• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cancer-testis antigen

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The cancer/testis antigen CAGE induces MMP-2 through the activation of NF-κB and AP-1

  • Kim, Young-Mi;Jeoung, Doo-Il
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.11
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    • pp.758-763
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    • 2009
  • Cancer-associated antigen (CAGE) induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) by activating Akt, which in turn interacts with inhibitory kappa kinase $\beta$ ($I{\kappa}K{\beta}$) to activate nuclear factor ${\kappa}B$ (NF-${\kappa}B$). Akt and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) are necessary for CAGE-mediated induction of the AP-1 subunit JunB, whereas extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) is necessary for the induction of fos-related antigen-1 (Fra-1). Induction of MMP-2 by CAGE requires activator of protein-1 (AP-1) to be bound. Specific binding of JunB to MMP-2 promoter sequences was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis.

SEREX; discovery of tumor antigens (종양 항원의 발견: SEREX)

  • Lee, Sang-Yull
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.841-846
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    • 2007
  • The identification of tumor antigens is essential for the development of anticancer therapeutic vaccines and clinical diagnosis of cancer. SEREX (serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression library)has been used to identify such tumor antigens by screening sera of cancer patients with cDNA ex-pression libraries. SEREX-defined antigens provide markers for the diagnosis of cancers. SEREX is also a powerful method for the development of anticancer therapeutics. The development of anticancer vaccines requires that tumor antigens can elicit antigen-specific antibodies or T lymphocytes. This re-view provides information on the application of SEREX for discovery of tumor antigens.

Promoter demethylation mediates the expression of ZNF645, a novel cancer/testis gene

  • Bai, Gang;Liu, Yunqiang;Zhang, Hao;Su, Dan;Tao, Dachang;Yang, Yuan;Ma, Yongxin;Zhang, Sizhong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.400-406
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    • 2010
  • Cancer/testis (CT) antigens exhibit highly tissue-restricted expression and are considered promising targets for cancer vaccines. Here we identified a novel CT gene ZNF645 which restrictively expresses in normal human testes and lung cancer patients (68.3%). To investigate the promoter methylation status of ZNF645, we carried out bisulfite genomic sequencing and found that the CpG island in its promoter was heavily methylated in normal lung tissues without the expression of ZNF645, whereas there was high demethylation in normal human testes and lung carcinoma tissues with its expression. Also ZNF645 could be remarkably activated in A549 and HEK293T cells treated by DNA demethylation agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. And the dual luciferase assay revealed that the promoter activity of the ZNF645 was inhibited by methylation of the CpG island region. Therefore, we proposed that ZNF645 is a CT gene and activated in human testis and lung cancers by demethylation of its promoter region.

Expression of MAGE in Gastric Cancer Tissues (위암조직에서의 MAGE 유전자 발현)

  • Choi, Jae-Young;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.180-185
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Among tumor-associated antigens, MAGE (melanoma antigen) was named as cancer/testis specific antigens because they are detected exclusively in the testis or cancer cells, including gastric carcinomas. Due to the elicitation of autoimmunitiy to tumors by these antigens either in vitro or in vivo and their tumor specificity, these antigens, thus, appear to be potential targets for tumor-specific immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: The fresh tumor tissue and normal gastric tissue samples were obtained from resected surgical specimens in 53 patients with gastric carcinomas. From the obtained cells, total cellular mRNA was extracted, and RT-PCR and nested PCR were run in 30 and 35 cycles respectively, with two different kinds of primers specially designed to detect six subtypes of MAGE DNA simultaneously. Results: In the 53 normal tissue, there was no expression of MAGE, but in the 53 cancer tissues, MAGE was expressed in 13 tissues (24.5%). Our data did not exhibit any correlation with the expression of the MAGE gene and clinicopathological factors. Conclusion: In our data, since 24.5% of gastric cancer tissues expressed MAGE, it should become possible to immunize a significant proportion of patients with advanced gastric carcinomas against the antigens encoded by these genes, provided that more antigenic peptides encoded by the genes of the MAGE family can be identified in the near future. (J Korean Gastric Cancer Assoc 2005;5:180-185)

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DDX53 Regulates Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties by Binding to SOX-2

  • Kim, Youngmi;Yeon, Minjeong;Jeoung, Dooil
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.322-330
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the role of cancer/testis antigen DDX53 in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties. DDX53 shows co-expression with CD133, a marker for cancer stem cells. DDX53 directly regulates the SOX-2 expression in anti-cancer drug-resistant $Malme3M^R$ cells. DDX53 and miR-200b were found to be involved in the regulation of tumor spheroid forming potential of Malme3M and $Malme3M^R$ cells. Furthermore, the self-renewal activity and the tumorigenic potential of $Malme3M^R$-CD133 (+) cells were also regulated by DDX53. A miR-200b inhibitor induced the direct regulation of SOX-2 by DDX53 We therefore, conclude that DDX53 may serve as an immunotherapeutic target for regulating cancer stem-like properties of melanomas.

shRNA Mediated RHOXF1 Silencing Influences Expression of BCL2 but not CASP8 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Cell Lines

  • Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh;Abdollahi, Davood Zare;Omrani, Mirdavood;Azizi, Faezeh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5865-5869
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    • 2012
  • RHOXF1 has been shown to be expressed in embryonic stem cells, adult germline stem cells and some cancer lines. It has been proposed as a candidate gene to encode transcription factors regulating downstream genes in the human testis with antiapoptotic effects. Its expression in cancer cell lines has implied a similar role in the process of tumorigenesis. The human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were cultured in DMEM medium and transfected with a pGFP-V-RS plasmid bearing an RHOXF1 specific shRNA. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed for RHOXF1, CASP8, BCL2 and HPRT genes. Decreased RHOXF1 expression was confirmed in cells after transfection. shRNA knock down of RHOXF1 resulted in significantly decreased BCL2 expression in both cell lines but no change in CASP8 expression. shRNA targeting RHOXF1 was shown to specifically mediate RHOXF1 gene silencing, so RHOXF1 can mediate transcriptional activation of the BCL2 in cancers and may render tumor cells resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by anticancer therapy. shRNA mediated knock down of RHOXF1 can be effective in induction of apoptotic pathway in cancer cells via BCL2 downregulation, so it can have potential therapeutic utility for human breast cancer.

Sperm-Associated Antigen 9 is a Promising marker for Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer

  • Baser, Eralp;Togrul, Cihan;Ozgu, Emre;Ayhan, Sevgi;Caglar, Mete;Erkaya, Salim;Gungor, Tayfun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7635-7638
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    • 2013
  • Background: Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) has been recently proposed as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of several human tumors, including ovarian, cervical and breast cancers. Its clinical value remains to be clarified for endometrial cancer (EC). In this study, we investigated the utility of serum SPAG9 levels in diagnosis of EC and its association with important clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary women's referral center in Ankara, Turkey. Preoperative serum samples were collected from patients surgically treated for endometrial cancer between June 2012-April 2013. Similar aged women with a biopsy proven benign endometrium were used as controls. Serum SPAG9 levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method and assessed for links with clinicopathological factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess power of SPAG9 levels for EC prediction. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 63 women with EC and 27 with benign endometrium were included in the study. Mean age in the EC group was $58.7{\pm}1.1$. Median SPAG9 levels in the EC and control groups were 18.3 (range, 12.7-53.8) and 14.1 (range, 4.3-65.3), respectively (p<0.001). A cut-off value of 17 ng/ml for SPAG9 predicted presence of malignant endometrium with 74% sensitivity and 83% specificity [Area under curve (AUC)=0.82, p<0.001]. SPAG9 levels did not demonstrate any significant association with histological type, FIGO stage, tumor grade, size, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, cervical involvement, adnexal involvement, peritoneal cytology or lymph node status (all p>0.05). Conclusions: Testing for SPAG9 may be useful for early detection of EC in asymptomatic high-risk women. Its role in post-treatment follow-up and early detection of recurrence should be assessed in future trials.

DDX53 Promotes Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Autophagy

  • Kim, Hyuna;Kim, Youngmi;Jeoung, Dooil
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.54-65
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    • 2017
  • Although cancer/testis antigen DDX53 confers anti-cancer drug-resistance, the effect of DDX53 on cancer stem cell-like properties and autophagy remains unknown. MDA-MB-231 ($CD133^+$) cells showed higher expression of DDX53, SOX-2, NANOG and MDR1 than MDA-MB-231 ($CD133^-$). DDX53 increased in vitro self-renewal activity of MCF-7 while decreasing expression of DDX53 by siRNA lowered in vitro self-renewal activity of MDA-MB-231. DDX53 showed an interaction with EGFR and binding to the promoter sequences of EGFR. DDX53 induced resistance to anti-cancer drugs in MCF-7 cells while decreased expression of DDX53 by siRNA increased the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 to anti-cancer drugs. Negative regulators of DDX53, such as miR-200b and miR-217, increased the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 to anti-cancer drugs. MDA-MB-231 showed higher expression of autophagy marker proteins such as ATG-5, $pBeclin1^{Ser15}$ and LC-3I/II compared with MCF-7. DDX53 regulated the expression of marker proteins of autophagy in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. miR-200b and miR-217 negatively regulated the expression of autophagy marker proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed the direct regulation of ATG-5. The decreased expression of ATG-5 by siRNA increased the sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, DDX53 promotes stem cell-like properties, autophagy, and confers resistance to anti-cancer drugs in breast cancer cells.

DPPA2 Protein Expression is Associated with Gastric Cancer Metastasis

  • Shabestarian, Hoda;Ghodsi, Mohammad;Mallak, Afsaneh Javdani;Jafarian, Amir Hossein;Montazer, Mehdi;Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8461-8465
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    • 2016
  • Gastric cancer (GC) as the fourth most common cause of malignancies shows high rate of morbidity appropriating the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Developmental pluripotency associated-2 (DPPA2), cancer-testis antigen (CT100), is commonly expressed only in the human germ line and pluripotent embryonic cells but it is also present in a significant subset of malignant tumors. To investigate whether or not DPPA2 expression is recalled in GC, our aim in this study was to elucidate DPPA2 protein expression in gastric cancer. Fifty five GC tumor and their related margin normal tissues were recruited to evaluate DPPA2 protein expression and its probable associations with different clinicopathological features of the patients. DPPA2 was overexpressed in GC cases compared with normal tissues (P < .005). While DPPA2 expression was detected in all GC samples, its high expression was found in 23 of 55 tumor tissues (41.8%). Interestingly, 50 of 55 normal samples (90.9%) were negative for DPPA2 protein expression and remained 5 samples showed very low expression of DPPA2. DPPA2 protein expression in GC was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012). The clinical relevance of DPPA2 in GC illustrated that high level expression of this protein was associated with lymph node metastasis supporting this hypothesis that alteration in DPPA2 was associated with aggressiveness of gastric cancer and may be an early event in progression of the disease. DPPA2 may be introduced as a new marker for invasive and metastatic GCs.