• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carbon Monoxide

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A Study on Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Forest Fires Depending on Region and Altitude (지역 및 고도별 산불로부터 온실가스 배출량 분석 연구)

  • Park, Young-Ju;Lee, Hae-Pyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.182-188
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    • 2012
  • In this study we analyzed carbon emissions of leaves of a Pinus densiflora which is vulnerable to a forest fire using the cone calorimeter in order to analyze greenhouse gas emissions from forest fires depending on region and altitude. Fuels were collected from 9 regions[Hongcheon(Gangwon-do), Chungsong(Gyeongbuk-do), Yanhpyeong (Gyeonggi-do), Jecheon(Chungchongbuk-do), Gongju(Chungcheongnam-do), Wuju(Jeollabuk-do), Youngam(Jeollanam-do), Busan and Jeju-do)] and 9 altitudes(80 m, 450 m, 900 m, 1000 m, 1100 m, 1200 m, 1300 m, 1400 m and 1500 m) and then, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions contained in a weight of 50 g of fuel were analyzed. According to the results, there were differences in carbon emissions by regional groups, as the average carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions in 9 regions were nearly 43.5929 g to 52.8868 g, and 0.8842 g to 3.6422 g, respectively. Busan and Jecheon had relatively higher carbon dioxide emissions and especially, Busan had 1.23 times higher carbon dioxide emissions than Jeju-do. Also, Gongju, Chungcheongnamo Province and Busan had relatively higher carbon monoxide emissions and especially, Gongju and Pusan had relatively higher carbon monoxide emissions and especially, Gongju had 4.12 higher carbon monoxide emissions than Hongcheon. In addition, there were differences in carbon emissions too depending on altitude, since carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions in 9 altitudes were respectively, 40.7015 g to 68.9297 g and 1.3923 g to 12.2918 g. At the altitude of 80m, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions were respectively, 68.9297 g and 12.2918 g, and at the altitude of 450m, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions were respectively, 65.5115 g and 11.2497 g. These results show that pine trees at the lower altitude discharge relatively more carbon. It is considered that this analysis on carbon emissions depending on region and altitude can be effectively used for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and establishing statistical data from forest fires in each region and altitude.

Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Heme Oxygenase and Carbon Monoxide Production on the Aortic Contractility (Lipopolysaccharide에 의한 Heme Oxygenase Induction과 Carbon Monoxide생성이 혈관수축력에 미치는 영향)

  • 장우성;손의동;이석용
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2001
  • Heme oxygenase is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism that cleaves heme to form biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide. Heme oxygenase-1 is expressed in many types of cells and tissues and is highly induced in response to oxidative stress. Carbon monoxide, one of the products of heme oxygenase, can stimulate soluble guanylate cyclase and dilate the vascular smooth muscle. So, the induction of heme oxygenase by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxydative stress and the effect of the resultant carbon monoxide on aortic contractility were examined in this study. Zinc protoporphyrine IX (ZnPP), a inhibitor of heme oxygenase, elicited weak contraction of thoracic aortic ring, and this effect was more potent in aorta of LPS-treated rats than control and was blocked by methylene blue. The hyperreactivity to ZnPP in LPS-treated group was blocked by co-treatment with aminoguanidine. In the aortic ring of LPS-treated rats, ZnPP didn't change the vasoreactivity to phenylephrine or acetylcholine. ZnPP elicited hyper-tensive effect in concious rats, and pretreatment with LPS did not affect this effect. Prazosin significantly diminished the hypertensive effect of ZnPP. These results indicate that LPS induced heme oxygenase in aotra, and the resultant carbon monoxide diminished the aortic reactivity to vasoconstrictor.

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Effect of CO in Anode Fuel on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (수소연료 중 일산화탄소의 고분자전해질 연료전지에 대한 영향)

  • Kwon, Jun-Taek;Kim, Jun-Bum
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2008
  • Carbon monoxide(CO) is one of the contamination source in reformed hydrogen fuel with an influence on performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell(PEMFC). The studies of CO injection presented here give information about poisoning and recovery processes. The aim of this research is to investigate cell performance decline due to carbon monoxide impurity in hydrogen. Performance of PEM fuel cell was investigated using current vs. potential experiment, long time(10 hours) test, cyclic feeding test and electrochemical impedance spectra. The concentrations of carbon monoxide were changed up to 10 ppm. Performance degradation due to carbon monoxide contamination in anode fuel was observed at high concentration of carbon monoxide. The CO gas showed influence on the charge transfer reaction. The performance recovery was confirmed in long time test when pure hydrogen was provided for 1 hour after carbon monoxide had been supplied. The result of this study could be used as a basis of various reformation process design and fuel quality determination.

Combustion Emission Gas Analysis and Health Hazard Assessment about P. densiflora and Q. variabilis Surface Fuel Beds (소나무, 굴참나무 낙엽의 연소 방출가스 분석 및 건강 위험성 평가)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Eung-Sik;Lee, Myung-Bo
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2009
  • Based on fallen leaves of major Korean conifer species 'Pinus densiflora' and major Korean broadleaved species 'Quercus variabilis', this study sought to identify combustion emission gas types and measure their concentration by means of FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrometer. As a result, it was found that there were total 13 types of combustion gas detected from fallen leaves of Pinus densiflora and Quercus variabilis, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acetic acid, butyl acetate, ethylene, methane, methanol, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen fluoride, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen bromide. Notably, nitrogen monoxide was additionally detected from fallen leaves of Quercus variabilis. It was found that the overall concentration of combustion gas emitted from the fallen leaves of Pinus densiflora was 4.5 times higher than that from fallen leaves of Quercus variabilis. Particularly, it was found that emission concentration of some combustion emission gas types like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and butyl acetate exceeded the upper limit of their time-weighted average (TWA, ppm), while the emission concentration of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide exceeded their short-term exposure limit (STEL, ppm) for both species. Thus, it was found that carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have higher hazard to health than other gas types, because these two gas types account for higher than 99% of overall gas emission due to combustion of surface fire starting from litter layer in forest.

Revies on the Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Korea (한국에 있어서 연탄가스 중독에 관한 역학적 조사)

  • 이옥휘
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.25-39
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    • 1978
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most serious health problems in Korea. In this review, the author made a intensive reference review on the causes of carbon monoxide poisoning, the patterns of carbon monoxide poisoning and the prospects of CO poisoning. Following findings were induced through the review. 1. Carbon monoxide poisoning is influenced by variable social factors than any other diseases or accidents and is more closely related with the economical and cultural parameters of the community. 2. The increase of risk in the populatlon is expected by National Energy Policy and the hazards of CO poisoning will rather be increasing as long as no radical control measure will be taken. 3. More practical control measure, including extensive public relation service, should be established to eradicate this serious health hazard in Korea.

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A Study of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation on Pt & Pt-Pd Catalysts (귀금속촉매 (Pt, Pd)를 이용한 일산화탄소 산화반응에 관한 연구)

  • 金京林
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.43-51
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    • 1985
  • This study is concerned with the oxidation of carbon monoxide on platinum and platinum-palladium catalysts. Catalysts were made by the impregnation method and flow reactor was used in the catalytic reaction. As for the mixed gases, carbon monoxide concentration varied from 1 to 4% and that of oxygen from 1 to 4%. $N_2$ was used as carrier gas and GHSV varied from 24, 000 $h^{-1} to 60, h^{-1}$. The temperature range was from 200 to $600^\circ$C. It was also taken into consideration that the heat and mass transfer resistance of our catalysts was negligible in the study. Experimental results showed that platinum-palladium catalyst was about 1.5-3.9% superior to platinum catalyst in conversion yield. When we used platinum-palladium catalyst, we observed that carbon monoxide oxidation was found to be 1 st order with respect to carbon monoxide concentration. Activation energy of the catalyst was 23.5 kcal/mol.

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A Study on the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide for Exhaust of Car Engine by the $LaSrNiCoO_3$ Low Noble Metal Catalyst (저귀금속 $LaSrNiCoO_3$ 촉매에 의한 자동차 배기중의 일산화탄소의 산화반응에 관한 연구)

  • 이근배;이석희
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.57-72
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    • 1990
  • The oxidation of carbon monoxide on a catalyst, $LaSrNiCoO_3$ was investigatigated with a plug flow system. Kinetic quantities such as reaction-rate, reaction order and Arhenius-parameters at various reactor temperature from 200$^\circ$C to 300$^\circ$C were determined. Also, the optimum condition for the oxidation of carbon monoxide with this catalyst was determined and are as follows. Partial pressure of oxigen ; 428mmHg Partial pressure of carbon monoxide ; 332mmHg Mixed moral ratio of oxigen and Carbon monoxide ; 1.3 : 1 Total gas flow ; 224ml/min Reaction temperature ; 340$^\circ$C The reaction kinetic equation at the optimum condition, temperature range from 200$^\circ$C to 340$^\circ$C, are as follow. $$ $v = Ae^{6.5Kcal/RT} [CO]^{0.93 \sim 0.98} [O_2]^{0.42 \sim 0.50}$ $$ In addition to this, numerical calculation were performed to evaluate the mass and heat transfer effect on this system.

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PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN AQUEOUS AMMONIA

  • Kim, Hee-Jeong;Park, Hyoung-Ryun
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 1999
  • The photochemical transformation of carbon monoxide in aqueous ammonia solution has been investigated at 25${\pm}$0.1$^{\circ}C$ using 184.9 nm UV light. Amination and carbonylation processes were carried out by irradiating the aqueous ammonia solution saturated with carbon monoxide, and the formation of formamide, urea, hexamethylenetetramine, formaldehyde, glyoxal and hydrazine was observed. The formation of hydrazine was affected by the presence of ammonia, and the formation of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde and glyoxal was influenced by the presence of carbon monoxide. The formation of formamide, urea and hexamethylenetetramine was affected by both ammonia and carbon monoxide. The initial quantum yields of the products were determined and probable mechanisms for the photochemical reaction were presented on the basis of product analysis.

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Combustion Emission Gas Analysis & Hazard Assessment to the Litter Layer in Forest (임내 낙엽층의 연소 방출가스 분석 및 건강 위험성 평가)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Myung-Bo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering Conference
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    • pp.358-364
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    • 2009
  • 본 연구에서는 우리나라 주요 침엽수종인 소나무(Pinus densiflora)와 활엽수종인 굴참나무(Quercus variabilis)의 낙엽에 대해 FTIR(Fourier Transform Infrared) 분광계를 이용하여 배출 연소가스 종류 및 농도를 측정하였다. 실험결과 소나무와 굴참나무 낙엽에서 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Acetic acid, Butyl acetate, Ethylene, Methane, Methanol, Nitrogen dioxide, Ammonia, Hydrogen Fluoride, Sulfur dioxide, Hydrogen bromide 등 13개 연소가스가 검출되었고 굴참나무 낙엽에서는 Nitrogen monoxide가 추가로 검출되었다. 방출된 연소가스의 전체 농도는 소나무 낙엽이 굴참나무 낙엽에 비해 4.5배 많이 검출되었다. 특히, 시간가중평균가스농도(TWA : Time-weighted average, ppm) 기준을 초과하는 연소가스는 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Butyl acetate가 검출되었고 단시간노출기준(STEL : Short Term Exposure Limit, ppm) 기준을 초과하는 연소가스는 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide로 소나무 및 굴참나무 모두에서 나타났다. 이에 산불에서의 낙엽층 지표화 연소시 전체 가스 방출량의 99% 이상을 차지하고 있는 Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide의 건강 위험성이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 하지만, 검출된 다른 건강 위험성 가스의 경우에도 연소물질의 양이 증가할수록 연소가스의 농도가 높아져 건강안정성에 해가 있을 것으로 판단되며 또한 검출된 연소가스 중 나무의 주요구성 원소가 아닌 Bromide, Fluoride 화합물에 대해서는 토양으로부터의 오염 또는 분석과정에서의 노이즈로 인한 검출 등에 대한 보다 면밀한 검토가 필요할 것으로 판단된다.

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A Case of Delayed Carbon Monoxide Encephalopathy (지연성 뇌병증을 보인 일산화탄소 중독 1례)

  • Yun, Sung Hyun;Jung, Hyun Min;Kang, Hwan Seok;Kim, Ji Hye;Han, Seung Baik;Kim, Jun Sig;Paik, Jin Hui
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 2013
  • Following are brief statements about the delayed encephalopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. A 72-year-old male was found without consciousness at home and then visited the ER center. Later we learned that the patient was using briquettes as a household heating source. Blood carbon monoxide hemoglobin level was 17.5%. As carbon monoxide poisoning was uncertain after the first interview with the patient, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was not administered at the early stage. After supplying 100% oxygen, the patient recovered consciousness, however, the strength of the lower limb muscle had decreased to class II. The patient showed continued weakening of the lower limb muscle and an increase of CPK; therefore, he was diagnosed as carbon monoxide intoxication and rhabdomyolysis and then admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for conservative treatment. During the hospitalization period, continued weakening of the lower limb muscle was observed and he was diagnosed as myopathy after EMG/MCV. However, he suddenly showed altered mentality on the 20th day of hospitalization, and underwent brain MRI. T2 weighted MRI showed typically high signal intensity of both globus pallidus and periventricular white matter; therefore, he was diagnosed as delayed carbon monoxide encephalopathy. This case showed delayed encephalopathy accompanied by rhabdomyolysis and myopathy of a patient who recovered without disturbance of consciousness.

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