• Title, Summary, Keyword: Carbohydrate

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Effect of High Carbohydrate Intakes on the Obesity Index, Blood Pressure, and Blood Lipid Levels in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

  • Lee, Seung-Min;Ahn, Hyang-Sook;Lee, Lil-Ha
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.451-457
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of the ratio of energy from carbohydrate to total calories on dietary intake, obesity index, blood pressure, and blood lipid content in cardiovascular disease patients over 35 years old. A total of 552(227 male, 325 female) subjects were divided into three groups according to carbohydrate/total energy ratio : carbohydrate ratios below 25 percent were in the low carbohydrate group( <61.1%), between 25 and 75 percent carbohydrate were medium($\geq$61.1-<74.7%), and higher than 75 percent were in the high carbohydrate group($\geq$74.7%). The anthropometric data, nutrient intake, serum lipid levels, and blood pressure of each group were compared with one another. For men and women with high carbohydrate intakes, Inadequate nutritional intake was observed. Abdominal fat accumulation and blood TC level for men in the high carbohydrate group were higher than in medium or low carbohydrate groups. Therefore, it seems that high carbohydrate intake may produce adverse effects on abdominal fat accumulation and blood lipid patterns. Blood pressure, however, was significantly higher for women in low and high carbohydrate groups than in medium carbohydrate group. These results suggest that extremely high and low carbohydrate intake may raise the risk of cardiovascular disease and that it is necessary to consume nutritionally balanced meals. This can be done by controlling the ratio of dietary carbohydrate at a medium level in order to prevent and/or to reduce the risk.

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Nutrient Intakes and Serum Lipoprotein in Female NIDDM Patients (한국 여자 당뇨환자의 영양섭취실태와 혈청 지질 비성)

  • 조우균
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.116-122
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    • 1996
  • This study aimed at the effect of carbohydrate level on serum glucose and lipid in Korean female 300 NIDDM patients. Mostly NIDDM appears in 50-64 years. As carbohydrate level increased, nutrient intakes increased. Most carbohydrate intakes were polysaccharides. High carbohydrate diets made blood glucose level increased. But high carbohydrate-fiber diets result lowering effect on serum LDL /HDL-cholesterol ratio and triacylglycerides. In conclusion, NIDDM patients need regular exercise and total energy intake balance. High carbohydrate-fiber diets are recommendable.

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Carbohydrate Intake Associated with Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in the Adults: NHANES III (성인의 만성질환관련 탄수화물 식사지침 연구)

  • 정혜경;양은주;박원옥
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.873-881
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    • 2000
  • Recent research reported health risks associate with high carbohydrates diets. Objectives of this study were to evaluate in a cross-sectional study if high carbohydrate diet is associated with coronary heart disease(CHD) risk factors: examined blood concnetration of triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C), plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure(BP), body mas index(BMI), wasit-hip ratio(WHR) and waist-stature ratio(WSR). Using the most recent US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(IIINHANES III) data, the nationally representative US population (3772 men, 4095 women of 25-64 years of age) was divided into low vs. high carbohydrate diet groups(below 40% vs. above 60% energy intake from cab carbohydrates) and compared by the CHD risk factors. Triglyceride was higher(p<0.001) in the high carbohydrate group, whereas high density-lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)was lower(p<0.01) in the high carbohydrate diet group. In plasma glucose, there was no significant differences between high carbohydrate diet and low carbohydrate diet. In adiposity(BMI, WHR and WSR), it also showed no significant differences, After adjustment for age, ethnicity, alcohol and smoking in upper 60%-carbohydrate diet, Odds Ratio of TG and HDL-C were 1.42 and 1.23 in men and 1.22 and 1.17 in women. 50-60% carbohydrate diet was associated with decreased risk of CHD. Dietary guidelines for Koreans recommend 60-70% of total energy from carbohydrate, as Koreans traditionally consumed high carbohydrate diets. In a cross-sectional population of adults, diets containing 55-60% energy from carbohydrate were suggested as a dietary guideline of carbohydrate intake for Koreans. (Korean J Nutrition 33(8) : 873-881, 2000)

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A Minireview on Carbohydrate in Weight Management Diet : The Quantity and the Quality (체중조절 식이에서 탄수화물의 비중 : 그 질과 양)

  • Lee, Myung-Jong;Kim, Ho-Jun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.121-131
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    • 2005
  • During last few decades dietary guidelines for the weight management mainly have focused on a low-fat, high carbohydrate diet. Carbohydrate was supposed to be low-dense, highly satiating as well as it affects little on the lipogenesis. Although low-fat diet has significant weight-reducing effect, the loss was modest and usually regained after cessation of the diet. Furthermore, low-fat, modest-carbohydrate diet did not impact on the ever increasing rates of overweight and obesity. Alternative approaches include low-carbohydrate diet, high-carbohydrate diet and low-glycemic index diet. Although none of above mentioned diet have sufficient evidence for standard weight management diet, short-term efficacy and safety are being approved continuously. Low-carbohydrate diet contains less than 45% of carbohydrate in daily energy consumption, it is claimed to have more satiating effect and to improve metabolism. However, low compliance due to the limitation of food choice should be considered on prescribing the diet. High-carbohydrate which contains 90% of carbohydrate in total daily energy consumption, is effective in providing satiety and lowering total calorie intake and cholesterol. On the other hand, nutritional unbalance should be took into account. Low-glycemic index diet is based on the theory that contemporary diet contains significantly less fiber and unrefined carbohydrate, therefore insulin secretion is disturbed. Because low glycemic index food slowly increase blood glucose and insulin level, it induces much satiating effect and may decrease calorie ultimate intake. However, poor standardization of glycemic index is one of the main obstacle for the diet to be applied in the clinic. Meanwhile, high fructose food and beverage should be discouraged because it has little satiating effect and may cause insulin resistance. High fiber food is another recommendation for healthy, lean diet.

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Effect of Carbohydrate Sources in Phase I and Phase II Pig Starter Diets

  • Kim, I.B.;Allee, G.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.1419-1424
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    • 2001
  • Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated the importance of lactose in phase I and II pig starter diets. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a carbohydrate by-product (food by-products) as a replacement for lactose. In Exp. I, 120 weaned pigs ($14{\pm}2d$ and 5.65kg) were allotted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to 10 replications with four pigs per pen. This experiment evaluated three carbohydrate sources (lactose, carbohydrate by-product, and 50-50 blend of the carbohydrate by-product and lactose). The carbohydrate sources were added at 26% in the phase I diets and 15% in the phase II diets. Phase I diets contained 7.5% spray dried plasma protein (SDP). The phase I diets were fed from d 0 to 14 and the phase II diets from d 15 to 28. There were no significant differences between carbohydrate sources on pig performance in phase I. However, during phase II pigs fed the diet with lactose had an improved gain/feed ratio (G/F) (p=0.06) compared to pigs fed the carbohydrate by-product. For the entire 28 d trial ADG, ADFI and G/F were similar for the 50-50 blend and those fed lactose. Total replacement of lactose with the carbohydrate byproduct resulted in a reduced G/F (p=0.09). Exp. 2 used 100 weaned pigs ($17{\pm}2d$ and 4.75kg) with five replications with five pigs per pen. This experiment evaluated four carbohydrate treatments (lactose, carbohydrate by-products, 50-50 blend, and corn). All phase I diets contained 3.5% SDP with the carbohydrate sources included at 15%, and were fed d 0 to 14. The phase II diets contained 7.5% of the carbohydrate sources and were fed d 15 to 27. A common phase III diet was fed d 28 to 42. During all phases pigs fed com tended to have a lower ADG than pigs fed the other carbohydrate sources with the 50-50 blend resulting in the highest ADG. The results of both experiments suggest that this carbohydrate by-product can replace at least 50% of the lactose in phase I and phase II pig starter diets.

The Effect of the Dietary Carbohydrate on Lipid and Ca Metabolism, and the Immune Function in Aged Rats (고$\cdot$저 탄수화물 식이로 사육된 흰 쥐의 노화과정중 나타나는 지방과 Ca 대사 및 면역능력에 미치는 영향연구)

  • 윤군애
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 1987
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietray carbohydrate level on the lipid and Ca metabolism, and on immune response in the process of aging. Sprag\ulcornerue - Dawley male rats of 12 months of age were fed either high carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet for 9 months. With increasing age from 12 months to 21 months, there was no significant increase in body weight, however, the epididymal fat pat weight and total serum lipid tend to become higher, and the inorganic/organic matterratio in bone tends to become lower. This suggests that body fat accumulation increase and bone mass decrease with age. Rats fed low carbohydrate diet showed the higher epididymal fat pat weight, and the lower Ca content in femur and scapular compared to high carbohydrate diet fed rats. The immune response was also lower in low carbohydrate diet group judged by the lower thymus and spleen index and by the lower response to PHA and ConA stimulation. The results of this study suggests that the dietary level of carbohydrate and fat may play an important role in the process of aging. It could be recommended to practice high carbohydrate -low fat diet for the elderly to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases.

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Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate (Pork Rind-Based) Diet on Weight Gain, Serum Levels of Cholesterol, Triacylglycerol, Glucose, Ketone Bodies and Insulin and Body Composition in Adult Rats

  • Seo, Kyung-Hoon;Koh, Mi-Ran;Lee, Chong-Eon;Kim, Kyu-Il
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2004
  • A study was carried out to determine the effect of a very low-carbohydrate diet on weight gain, body composition, and serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, ketone bodies and insulin. Twenty rats (mean initial weight, 212 g) were divided into two groups and each group was assigned a conventional high-carbohydrate diet (control) or a very low-carbohydrate diet containing 59.8% ground pork rind snack and fed the diet for four weeks. Average daily body weight gain was not different between the two groups during the first two weeks, but was significantly lower in rats fed the very low-carbohydrate diet than in those in the control group during third (p<0.05) and fourth weeks (p<0.01). Feedintake as well as energy intake was lower in rats fed the very low-carbohydrate diet than in those in the control group. The very low-carbohydrate diet reduced (p<0.01) serum triacylglycerol (34$\pm$83 vs 82$\pm$8 mg/l00 mL) and insulin (3.90$\pm$0.53 vs 7.60$\pm$0.61 $\mu$IU/mL) levels, while increasing (p<0.01) ketone body level (368$\pm$25 vs 236$\pm$24 $\mu$mol/L), compared with the control. Serum glucose and total cholesterol levels were not different (p>0.05) between the two dietary treatments. Proximate analysis of carcasses showed that the very low-carbohydrate diet decreased (p<0.01) body fat (26.1$\pm$1.04 vs 30.5$\pm$0.86%), while increasing (p<0.01) body protein (63.1$\pm$0.94 vs 59.4$\pm$0.70%) contents. Results indicate that short-term feeding of a very low-carbohydrate diet is beneficial for alleviating risk factors known to involve cardiovascular diseases or artherosclerosis. However, more studies with model animals as well as humans are recommended to examine the long-term health benefits of low-carbohydrate diets.

Degradation Kinetics of Carbohydrate Fractions of Ruminant Feeds Using Automated Gas Production Technique

  • Seo, S.;Lee, Sang C.;Lee, S.Y.;Seo, J.G.;Ha, Jong K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.356-364
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    • 2009
  • The current ruminant feeding models require parameterization of the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions in feed ingredients to estimate the supply of nutrients from a ration. Using an automated gas production technique, statistically welldefined digestion rate of carbohydrate, including soluble carbohydrate, can be estimated in a relatively easy way. In this study, the gas production during in vitro fermentation was measured and recorded by an automated gas production system to investigate degradation kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of a wide range of ruminant feeds: corn silage, rice straw, corn, soybean hull, soybean meal, and cell mass from lysine production (CMLP). The gas production from un-fractionated, ethanol insoluble residue and neutral detergent insoluble residue of the feed samples were obtained. The gas profiles of carbohydrate fractions on the basis of the carbohydrate scheme of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (A, B1, B2, B3 and C) were generated using a subtraction approach. After the gas profiles were plotted with time, a curve was fitted with a single-pool exponential equation with a discrete lag to obtain kinetic parameters that can be used as inputs for modern nutritional models. The fractional degradation rate constants (Kd) of corn silage were 11.6, 25.7, 14.8 and 0.8%/h for un-fractioned, A, B1 and B2 fractions, respectively. The values were statistically well estimated, assessed by high t-value (>12.9). The Kd of carbohydrate fractions in rice straw were 4.8, 21.1, 5.7 and 0.5%/h for un-fractioned, A, B1 and B2 fractions, respectively. Although the Kd of B2 fraction was poorly defined with a t-value of 4.4, the Kd of the other fractions showed tvalues higher than 21.9. The un-fractioned corn showed the highest Kd (18.2%/h) among the feeds tested, and the Kd of A plus B1 fraction was 18.7%/h. Soybean hull had a Kd of 6.0, 29.0, 3.8 and 13.8%/h for un-fractioned, A, B1 and B2, respectively. The large Kd of fraction B2 indicated that NDF in soybean hull was easily degradable. The t-values were higher than 20 except for the B1 fraction (5.7). The estimated Kd of soybean meal was 9.6, 24.3, 5.0%/h for un-fractioned, A and B1 fractions, respectively. A small amount of gas (5.6 ml at 48 ho of incubation) was produced from fermentation of CMLP which contained little carbohydrate. In summary, the automated gas production system was satisfactory for the estimation of well defined (t-value >12) kinetic parameters and Kd of soluble carbohydrate fractions of various feedstuffs that supply mainly carbohydrate. The subtraction approach, however, should be applied with caution for some concentrates, especially those which contain a high level of crude protein since nitrogen-containing compounds can interfere with gas production.