• Title/Summary/Keyword: Capital Gains

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The Study Trends of Capital Gain Tax for Stock and Their Effects on Stock Trading (주식양도소득세 변천과 주식거래에 대한 영향)

  • Park, Young-Kyu
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.133-143
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    • 2020
  • Purpose - This study seeks to summarize the tax changes in stock trading and analyze K-OTC stock trading data in 2017 and 2018 to infer the effects of the application of capital gains taxes by individual investors. Design/methodology/approach - This study analyzes the case of the expansion of the 2018 capital gains tax exemption in the K-OTC market, which exempts capital gains tax on the proceeds from the sale of individual investors of certain stocks under the temporary special law. Findings - In the K-OTC market, the amount of transactions has expanded since the capital gains tax exemption in 2018, but the volume of transactions and transaction turnover have decreased. In particular, the result of lower transaction turnover after the expansion is contrary to expectations. To control the macroscopic effects of the stock market, further analyses the transactions of capital gains tax-exempt stocks and non-exempt stocks. The turnover rate of exemption stocks is higher than that of the non-exempt stocks. In the case of transaction turnover, the two results are not consistent. However, the latter result is more meaningful because the comparison of exempt and non-exempt reduces distortion by macro effects. Research implications or Originality - To mitigate the impact of capital gains taxes on stock market, government authorities need to consider the gradual expansion of the scope of taxation, the application of separate taxation in the introduction of capital gains, the reduction tax rate on transfer income of listed shares, and the reduction tax rate on long-term holdings.

A Study on the Improvement Method of the Capital Gains Tax in Korea (양도소득세 결정방법의 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ju-Taek
    • Korean Business Review
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    • v.17
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    • pp.111-136
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    • 2004
  • The aim of this study is to review the improvement method of Korea capital gains tax according to the alienation of the real estate, and to suggest an improvement plan. The study has been carried out by reviewing the related literatures. Capital gains tax could be calculated either using the actual price of sale or the standard prices. Korea capital gains tax has been revised many times since 1975 when it was first enacted. Initially the actual price of sale was the default rule and the standard prices was allowed only exceptionally if the actual price of sale could not be detected. The actual price of sale rather than the standard prices should be used for determining the capital gains tax on the transfer. By doing so, the desired principles of taxation such as "principle of taxation on tax paying ability". In conclusion, the present capital gains tax of Korea should be improved in many aspects in order to promote income redistribution function and efficient allocation of resources.

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Land Price Fluctuation, Expectation, and Production (지가변동의 기대가 요소투입과 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • 한동근;남병탁
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 1998
  • This paper investigates how the factor inputs of firms are affected by the expectation about land-price increase in the future. We develope a two-factor (land and labor) model, in which expectation about land-price increase plays a key role in determining the "optimal" input level of labor and land. Expecting capital gains from input of the land when land price increases, firms input land up to the point where the marginal productivity of land falls short of the marginal cost of purchasing the land, in order to maximize the "joint-profit". That is, firms have an incentive to use more land than they do when capital gains are not expected. We mean joint-profit by profit in the standard sense plus capital gains. Once the land is input "excessively", the productivity of labor increase and labor is also input more, since land and labor are assumed as complementary in production. This mechanism works in the opposite direction when land price decrease. This paper suggests that land price fluctuation is a major destabilizer of an economy.or destabilizer of an economy.

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Is Higher Land Holding Tax the Solution for Korea's Land Problems? (토지보유과세강화(土地保有課稅强化)의 당위성(當爲性)에 대한 검토(檢討))

  • Son, Jae-young
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.49-72
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    • 1992
  • This paper examines the increasingly popular belief that higher holding tax will be the ultimate solution for Korea's land problems which include excessive concentration of ownership, high and rapidly increasing land prices, and rampant speculation. In principle, land holding tax can supplement capital gains tax in recapturing capital gains from land or suppress returns from land investment returns in line with other forms of asset. This paper shows, however, that the tax burden must be drastically increased for the tax to achieve such goals, and the resistance from tax payers is sure to be intense. As long as the price expectation remains high, as in Korea where land prices have increased 19% annually during the past 18 years, even such increase in the tax may have little impact on landlords' behaviors, the price trend, or the ownership structure. More effective solutions for Korea's land problems are relaxing land use regulations to encourage the supply for urban land and improving the performance of capital gains tax to recapture windfall gains from land. This paper also notes that the so-called "lock-in effect" of the capital gains tax seems to be exaggerated. Land holding tax should be viewed as a revenue raiser for local governments rather than an anti-speculative policy tool. Abandoning unattainable policy goals and adhering to the general principles of taxation, will make land holding tax much simpler, and will better function as a local revenue source.

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A study on the efficient application of the replicating portfolio according to the tax imposition within K-OTC market for activating financial transactions of small-medium and venture business (중소 벤처 기업의 금융거래 활성화를 위하여 K-OTC 시장에서 조세부과에 따른 복제포트폴리오의 효율적 활용에 대한 연구)

  • Yoo, Joon-soo
    • Journal of Venture Innovation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.83-98
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    • 2018
  • This paper makes a theoretical approach to the differences between transaction tax and capital gains tax when the financial instruments are traded and imposed taxes in K-OTC market, a newly emerging off-board market. Since it is difficult to reduce risk to the level which investors would like to pursue - depending on the taxation methods of portfolio-composed financial instruments - when it comes to forming a synthetic bond to hedge risk, this paper also seeks for effective taxation methods to make this applicable. First of all, to thoroughly review the taxation balance of synthetic bonds, this paper analyzed the effects of the transaction tax and capital gains tax imposed upon synthetic bonds according to the changes in final stock price and strike price in K-OTC market, and analyzed after-tax profit differences among them depending on whether income tax deduction took place or not. As a result of the research upon the tax gap in transaction tax and capital gains tax according to the changes of final stock prices, it was shown that imposing transaction tax is more likely to be effective for some level of risk hedging with replicating portfolio considering taxation policies and financial markets, since the effect of the transaction tax has a much lower tax gap than that of capital gains tax. In addition, in relation to whether income tax deduction was permitted or not, it was proved that the effect of the transaction tax and the capital gains tax vary depending on the variation in the strike price. Above all, it was shown that if the strike price is lower than the stock price, the transaction tax will be less affected by the existence of income tax deduction than the capital gains tax, while both will be equally affected by the existence of income tax deduction if the strike price is higher than the stock price. Further study would be to demonstrate the validation of this in the K-OTC market with actual financial instruments and, also, to seek for a more systematic hedging method by using a ratio analysis approach to the calculation of the option transaction tax

Tax Incentives for Agricultural Corporations (농업법인에 대한 조세지원제도)

  • Kim, Yong Min
    • Agribusiness and Information Management
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2010
  • Agricultural corporations have been introduced to increase the productivity of farming via entrepreneurial farm management. There are two main subgroups of agricultural corporations. One is composed of farming association corporations and the other consists of agricultural corporation companies. Major tax incentives for agricultural corporations are as follows: 1. Exemption of corporate income tax. 2. Exemption of capital gains tax for farmland investment. 3. Reduction and exemption of dividend income tax for investors.

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An Incomplete Information Structure and An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Model of Asset Pricing With Taxes (일반균형하(一般均衡下)의 자본자산(資本資産)의 가격결정(價格決定))

  • Rhee, Il-King
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.165-208
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    • 1991
  • This paper develops an intertemporal general equilibrium model of asset pricing with taxes under the noisy and the incomplete information structure and examines theoretically the stochastic behavior of general equilibrium asset prices in a one-good, production, and exchange economy in continuous time markets. The important features of the model are its integration of real and financial markets and the analysis of the effects of differential tax rates between ordinary income and capital gains. The model developed here can provide answers to a wide variety of questions about stochastic structure of asset prices and the effect of tax on them.

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Does Tax Really Matter in Planning the Dongbu Group's Spin-Offs? (세무계획측면에서 분석한 동부그룹 물적분할)

  • Jun, Byung Wook;Cho, Hyeong Tae
    • The Journal of Small Business Innovation
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2017
  • This study examined whether divided and spun-off companies design and execute spin-offs to minimize tax burdens by analyzing multiple spin-off transactions in the Dongbu Group, when the Korean tax law regarding corporate restructuring was amended in July 2010. Before the July 2010 tax amendment, taxes on the capital gains arising from the qualifying spin-off were deferred to the earlier of the shares in or assets acquired by the spun-off company are disposed. This tax treatment relieves the divided company's tax burden by deferring taxes on capital gains, compared with non-qualifying spin-offs. However, if shares in or assets acquired by the spun-off company are disposed after the July 2010 tax amendment, the capital gain incurred at the time of the qualifying spin-off would be taxed again at the spun-off company, in addition to a taxation on the divided company's capital gains. This creates double taxation implications for the parties involved in the spin-off. As a result, the double taxation may outweigh the benefit from the tax deferral on the qualifying spin-off, which may make a qualifying spin-off tax unfavorable. Among the four spin-off cases in the Dongbu Group addressed in this study, a spin-off occurred before the tax amendment, whereas three spin-offs occurred after the tax amendment. Initially, we expected that the spin-off before the tax amendment would be a qualifying spin-off, and the other three spin-offs would be non-qualifying spin-offs, considering the taxation rules before and after the July 2010 tax amendment. However, based on the review of summarized balance sheets disclosed in the spin-offs' corporate filings, no capital gains arose during the four spin-offs that occurred in the Dongbu Group. Therefore, we concluded that the Dongbu Group considered non-tax factors more than tax factors while designing and executing the spin-offs. The local media posited during this period that these spin-offs may intend to resolve financial issues in the Dongbu Group, and this analysis was supported by the fact that some shares in the new spun-off companies were sold by the Dongbu Group. Our case studies provide evidence that all costs, including both tax and non-tax costs, must be considered in the course of spin-offs, in addition to the tax burdens on all parties involved in the corporate restructuring, which parallels the work of Scholes et al. (2008). This study provides implications that various aspects should be considered and reviewed in advance when the management makes decisions for effective tax planning.

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The Economic Effects of Tax Incentives for Housing Owners: An Overview and Policy Implications (주택소유자(住宅所有者)에 대한 조세감면(租稅減免)의 경제적(經濟的) 효과(效果) : 기존연구(旣存硏究)의 개관(槪觀) 및 정책시사점(政策示唆點))

  • Kim, Myong-sook
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.135-149
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    • 1990
  • Housing owners in Korea have a variety of tax advantages such as income tax exemption for the imputed rent of owner-occupied housing, exemption from the capital gains tax and deduction of the estate tax for one-house households. These tax reliefs for housing owners not only conflict with the principle of horizontal and vertical equity, but also lead to resource misallocation by distorting the housing market, and thus bring about regressive distribution effects. Particularly in the case of Korea with its imperfect capital market, these measures exacerbate the inter-class inequality of housing ownership as well as inequalities in wealth, by causing the affluent to demand needlessly large housing, while the poor and young experience difficulties in purchasing residential properties. Therefore, the Korean tax system must be altered as follows in order to disadvantage owner-occupiers, especially those owners of luxury housing. These alterations will promote housing-ownership, tax burden equity, efficiency of resource allocation, as well as the desirable distribution of income. First, income tax deductions for the rent payments of tenants are recommended. Ideally, the way of recovering the fiscal equivalence between the owner-occupiers and tenants is to levy an income tax on the former's imputed rents, and if necessary to give them tax credits. This, however, would be very difficult from a practical viewpoint, because the general public may perceive the concept of "imputed rent" as cumbersome. Computing the imputed rent also entails administrative costs, rendering quite reasonable, the continued exemption of imputed rent from taxation with the simultaneous deduction in the income tax for tenants. This would further enhance the administrative efficiency of income tax collection by easing assessment of the landlord's income. Second, a capital gains tax should be levied on the one-house household, except with the postponement of payments in the case that the seller purchases higher priced property. Exemption of the capital gains tax for the one-house household favors those who have more expensive housing, providing an incentive to the rich to hold even larger residences, and to the constructors to build more luxurious housing to meet the demand. So it is not desirable to sustain the current one-house household exemption while merely supplementing it with fastidious measures. Rather, the rule must be abolished completely with the concurrent reform of the deduction system and lowering of the tax rate, measures which the author believes will help optimize the capital gains tax incidence. Finally, discontinuation of the housing exemption for the heir is suggested. Consequent increases in the tax burden of the middle class could be mitigated by a reduction in the rate. This applies to the following specific exemptions as well, namely, for farm lands, meadows, woods, business fields-to foster horizontal equity, while denying speculation on land that leads to a loss in allocative efficiency. Moreover, imperfections in the Korean capital market have disallowed the provision of long term credit for housing seekers. Remedying these problems is essential to the promotion of greater housing ownership by the low and middle income classes. It is also certain that a government subsidy be focused on the poorest of the poor who cannot afford even to think of owning a housing.

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