• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carbon Monoxide

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A Case of Delayed Carbon Monoxide Encephalopathy (지연성 뇌병증을 보인 일산화탄소 중독 1례)

  • Yun, Sung Hyun;Jung, Hyun Min;Kang, Hwan Seok;Kim, Ji Hye;Han, Seung Baik;Kim, Jun Sig;Paik, Jin Hui
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 2013
  • Following are brief statements about the delayed encephalopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. A 72-year-old male was found without consciousness at home and then visited the ER center. Later we learned that the patient was using briquettes as a household heating source. Blood carbon monoxide hemoglobin level was 17.5%. As carbon monoxide poisoning was uncertain after the first interview with the patient, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was not administered at the early stage. After supplying 100% oxygen, the patient recovered consciousness, however, the strength of the lower limb muscle had decreased to class II. The patient showed continued weakening of the lower limb muscle and an increase of CPK; therefore, he was diagnosed as carbon monoxide intoxication and rhabdomyolysis and then admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for conservative treatment. During the hospitalization period, continued weakening of the lower limb muscle was observed and he was diagnosed as myopathy after EMG/MCV. However, he suddenly showed altered mentality on the 20th day of hospitalization, and underwent brain MRI. T2 weighted MRI showed typically high signal intensity of both globus pallidus and periventricular white matter; therefore, he was diagnosed as delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy. This case showed delayed encephalopathy accompanied by rhabdomyolysis and myopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness.

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Gamma-Radiolysis of Carbon Dioxide (IV). Effect of the Addition of Alcohols on the Gamma-Radiolysis of Gaseous Carbon Dioxide$^+$

  • Jin Joon Ha;Choi Jae Ho;Pyun Hyung Chick;Choi Sang Up
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-59
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    • 1988
  • The gaseous carbon dioxide has been irradiated with Co-60 gamma-radiation in the presence and absence of various alcohols, and the radiolysis products analyzed by gas chromatography. Experimental results indicate that no detectable amount of carbon monoxide is formed when pure carbon dioxide is irradiated. By adding small quantities of alcohols to carbon dioxide, however, considerable amount of carbon monoxide, ketones, alcohols and other organic products have been detected. By adding 0.1% of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-l-propanol, 2-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol, G(CO) values obtained are 4.4, 4.5, 5.2, 4.4, 5.2, 5.0, 4.7 and 4.1, respectively. These high yields of carbon monoxide suggest that the oxidation reactions of carbon monoxide may be suppressed by scavenging oxygen atom with the alcohols. The main radiolytic decomposition reactions of the alcohols present in small quantity in carbon dioxide may be supposed to be the reactions with the oxygen atom produced by the radiolysis of carbon dioxide. The decomposition reactions seems to follow pseudo-first order kinetics with respect to the alcohols. The decomposition rate measured with 2-propanol is the fastest and that with 2-methyl-2-propanol the slowest. The mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition reactions of the alcohols present in carbon dioxide are discussed on the basis of the experimental results of the present study.

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Effect of Exogenous Potassium on the Reduction in Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Deliveries in the Mainstream smoke of Cigarettes (가리염 첨가가 궐련 주류연중 타르, 니코틴, 일산화탄소 이행량에 미치는 영향)

  • 안기영;김천석
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 1995
  • Deliveries of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in mainstream smoke decreased with increment of exogenous potassium content of tobacco. Potassium malate was more effective than potassium nitrate, potassium carbonate, potassium citrate and potassium oxalate for the reduction of carbon monoxide, but potassium nitrate was more effective than potassium palate, potassium carbonat, potassium citrate and potassium oxalate for the reduction of carbon in the case of nicotine. Puff count and burning rate were slightly changed with added potassium salts.

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Carbon Monoxide Gas Carburization Behavior of Molybdenum Materials

  • Hieda, Koji;Nagae, Masahiro;Yoshio, Tetsuo;Takada, Jun;Hiraoka, Yutaka;Takida, Tomohiro
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.1159-1160
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    • 2006
  • For pure Molybdenum carburized in mixed gases of argon and carbon monoxide, microstructural observations were carried out. X-ray diffraction analysis for carburized specimens revealed that brittle ${\alpha}-Mo_2C$- layer hardly formed in the case of low carbon monoxide concentration. Fracture strength of the specimen carburized at 1673 K for 16 h is about 550 MPa higher than that of the un-carburized specimen. SEM observation revealed that with increasing carburizing temperature, the region demonstrating a transgranular fracture mode progressed towards the center of specimen. This result means that the grain boundaries were strengthened by the grain boundary diffusion of carbon and the strength of grain boundaries exceeded that of grain itself.

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Is hyperbaric oxygen therapy more effective than normobaric oxygen therapy for improving acute neuropsychologic status due to carbon monoxide poisoning? (고압산소치료가 정상압 산소치료에 비해 일산화탄소 중독의 급성 신경-정신 상태 개선에 더 효과적인가?)

  • Koh, Chan Young;Cho, Hyun Young;Choi, Han Joo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Emergency Medicine
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.509-518
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The evidence that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is more effective for improving the acute neuropsychological status (ANS) of carbon monoxide poisoning than normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy is not convincing. This is because the levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) do not correlate with the clinical severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and there is no universally accepted severity scale of carbon monoxide poisoning. This paper suggests a new scale for the clinical and neurological severity of carbon monoxide poisoning, called the ANS, and assesses the effect of HBO therapy for each level of ANS compared to NBO therapy. Methods: A total of 217 patients who had been hospitalized because of carbon monoxide poisoning from January 2009 to July 2013 were studied. ANS was suggested as a new severity scale of carbon monoxide poisoning considered in the Glasgow Coma Scale, acute neuro-psychologic signs and symptoms, or cardiac ischemia on the initial medical contact. HBO therapy is indicated in those who have a loss of consciousness, seizure, coma, abnormal findings on a neurological examination, pregnancy, persistent cardiac ischemia, level of COHb >25%, or severe metabolic acidosis (pH <7.2). The end point is the day of discharge, and recovery is defined as a normal neuro-psychological status without any sequelae. Results: The levels of troponin T and creatinine increased significantly with increasing ANS score. In the moderate to severe group (ANS 2 and 3), the recovery rate was significantly higher when treated with HBO therapy than with NBO therapy (P=0.030). On the other hand, the development of delayed neuro-psychological sequelae (DNS) did not correlate with any level of ANS, type of oxygen therapy, or recovery on discharge. Conclusion: In the moderate to severe poisoned group, HBO therapy is more effective for improving the ANS from carbon monoxide poisoning than NBO therapy. On the other hand, the development of DNS of HBO therapy is no more preventable than with NBO therapy. Although the level of ANS is low, the patient needs to be provided with sufficient information and a follow-up visit is recommended for any abnormal symptoms because the ANS does not correlate with the development and degree of DNS.

Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Combustion of Three Arbor in Youngdong Area (영동지역 교목 3수종 생엽의 연소에 따른 탄소배출량 분석)

  • Park, Young-Ju;Lee, Hae-Pyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.210-215
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    • 2010
  • In this study, when the forest fire occurred, in order to estimate greenhouse gas emissions, tree glow in Gangwon Youndong area, Juglans mandshurica, Alnus japonica, Acer palmatum of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions were about. Water content were measured before the experiment, Juglans mandshurica 196.24%, Alnus japonica 169.17% Acer palmatum 210.10% moisture content showed a big difference, Living leaves of Acer palmatum were a lot of moisture. Also, 50g weight of carbon dioxide on the Juglans mandshurica 53.3644g, Alnus japonica 49.4256g, was released about Acer palmatum 51.3394g, Juglans mandshurica living leaves were the most carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon monoxide emissions result, About weight 50g Juglans mandshurica 1.5329g, Alnus japonica 1.7189g, 2.5002g about Acer palmatum was released, Acer palmatum living leaves were the most carbon monoxide emissions.

Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on the Malondialdehyde Level and Oxygen Free Radical Reactions in the Heart of the Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide (일산화탄소 폭로후 고압산소 투여가 흰쥐 심장에서의 malondialdehyde 함량과 산소유리기 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • 신인철;고현철;하지희
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 1998
  • ln an attempt to define the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on the lipid peroxidation and oxygen See radical reactions in rats exposed to carbon monoxide, we studied malondialdehyde(MDA) level and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the heart of the rats exposed to carbon monoxide. Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 240 to 260gm were used. Experimental groups consist of Control group (=breathing with air), HBO group(=exposed to hyperbaric oxygen(HBO, 3ATA, 100%) after air breath), CO group(=exposed to CO(3,970 ppm) after air breath), CO-Air group(=exposed to CO after air breath followed by air breath) and CO-HBO group(=exposed to CO after ai. breath followed HBO treatment). The CO group showed significantly higher MDA level, catalase activity and SOD activity as compared to that of control group. The CO-HBO group showed significantly lower MDA level as compared to that of CO group, and did not show significantly lower catalase activity and SOD activity as compared to that of CO group. These results suggest that the excessive oxygen free radicals is an important determinant in pathogenesis of Co-induced cardiotoxicity and HBO inhibits the lipid peroxidation caused by excessive oxygen free radicals in the heart of the rats exposed to carbon monoxide.

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Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on the Malondialdehyde Level and Activities of Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase in the Kidney of the Rats Exposed to Carbon Monoxide (일산화탄소 폭로후 고압산소 투여가 흰쥐 신장에서의 malondialdehyde 함량과 catalase 및 superoxide dismutase 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 신인철;강주섭;고현철;하지희
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 1999
  • In an attempt to define the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on the lipid peroxidation and oxygen free radical reactions in rats exposed to carbon monoxide, we studied malondialdehyde (MDA) level and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the kidney of the rats exposed to carbon monoxide. Male Sprague-Dawley albino rats weighing 240 to 260 gm were used. Experimental groups consist of Control group (=breathing with air), HBO group (=exposed to hyperbaric oxygen 〔HBO, 3ATA, 100%〕 after air breath), CO group (=exposed to CO〔3,970 ppm〕after air breath), CO-Air group (=exposed to CO after air breath followed by air breath) and CO-HBO group (=exposed to CO after air breath followed HBO treatment). The CO group showed significantly higher MDA level, catalase activity and SOD activity as compared to that of control group. The CO-HBO group showed significantly lower MDA level as compared to that of CO group, and did not show significantly lower catalase activity and SOD activity as compared to that of CO group. These results suggest that the excessive oxygen free radicals is an important determinant in pathogenesis of CO-induced nephrotoxicity and HBO inhibits the lipid peroxidation caused by excessive oxygen free radicals in the kidney of the rats exposed to carbon monoxide.

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Motor Peripheral Neuropathy Involved Bilateral Lower Extremities Following Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Case Report (급성 일산화탄소 중독 환자에서 발생한 양하지 말초 운동신경병증 1례)

  • Choi, Jae-Hyung;Lim, Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.46-49
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    • 2015
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. Following are brief statements describing the motor peripheral neuropathy involved bilateral lower extremities of a patient who recovered following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. After inhalation of smoke from a fire, a 60-year-old woman experienced bilateral leg weakness without edema or injury. Neurological examination showed diplegia and deep tendon areflexia in lower limbs. There was no sensory deficit in lower extremities, and no cognitive disturbances were detected. Creatine kinase was normal. Electroneuromyogram patterns were compatible with the diagnosis of bilateral axonal injury. Clinical course after normobaric oxygen and rehabilitation therapy was marked by complete recovery of neurological disorders. Peripheral neuropathy is an unusual complication of CO intoxication. Motor peripheral neuropathy involvement of bilateral lower extremities is exceptional. Various mechanisms have been implicated, including nerve compression secondary to rhabdomyolysis, nerve ischemia due to hypoxia, and direct nerve toxicity of carbon monoxide. Prognosis is commonly excellent without sequelae. Emergency physicians should understand the possible-neurologic presentations of CO intoxication and make a proper decision regarding treatment.

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