• Title, Summary, Keyword: Capital Gains

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The Effect of Inviting External Capital on Regional Economy (외부자본 유치가 지역경제가 미치는 경제적 효과)

  • 김영용;손용엽
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.25-43
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    • 1997
  • This paper empirically estimates gains from capital inflow to a regional ecomomy. It will be a usefulc for indicator for a local government to build a policy for attracting capital. We estimate the respective Cobb-Douglas production function for 11 provinces of Korea, derive its marginal productivity of capital, and then calculate the amount of capital moved between two provinces and gains from the capital movement. With no barriers to capital movement, there would be a strong motive for capital inflow to Seoul, Pusan, and Kyungki, whereas capital outflow would be expected in Chonnam, Chungbuk, Chungnam, and Kyungbuk. The ratio of gains from capital movement to the regional domestic from capital movement to the regional domestic product(RDP) is high in Cheju, Kangwon, Chungbuk, and so on. It turns out that capital flows from an area with lower productivity of capital to one with hihger productivity. This implies that if the local government of an underdeveloped region wants to lure capital investment from outside, it needs to provide it with strong incentives of eax reduction and special loans.

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A Study on the Improvement Method of the Capital Gains Tax in Korea (양도소득세 결정방법의 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ju-Taek
    • Korean Business Review
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    • v.17
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    • pp.111-136
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study is to review the improvement method of Korea capital gains tax according to the alienation of the real estate, and to suggest an improvement plan. The study has been carried out by reviewing the related literatures. Capital gains tax could be calculated either using the actual price of sale or the standard prices. Korea capital gains tax has been revised many times since 1975 when it was first enacted. Initially the actual price of sale was the default rule and the standard prices was allowed only exceptionally if the actual price of sale could not be detected. The actual price of sale rather than the standard prices should be used for determining the capital gains tax on the transfer. By doing so, the desired principles of taxation such as "principle of taxation on tax paying ability". In conclusion, the present capital gains tax of Korea should be improved in many aspects in order to promote income redistribution function and efficient allocation of resources.

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Land Price Fluctuation, Expectation, and Production (지가변동의 기대가 요소투입과 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • 한동근;남병탁
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 1998
  • This paper investigates how the factor inputs of firms are affected by the expectation about land-price increase in the future. We develope a two-factor (land and labor) model, in which expectation about land-price increase plays a key role in determining the "optimal" input level of labor and land. Expecting capital gains from input of the land when land price increases, firms input land up to the point where the marginal productivity of land falls short of the marginal cost of purchasing the land, in order to maximize the "joint-profit". That is, firms have an incentive to use more land than they do when capital gains are not expected. We mean joint-profit by profit in the standard sense plus capital gains. Once the land is input "excessively", the productivity of labor increase and labor is also input more, since land and labor are assumed as complementary in production. This mechanism works in the opposite direction when land price decrease. This paper suggests that land price fluctuation is a major destabilizer of an economy.or destabilizer of an economy.

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Is Higher Land Holding Tax the Solution for Korea's Land Problems? (토지보유과세강화(土地保有課稅强化)의 당위성(當爲性)에 대한 검토(檢討))

  • Son, Jae-young
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.49-72
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    • 1992
  • This paper examines the increasingly popular belief that higher holding tax will be the ultimate solution for Korea's land problems which include excessive concentration of ownership, high and rapidly increasing land prices, and rampant speculation. In principle, land holding tax can supplement capital gains tax in recapturing capital gains from land or suppress returns from land investment returns in line with other forms of asset. This paper shows, however, that the tax burden must be drastically increased for the tax to achieve such goals, and the resistance from tax payers is sure to be intense. As long as the price expectation remains high, as in Korea where land prices have increased 19% annually during the past 18 years, even such increase in the tax may have little impact on landlords' behaviors, the price trend, or the ownership structure. More effective solutions for Korea's land problems are relaxing land use regulations to encourage the supply for urban land and improving the performance of capital gains tax to recapture windfall gains from land. This paper also notes that the so-called "lock-in effect" of the capital gains tax seems to be exaggerated. Land holding tax should be viewed as a revenue raiser for local governments rather than an anti-speculative policy tool. Abandoning unattainable policy goals and adhering to the general principles of taxation, will make land holding tax much simpler, and will better function as a local revenue source.

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A study on the efficient application of the replicating portfolio according to the tax imposition within K-OTC market for activating financial transactions of small-medium and venture business (중소 벤처 기업의 금융거래 활성화를 위하여 K-OTC 시장에서 조세부과에 따른 복제포트폴리오의 효율적 활용에 대한 연구)

  • Yoo, Joon-soo
    • Journal of Venture Innovation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.83-98
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    • 2018
  • This paper makes a theoretical approach to the differences between transaction tax and capital gains tax when the financial instruments are traded and imposed taxes in K-OTC market, a newly emerging off-board market. Since it is difficult to reduce risk to the level which investors would like to pursue - depending on the taxation methods of portfolio-composed financial instruments - when it comes to forming a synthetic bond to hedge risk, this paper also seeks for effective taxation methods to make this applicable. First of all, to thoroughly review the taxation balance of synthetic bonds, this paper analyzed the effects of the transaction tax and capital gains tax imposed upon synthetic bonds according to the changes in final stock price and strike price in K-OTC market, and analyzed after-tax profit differences among them depending on whether income tax deduction took place or not. As a result of the research upon the tax gap in transaction tax and capital gains tax according to the changes of final stock prices, it was shown that imposing transaction tax is more likely to be effective for some level of risk hedging with replicating portfolio considering taxation policies and financial markets, since the effect of the transaction tax has a much lower tax gap than that of capital gains tax. In addition, in relation to whether income tax deduction was permitted or not, it was proved that the effect of the transaction tax and the capital gains tax vary depending on the variation in the strike price. Above all, it was shown that if the strike price is lower than the stock price, the transaction tax will be less affected by the existence of income tax deduction than the capital gains tax, while both will be equally affected by the existence of income tax deduction if the strike price is higher than the stock price. Further study would be to demonstrate the validation of this in the K-OTC market with actual financial instruments and, also, to seek for a more systematic hedging method by using a ratio analysis approach to the calculation of the option transaction tax

A Study on Prices of Owner Occupied and 'Chonsei' Housings by Type and Size (주택의 자본수익율의 변화와 결정요인)

  • 서승환
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.53-70
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    • 1994
  • The relationships between the Capital gains of housings by tenure, type and size have been analyzed. Major findings are (i) capital gain rate of 'chonsei' housing is larger than that of the owner occupied housing (ii) the small 'chosei' apartment has the highest capital gain rate and the lowest instability index (iii) the smaller the size of housings, the higher the capital gain rate and the smaller the instability index. Even though there is the 'structural change' in the capital gain rates of owner occupied and 'chonsei' housings, they are cointegrated. The capital gain of owner occupied housing is mainly affected by the real estate policies. But, The capital gain of 'chonsei' housing is mainly affected by the business cycle and the aggregate demand management policies.

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Dynamic Welfare Effects of Tax Reform: Case of Korea (세제개편이 한국경제에 미치는 효과에 대한 동적분석)

  • Kim, Sunghyun H.
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.177-196
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    • 2007
  • This paper analyzes welfare effects of revenue neutral tax reform using a small open economy dynamic general equilibrium model. We apply this model to the Korean data and examine welfare effects of various tax reforms; removal of capital income tax and/or labor income tax financed by consumption tax. We investigate both long run equilibrium and transitional dynamics. The results suggest that there are sizable welfare gains (1-3% of lifetime consumption) when factor income taxes are replaced by consumption tax. Overall gains are generated by long run gains despite short run welfare losses. However, there is welfare loss when capital income tax is replaced by labor income tax.

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Optimal Income Tax Rates for the Korean Economy

  • CHANG, YONGSUNG;KIM, SUN-BIN;CHANG, BO HYUN
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.1-30
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    • 2015
  • Based on a quantitative, heterogeneous agent general equilibrium model, we compute the optimal tax rates for labor and capital incomes for the Korean economy. According to our model, a more progressive income tax schedule along with a higher capital tax rate can increase average welfare by as much as 0.86% of permanent consumption. Approximately 64% of house-holds, those with low assets and low productivity, are better off when a more progressive optimal tax schedule is adopted. Despite the potentially significant welfare gains, our calculation should be interpreted with caution because our benchmark model does not take into account possible capital outflows or the increased administrative costs associated with high taxes.

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A Simulation Study for the Optimum Design of Cogeneration System (소형열병합발전 최적 시스템 설계 시뮬레이션)

  • Im, Yong-Hoon;Park, Hwa-Choon;Choi, Young-Ho;Chung, Mo
    • Proceedings of the SAREK Conference
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    • pp.325-331
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, a simulation approach for the optimum design of cogeneration system is described. For the purpose of the systematic analysis, a simulation tool is developed with which the prediction of the energy load, calculation of operation data according to prime mover or capacity of it, and estimation of economic gains can be carried out. As for the criterion of the optimum design, the economic gains by adopting cogeneration system is taken. Based on the capital, operation, and maintenance costs etc, LCC analysis is to be carried out for the scenarios respectively. In this study, the simulation for the apartment complex is performed and the analysis of the results are described in detail. The effects of the operation parameters such as capital cost, fuel cost, and unit cost for the purchase or sale of heat and electricity on overall economy are also be considered by sensitivity study.

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A Study of Development Gains Estimation in Building Land Development Projects (택지개발사업의 개발이익 추계에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Yong-Chang
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.595-613
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    • 2006
  • In the debates of development gains, the general rule is that it results from actions other than those of the landowner, most notably of the public sector as in granting of permissions for the development of specific land uses and densities or through infrastructure investments, or of socio-economic forces due to a general capital accumulation in space. A huge academic literature has investigated the development gains capture that refers to the process by which a portion of or all land value increments attributed to the community effort are recouped by the public sector. Policy instruments for applying development gains capture are based on deepening land value taxation, financing infrastructure, controling land use. But one of the most basic for the efficient policy implementation is the accurate estimation of development gains. This paper estimates the development gains generated by the total 204 building land projects of Korea Land Corporation and Korea National Housing Corporation since 1995.

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