• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carbohydrates

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Comparative Analysis on Concentration and Synthetic Amount of Water Soluble and Water Insoluble Carbohydrates with Different Plant Tissues, Growth Stages and Years Old of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (인삼의 연생, 생육시기 및 식물체 부위별 수용성과 불수용성 탄수화물 함량과 합성저장량 비교)

  • Park, Seong Yong;Ahn, Bok Ju;Ahn, Hee Jung;Lee, Gyeong A;Heo, Su Jeong;Jeong, Haet Nim;Song, Beom Heon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.292-297
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to have the basic and applied informations relating to develop the cultivation methods and to increase the productivity and quality of ginseng. 1 to 6 year old ginsengs of Jakyung cultivar were cultivated and the content and synthetic amount of carbohydrates were investigated with different plant tissues, growth stages, and years old. The concentration of total carbohydrates at six year old ginseng including water soluble and water insoluble carbohydrates was about 18.9%, 42.9%, and 43,6% in leaves, tap roots, and lateral roots, respectively. Water soluble carbohydrate of tap and lateral roots was slightly decreased from August until September, and then increased on November, whereas its water insoluble carbohydrate was increased from August to September and then decreased on November. Comparing with the content of carbohydrates of 1 to 6 year old ginsengs, it was continuously increased from one year old ginseng until five year old ginseng, however it was not increased much in six year old ginseng. The highest content of carbohydrates was at five year-old in all tissues of ginseng. Water soluble and water insoluble carbohydrates were significantly shown different in leaves, stems, tap roots, and lateral root at different growth stages and with different years old. The content of water soluble carbohydrate in the leaves was remarkedly higher compared to that of water insoluble carbohydrate, while in the root the content of water insoluble carbohydrate was clearly higher compared to the water soluble carbohydrate. Comparing with the synthetic amount of carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates was higher in the shoot than that in the root, whereas water-insoluble carbohydrates higher in the root than that in the shoot. Carbohydrates which would be utilized in ginseng tissues for short and long-term periods as major energy were appeared differently in between shoot and root, with different growth stages, and years old.

Effect of several carbohydrates on lignin degradation by pleurotus ostreatus (Pleurotus ostreatus에 의한 리그닌 분해에 미치는 수종 탄수화물의 영향)

  • 김규중;맹진수;강사욱;하영칠;홍순우
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 1986
  • To clarify the effects of several carbohydrates on the biodegradation of lignin by Pleurotus ostreatus. The strain was cultured on the media formulated with lignin and carbohydrates such as cellulose, xylan, collobiose, glucose and xylose, which was added individually. The culture mixtures grown 36 days were filtered and then estimated the degree of lignin biodegradation. It was found that the growth of P. ostreatus was stimulated and the depoly-merization was also increased by the addition of carbohydrates. When the carbohydrates were not added, polymerization was apparent in stead of depolymerization. In the case of glucose as an added carbohydrate, the content of lignin by the nitrosolignin method was greatly (about 7.4 times) decreased than control which contains lignin as a carbon source. The peak of lignin at 280nm in UV spectra was decreased about 27% after 27 days of culture. As results, it was assumed that lignin biodegradation was correlated to the carbohydrates and especially glucose was very significant role in lignin degradation.

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Novel Heterogeneous Carbohydrase Reaction Systems for the Direct Conversion of Insoluble Carbohydrates: Reaction Characteristics and their Applications

  • Lee, Yong-Hyun;Park, Dong-Chan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1999
  • Most carbohydrates exist in nature in an insoluble state, which reduces their susceptibility towards various carbohydrases. Accordingly, they require intensive pretreatment for structural modification to enhance an enzyme reaction. The direct conversion of insoluble carbohydrates has distinct advantages for special types of reaction, especially exo-type carbohydrase; however, its application is limited due to structural constraints. This paper introduces two novel heterogeneous enzyme reaction systems for direct conversion of insoluble carbohydrates; one is an attrition coupled enzyme reaction system containing attrition-milling media for enhancing the enzyme reaction, and the other is a heterogeneous enzyme reaction system using extruded starch as an insoluble substrate. The direct conversion of typically insoluble carbohydrates, including cellulose, starch, and chitin with their corresponding carbohydrases, including cellulase, amylase, chitinase, and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, was carried out using two proposed enzyme reaction systems. The conceptual features of the systems, their reaction characteristics and mechanism, and the industrial applications of the various carbohydrates are analyzed in this review.

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Studies on analysis of the Korean lager beers. (I) "On the estimation of total carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides" (한국산 맥주성분에 관한 연구 (제 1 ) "Total carbohydrates, amino acids 및 peptides 의 정 에 관하여")

  • 한홍의;김종협
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 1968
  • Total carbohydrates, amino acids and peptide-like substances in two kinds of Korean lager beers have been analyzed by the calorimetric method of Dreywood's anthrone reagent and Fowden's ninhydrin reagent. The samples were fractionated with column of ion-exchange resin. The experimental results are as follows; 1. Amounts of non-hydrolyzed carbohydrates in the part of column processed is 1. 82% and 1. 96 % (the value was measured by Bertrand's method). But the amounts of those measured by Dreywood's anthrone method are 5.57% and 4.25%, this values are much more than those of Bertrand's method. 2. It can be estimated the amounts of gum and dextrin are 3.75% and 3.30% in both two beers, by comparison of samples with the above mentioned two method. 3. The amounts of carbohydrates by anthrone reagent in acid-hydrolyzed beers are much increased than those of non-hydrolyzed, so it is suggested the presence of polymer carbohydrates which couldn't be detected by Bertrand's method. 4. Total amounts of amino acids are 0.015% and 0.025% (as glycine) in non-hydrolyzed beers measured by ninhydrine color reaction method, on the other hand the amount of amino acids in acid hydrolyzed beers are 0.06% and 0.056%, this is much more than those of nonhydrolysis. The different amounts means that of peptide-like substances. 5. It is necessary to determine the constituent of amino acid for the better taste of beer, and also it is desirable to check the role of carbohydrates in the course of fermentation, mashing and on lager beer for effective utilization of carbohydrate materials to eliminate the losses.

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Studies on Carbohydrate Accumulation in Aspergillus niger During the Differentiation (검정곰팡이의 분화(分化)에 따른 총탄수화물(總炭水化物) 및 트레하로즈량(量)의 변동(變勳)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Shin-Sook;Kim, Jong-Hyup
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.193-202
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    • 1982
  • The changes of total carbohydrates and trehalose levels during differentiation of A. niger were studied. Aspergillus niger was cultivated in Czapeck-Dox medium by the method of surface culture and shake culture. Total carbohydrates and trehalose were fractionated and determined by the method of Trevelyan and Harrison (1956). Total carbohydrates and trehalose accumulated in A. niger during sporulation. The influences of nutritional starvation on the levels of cellular carbohydrates in A. niger, which was cultivated in each nitrogen, phosphate and glucose limited Czapeck-Dox medium, were studied. The levels of total carbohydrates and trehalose in A. niger cultivated in nitrogen limited medium increased much than those cultured in full medium. The total carborates and trehalose levels in A. niger cultivated in phosphate limited medium increased, but the increases were less than those cultured in nitrogen limitted medium. In glucose limited medium, any changes of total carbohydrates and trehalose levels were not found. It is considered that the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the changes of total carbohydrates and trehalose levels may be related with differentiation of Aspergillus niger.

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The Separation and Utilization of Carbohydrates from Waste Liquor in Modified Pulping Process (개량(改良)펄프화법(化法) 폐액(廢液)으로 부터 당(糖)의 분리(分離)와 이용(利用))

  • Lee, Jong-Yoon;Yang, Jae-Kyung;Hwang, Byung-Ho;Cho, Hern-Joung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.19-24
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to study utilization of separated carbohydrates as well as separation, following analysis of the major components and separation of the carbohydrates in waste liquors of SP, KP, ASAM and AS. The result can be summerized as follows; Inorganic contents in waste liquors increase in this order AS

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Analyses of cellular carbohydrates in Leucosporidium scottii and its related texa of basidiomycetous yeasts by the high performance liquid chromatography (담자균 효모(酵母) Leucosporidium scottii와 관련 분류군(分類群) 균주(菌珠)의 HPLC에 의한 세포당질(細胞糖質) 분석(分析))

  • Joo, Woo-Hong
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.253-257
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    • 1991
  • Cellular carbohydrates were hydrolysed and analyzed in the strains of Leucosporidium scottii and its related species of basidiomycetous yeasts by HPLC methods without any derivatization. Xylose was detected from the hydrolyses of the cellular carbohydrates of L. lari-marini, but not from those of three strains of L. antarcticum, L. fellii, and Rhodosporidium fluviales. not also from those of six strains of L. scottii contrary to other data reported. L. antarcticum and L. lari-marini were considered to be placed on the different genus of Cystofilobasidium or Mrakia, as based on the numerical analyses.

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Copper Oxide-Modified Polymeric Composite Elecrodes for Amperometric Detection of Carbohydrates in LCEC Analysis

  • 정혜경;박종만
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.952-957
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    • 1997
  • Modified polymeric composite electrodes having highly dispersed CuO particles through the electrode matrix were prepared for LCEC or flow injection analysis of carbohydrates. The composite electrodes were prepared by incorporating carbon black and highly dispersed copper oxide particles in polystyrene matrix cross-linked with divinylbenzene. The analytical characteristics of the electrodes for LCEC and flow injection analysis of carbohydrates were evaluated. Improved performance in LCEC and flow injection analysis of carbohydrates is demonstrated in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility, stability and surface renewability. It was possible to get improved performance of the electrodes as well as adaptability of the electrodes for practical applications by employing highly dispersed catalyst particles through the electrode matrix and robust polymeric electrode matrix.

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Effect of Carbohydrates on in vitro Shoot Growth of Various Prunus Species

  • Cheong, Eun Ju;An, Chanhoon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.357-362
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    • 2015
  • Carbohydrate sources are one of important factors associated with macro- and micro nutrients and phytohormones in vitro culture medium for shoot growth. The optimal carbohydrates for eight species of the genus Prunus which are economically important fruit crop was evaluated at the initiation and elongation stages. All carbohydrate seemed utilized for the bud break and leaf growth at the early stage of culture. However, shoot elongation and fresh weight of species tested were superior in the medium containing 90 mM of fructose or glucose rather than sucrose. There was no difference between glucose and fructose. Adventitious shoots from the axillary buds were induced in most species but no significant differences were observed except for two species (P. salicina ‘Shiro’ and P. tomentosa). These result demonstrated that glucose and fructose were suitable carbohydrate sources for diverse Prunus species than sucrose, although the response to the carbohydrates in the medium were slightly different in the species.

Soy Oligosaccharides and Soluble Non-starch Polysaccharides: A Review of Digestion, Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Effects in Pigs and Poultry

  • Choct, M.;Dersjant-Li, Y.;McLeish, J.;Peisker, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1386-1398
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    • 2010
  • Soybean contains a high concentration of carbohydrates that consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. The NSP can be divided into insoluble NSP (mainly cellulose) and soluble NSP (composed mainly of pectic polymers, which are partially soluble in water). Monogastric animals do not have the enzymes to hydrolyze these carbohydrates, and thus their digestion occurs by means of bacterial fermentation. The fermentation of soybean carbohydrates produces short chain fatty acids that can be used as an energy source by animals. The utilization efficiency of the carbohydrates is related to the chemical structure, the level of inclusion in the diet, species and age of the animal. In poultry, soluble NSP can increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and depress growth performance. In growing pigs, these effects, in particular the effect on gut viscosity, are often not so obvious. However, in weaning piglets, it is reported that soy oligosaccharides and soluble NSP can cause detrimental effects on intestinal health. In monogastrics, consideration must be given to the anti-nutritive effect of the NSP on nutrient digestion and absorption on one hand, as well as the potential benefits or detriments of intestinal fermentation products to the host. This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. For example, ethanol/water extraction removes the low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions, such as the oligosaccharides and part of the soluble pectins, leaving behind the insoluble fraction of the NSP, which is devoid of anti-nutritive activities. The resultant product is a high quality soy protein concentrate. This paper presents the composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans and discusses their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry.