을 이용한 Methyl Tert-butyl Ether (MTBE)의 분해 Kinetic 및 메커니즘 규명에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Kyoung;Kong, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2006
  • Improper disposal of petroleum and spills from underground storage tanks have created large areas with highly toxic contamination of the soil and groundwater. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as a fuel additive because of its advantageous properties of increasing the octane value and reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon exhausts. However, MTBE is categorized as a possible human carcinogen. This research investigated the Modified Photo-Fenton system which is based on the Modified Fenton reaction and UV light irradiation. The Modified Fenton reaction is effective for MTBE degradation near a neutral pH, using the ferric ion complex composed of a ferric ion and environmentally friendly organic chelating agents. This research was intended to treat high concentrations of MTBE; thus, 1,000 mg/L MTBE was chosen. The objectives of this research are to find the optimal reaction conditions and to elucidate the kinetic and mechanism of MTBE degradation by the Modified Photo-Fenton reaction. Based on the results of experiments, citrate was chosen among eight chelating agents as the candidate for the Modified Photo-Fenton reaction because it has a relatively higher final pH and MTBE removal efficiency than the others, and it has a relatively low toxicity and is rapidly biodegradable. MTBE degradation was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Under the optimum conditions, [$Fe^{3+}$] : [Citrate] = 1 mM: 4 mM, 3% $H_2O_2$, 17.4 kWh/L UV dose, and initial pH 6.0, the 1000 ppm MTBE was degraded by 86.75% within 6 hours and 99.99% within 16 hours. The final pH value was 6.02. The degradation mechanism of MTBE by the Modified Photo-Fenton Reaction included two diverse pathways and tert-butyl formate (TBF) was identified to be the major degradation intermediate. Attributed to the high solubility, stability, and reactivity of the ferric-citrate complexes in the near neutral condition, this Modified Photo-Fenton reaction is a promising treatment process for high concentrations of MTBE under or near a neutral pH.

The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lung Cancer Cells (폐암세포주에서 Heme Oxygenase-1의 역할)

  • Jung, Jong-Hoon;Kim, Hak-Ryul;Kim, Eun-Jung;Hwang, Ki-Eun;Kim, So-Young;Park, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hwi-Jung;Yang, Sei-Hoon;Jeong, Eun-Taek
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.304-313
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    • 2006
  • Background : Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative degradation of heme to form biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron. The current evidence has indicated a critical role of HO-1 in cytoprotection and also in other, more diverse biological functions. It is known that the high expression of HO-1 occurs in various tumors, and that HO-1 has an important role in rapid tumor growth because of its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. Therefore, the role of HO-1 was analyzed in human lung cancer cell lines, and especially in the A549 cell line. Material and Methods : Human lung cancer cell lines, i.e., A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H157 and NCI-H460, were used for this study. The expression of HO-1 in the untreated state was defined by Western blotting. ZnPP, which is the specific HO inhibitor we used, and the viability of cells were tested for by conducting MTT assaysy. The HO enzymatic activity, as determined via the bilirubin level, was also indirectly measured. Moreover, the generation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was monitored fluorimetrically with using a scopoletin-horse radish peroxidase (HRP) assay and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). We have also transfected small HO-1 interfering RNA (siRNA) into A549 cells, and the apoptotic effects were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and Western blotting. Results : The A549 cells had a greater expression of HO-1 than the other cell lines, whereas ZnPP significantly decreased the viability of the A549 cells more than the viability of the other lung cancer cells in a dose-dependant fashion. Consistent with the viability, the HO enzymatic activity also was decreased. Moreover, intracellular H2O2 generation via ZnPP was induced in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptotic events were, then induced in the HO-1 siRNA transfected A549 cells. Conclusion : HO-1 provides new important insights into the possible molecular mechanism of the antitumor therapy in lung cancer.

A Study on the Adsorption of Carbonmonoxide on Silica Supported Ru-Fe Catalyst by Infrared Spectroscopy (실리카지지 루테늄-철 촉매에서 일산화탄소의 흡착에 관한 적외선 분광법을 이용한 연구)

  • Park, Sang-Youn;Ryu, Kwang-Sun;Yang, Sung-Bong;Yoon, Koo-Sik
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2010
  • On adsorbing carbon monoxide (CO) on the silica supported ruthenium/iron alloy ($Ru/Fe-SiO_2$) samples above mole ratio 9/1 of Ru/Fe five bands ($2138.7{\sim}2142.5cm^{-1}$, $2067.3{\sim}2073.1cm^{-1}$, $1976.7{\sim}2017.2cm^{-1}$, $1737.9{\sim}1799.3cm^{-1}$, $1625.7cm^{-1}$) were observed, and in $Ru/Fe-SiO_2$ samples below mole ratio 8/2 of Ru/Fe two bands ($1934.0{\sim}1990.2cm^{-1}$, $1625.7cm^{-1}$) were observed. The $2138.7{\sim}2142.5cm^{-1}$ bands, the $2067.3{\sim}2073.1cm^{-1}$ bands, and the $1988.3{\sim}2030.7cm^{-1}$ bands may be ascribed to stretching vibrations of CO molecules lineally bonded to the Ru atoms on supported Ru/Fe cluster surface, the $1737.9{\sim}1799.3cm^{-1}$ bands to stretching vibrations of CO molecules bridge bonded to the Ru atoms on supported Ru/Fe cluster surface or to stretching vibrations of CO molecules bonded to the Ru atoms on high Miller index planes, and the $1934.0{\sim}1990.2cm^{-1}$ bands to stretching vibrations of CO molecules lineally bonded to the Fe atoms on supported Ru/Fe cluster surface. The absorbances of the $1934.0{\sim}1990.2cm^{-1}$ bands in $Ru/Fe-SiO_2$ samples gradually increased with the increases of Ru/Fe mole ratio below the ratio of 8/2. This phenomena may be ascribed to the increases of Fe concentration of surface compared with the one of the sample and to the increases of surface area of supported Ru/Fe cluster according as increase of Ru/Fe mole ratio below the ratio of 8/2 compared with the $Fe-SiO_2$ sample.

Preparation and Characterization of $Cu/Ce_xZr_{1-x}O_2$ Catalysts for Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide (일산화탄소의 선택적 산화반응을 위한 $Cu/Ce_xZr_{1-x}O_2$ 촉매의 합성과 특성분석)

  • Lee, So-Yeon;Lee, Suk-Hee;Cheon, Jae-Kee;Woo, Hee-Chul
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.54-63
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    • 2007
  • Even traces of CO in the hydrogen-rich feed gas to proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) poison the platinum anode electrode and dramatically decrease the power output. In this work, a variety of catalytic materials consisting of $Cu/Ce_xZr_{1-x}O_2$, (x = 0.0-1.0) were synthesised, characterized and tested for CO oxidation and preferential oxidation of CO (PROX). These catalysts prepared by hydrothermal and deposition-precipitation methods. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM, BET, $N_2O$ titration and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurement. The effects of composition of the support and degree of excess oxygen were investigated fur activity and $CO_2$ selectivity with different temperatures. The composition of the support markedly influenced the PROX activity. Among the various $Cu/Ce_xZr_{1-x}O_2$ catalysts having different composition, $Cu/Ce_{0.9}Zr_{0.1}O_2$ and $Cu/Ce_{0.7}Zr_{0.3}O_2$ showed the highest activities (>99%) and selectivities (ca.50%) in the temperature range of $150{\sim}160^{\circ}C$. It was found that by using of $Ce_xZr_{1-x}O_2$ mixed oxide support which possesses a high oxygen storage capacity, oxidation-reduction activity of Cu-based catalyst was improved, which resulted in the increase of catalytic activity and selectivity of CO oxidation in excess $H_2$ environments.

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SO2 Reduction with CO over SnO2-ZrO2(Sn/Zr=2/1) Catalyst for Direct Sulfur Recovery Process with Coal Gas: Optimization of the Reaction Conditions and Effect of H2O Content (석탄가스를 이용한 직접 황 회수공정을 위한 SnO2-ZrO2(Sn/Zr=2/1) 촉매 상에서의 CO에 의한 SO2 환원 반응: 반응조건 최적화 및 수분의 영향)

  • Han, Gi Bo;Shin, Boo-Young;Lee, Tae Jin
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.155-161
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    • 2007
  • In this study, the reactivity of a $SnO_2-ZrO_2$(Sn/Zr = 2/1) catalyst for $SO_2$ reduction by CO was investigated in order to optimize the various reaction conditions such as temperature, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), and [CO]/[$SO_2$] molar ratio. The reaction temperature in the range of $300{\sim}550^{\circ}C$, space velocity in the range of $5000{\sim}30000cm^3/[g_{-cat}{\cdot}h]$ and [CO]/[$SO_2$] molar ratio in the range of 1.0~4.0 were employed. The optimum temperature, GHSV, and [CO]/[$SO_2$] molar ratio were determined to be $325^{\circ}C$, $10000cm^3/[g_{-cat}{\cdot}h]$, and 2.0, respectively; under these conditions, $SO_2$ conversion was over 99% and sulfur selectivity was over 95%. In addition, the effect of $H_2O$ content on the $SO_2$ reduction by CO was also investigated. As the $H_2O$ content increased from 2 vol% up to 6 vol%, the reactivity and sulfur selectivity decreased. In case of 2 vol% $H_2O$ content, the reaction temperature and [CO]/[$SO_2$] molar ratio were varied in the range of $300{\sim}400^{\circ}C$ and 1.0~3.0. The optimum temperature and [CO]/[$SO_2$] molar ratio were $340^{\circ}C$ and 2.0, respectively under which $SO_2$ conversion and sulfur selectivity were about 90% and 87%, respectively.

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Smoking Cessation Education between CAI(Computer Assisted Instruction) and Lecture - Focused on Vocational High School Male Students - (CAI 개별 학습 프로그램을 적용한 금연 교육과 강의식 금연 교육의 효과 비교 - 실업계 남자 고등학생을 대상으로 -)

  • Lee Eun Suk;Kim Chung Nam
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.74-94
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of education between CAI(Computer Assisted Instruction) and lectures for smoking cessation among male students who attended vocational high schools. Conducted from February 24th to April 26th, 2003, the study design was quasi-experimental with nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The study subjects were 60 male students in K vocational high school in Daegu city, who were present smokers and had more than 7.0 ppm concentration level of carbon monoxide. Thirty students were randomly chosen as the experimental group which applied CAI education method for smoking cessation. The other 30 students served as the control group which received lecture education method of 40 minutes on four consecutive days. CAI education for smoking cessation was composed of ready-made individual learning contents, counseling by using cyber-communication, writing a letter to stop smoking, and writing a written agreement for smoking cessation. Lecture education for smoking cessation was composed of a ready-prepared lecture for the group, writing a letter to stop smoking, and writing a written agreement for smoking cessation. To measure smoking related knowledge, Jeong Ree Roh(1996)'s smoking related knowledge scale$(Cronbach's\;{\alpha}=0.84)$ was modified and used by the researcher. To measure smoking related attitude, Jeong Ree Roh(1996)'s smoking related attitude scale$(Cronbach's\;{\alpha}=0.91)$ was modified and used by the researcher. Smoking related knowledge scale's Cronbach's $\alpha$ was 0.83 in the pilot study and 0.93 in this study. Smoking related attitude scale's Cronbach's a was 0.80 in the pilot study and 0.98 in this study. To determine the smoking amount, the number of cigarettes smoked per day was checked. The concentration level of CO in the exhaled breath was measured (Micro CO Cat. No. MCO2, UK). Data was analyzed by $x^2-test$, t-test, repeated measures ANOVA. simple main effects, and time contrast test with SPSS/Win 11.0 program. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The first hypothesis. that 'Smoking-related knowledge score in the experimental group by using CAI education for smoking cessation will be higher than that in the control group by using lecture education for smoking cessation', was not supported. 2. The second hypothesis, that 'Smoking-related attitude in the experimental group by using CAI education for smoking cessation will be higher than that in the control group by using lecture education for smoking cessation'. was supported(F=6490.79. p=0.000). 3. The third hypothesis. that 'Smoking amount in the experimental group by using CAI education for smoking cessation will be less than that in the control group by using lecture education for smoking cessation'. was supported. 1) The third-1st sub-hypothesis. that 'The number of cigarettes smoked per day in the experimental group by using CAI education for smoking cessation will be less than that in the control group by using lecture education for smoking cessation'. was supported(F=134.19. p=0.000). 2) The third-2nd sub-hypothesis. that 'The concentration level of CO by ppm per one exhaled breath in the experimental group by using CAI education for smoking cessation will be lower than that in the control group by using lecture education for smoking cessation"' was supported(F=268.55. p=0.000). From the above results. CAI education can be an effective intervention to improve smoking-related knowledge and attitude. and to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the concentration level of CO by ppm per one exhaled breath. Lecture education can be effective to improve smoking-related knowledge. In the future, when CAI education and lecture education for smoking cessation are applied on the school nursing field. the students can gain a comprehensive understanding of smoking cessation, changes in smoking-related knowledge. smoking-related attitude and reducing smoking amount. Furthermore, CAI education for smoking cessation could be developed as an individual self initiative program and could give a guideline to apply CAI education for smoking cessation in other field.

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