• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cancer incidence and mortality

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Life-Style Habits in a High-Risk Area for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: a Population-Based Study from Shanxi, China

  • Cheng, Yi-Kun;Yao, Shang-Man;Xu, Yi-Ran;Niu, Run-Gui
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4301-4306
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cancer is a burden on humanity and ranks as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in China. Shanxi province has its unique cancer patterns and the burden is increasing. In this study, we aimed to assess the pattern of dietary habits and life-style in Shanxi, a high-risk area for upper gastrointestinal cancers in China and further evaluate the trends in cancer incidence and mortality based on registered data. Materials and Methods: Data on lifestyle, diet, physical activity were obtained from the household health survey at Zhongyang from 2013 to 2015. Cancer diagnoses were reported to Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SCDCP). Population-based cancer incidence data and mortality data of 2012 were collected from the SCDCP. All incidence and death rates were expressed per 100,000 populations. Univariate analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Overall, deficiencies in fresh fruits and vegetable food, and intake of hot food, salted food, or pickled food are serious problems in Shanxi, especially in rural areas. Upper gastrointestinal cancers were the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the incidence in rural areas is higher than those in urban areas. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer for females. Moreover, the agespecific incidence exhibited an increased trend before 40 years old. Consistent with the previous literature, our epidemiological investigation results suggest that lifestyle, nutrition deficient, and infections were major risk factors for upper gastrointestinal cancers or cervical cancer in Shanxi. Facing a serious situation, we further explored defensible recommendations for the general public in order to promote changes in environments that support healthful eating and physical activity habits, to reduce cancer risk. Conclusions: Our results present the current cancer trends in Shanxi and its related etiologic risk factors and provide a theoretical basis to guide public health efforts to prevent and control cancers in the province.

A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

  • Obel, J.;Souares, Y.;Hoy, D.;Baravilala, W.;Garland, S.M.;Kjaer, S.K.;Roth, A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9433-9437
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    • 2014
  • This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines. There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region.

Colorectal Cancer in the Arab World - Screening Practices and Future Prospects

  • Arafa, Mostafa A;Farhat, Karim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7425-7430
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    • 2015
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates have dropped 30% in the US in the last 10 years among adults ages 50 and older due to the widespread uptake of colonoscopy, yet incidences in the Arab countries have been increasing in the past ten years, albeit with lower figures when compared with developed countries. Lifestyle changes, food consumption patterns and obesity have been observed during the past years where the regular consumption of traditional foods is being replaced with more Western-style and ready-made foods. Most high income countries have implemented population based colorectal cancer screening programs, which aid in decreasing the incidence and mortality of cancer, while these are lacking in most of the Arab world countries due to many cultural and religious barriers to CRC screening as well as lack of high education or familiarity. What is needed is health education to modify risky lifestyle, and to increase motives and enhance positive attitudes towards early screening especially amongst high risk groups in addition to policy designed to encourage healthier living.

Lack of Any Relationship of Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Development in Asia

  • Rafiei, Elahe;Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah;Towhidi, Farhad;Makhsosi, Behnam Reza;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.3777-3783
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    • 2016
  • Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer, and its relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Materials and Methods: This ecological study wa conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian countries. We assessed the correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of stomach Cancer with HDI and its components using SPSS18. Results: A total of 696,231 cases (68.7% in males and 31.3% in females, ratio of 2.19:1) and 524,465 deaths (67.1% in men and 33.0% in women, ratio 2.03:1) were included in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR of stomach cancer were Republic Korea, Mongolia, Japan, China and Tajikistan. Five countries with the highest SMR of stomach cancer were Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and China. Correlation between HDI and SIR was 0.241 (p = 0.106), in men 0.236 (p = 0.114) and in women -0.250 (p = 0.094). Also between HDI and SMR -0.250 (p = 0.871) in men -0.018 (p = 0.903) and in women -0.014 (p = 0.927). Conclusions: No significant correlation was observed between the SIR of stomach cancer, and the HDI and its dimensions, such as life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and income level of the population.

Patterns and Trends with Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates Reported by the China National Cancer Registry

  • Chen, Peng-Lai;Zhao, Ting;Feng, Rui;Chai, Jing;Tong, Gui-Xian;Wang, De-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6327-6332
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    • 2014
  • National cancer registration reports provide a huge potential for identifying patterns and trends of important policy, research, prevention and treatment significance. As summary reports written on an annual basis, the China Cancer Registry Annual Reports (CCRARs) fall short from fully addressing their potential. This paper attempts to explore part of the patterns and trends hidden behind published CCRARs. It extracted data for cancer incidence rates (IRs) and mortality rates (MRs) for 2004, 2006 and 2009 from relevant CCRARs and portrayed 4 kinds of indicators in line graphs. The study showed that: a) all of the line graphs of age-specific IRs and MRs characterized typical "growth curves or histogram"; b) graphs of IRs and MRs for males and urban areas had higher peaks than that for females and rural regions; c) most of the line graphs of IR/MR ratios comprised a starting peak, a secondary peak and a decreasing tail and the secondary peaks for females and urban areas were higher than those for males and rural areas; d) most of the urban versus rural IR ratios valued above one, but most the urban versus rural MR ratios, below one; e) the accumulative IRs and MRs showed a stable increasing trend from 2004 to 2009 for urban areas, but mixed for rural regions.

Patterns of Cancer in Kurdistan - Results of Eight Years Cancer Registration in Sulaymaniyah Province-Kurdistan-Iraq

  • Khoshnaw, Najmaddin;Mohammed, Hazha A;Abdullah, Dana A
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8525-8531
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cancer has become a major health problem associated with high mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence rates of different types of cancer in Sulaymaniyah from January-2006 to January-2014. The data were compared with those reported for other middle east countries. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study depended on data collected from Hiwa hospital cancer registry unit, death records and histopathology reports in all Sulaymaniyah teaching hospitals, using international classification of diseases. Results: A total of 8,031 cases were registered during the eight year period, the annual incidence rate in all age groups rose from 38 to 61.7 cases/100,000 population/year, with averages over 50 in males and 50.7 in females. The male to female ratio in all age groups were 0.98, while in the pediatric age group it was 1.33. The hematological malignancies in all age groups accounted for 20% but in the pediatric group around half of all cancer cases. Pediatric cancers were occluding 7% of total cancers with rates of 10.3 in boys and 8.7 in girls. The commonest malignancies by primary site were leukemia, lymphoma, brain, kidney and bone. In males in all age groups they were lung, leukaemia, lymphoma, colorectal, prostate, bladder, brain, stomach, carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and skin, while in females they were breast, leukaemia, lymphoma, colorectal, ovary, lung, brain, CUP, and stomach. Most cancers were increased with increasing age except breast cancer where decrease was noted in older ages. High mortality rates were found with leukemia, lung, lymphoma, colorectal, breast and stomach cancers. Conclusions: We here found an increase in annual cancer incidence rates across the period of study, because of increase of cancer with age and higher rates of hematological malignancies. Our study is valuable for Kurdistan and Iraq because it provides more accurate data about the exact patterns of cancer and mortality in our region.

Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Korean Semiconductor Workers

  • Lee, Hye-Eun;Kim, Eun-A;Park, Jung-Sun;Kang, Seong-Kyu
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.135-147
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cancer risks in the Korean semiconductor industry. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed in eight semiconductor factories between 1998 and 2008. The number of subjects was 113,443 for mortality and 108,443 for incidence. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. Results: The SMR of leukemia was 0.39 (95% Confidence Interval 0.08-1.14) in males (2 cases) and 1.37 (0.55-2.81) in females (7 cases). The SMR of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was 1.33 (0.43-3.09, 5 cases) in males and 2.5 (0.68-6.40, 4 cases) in females. The SIR of leukemia was 0.69 (0.30-1.37, 8 cases) in males and 1.28 (0.61-2.36, 10 cases) in females. The SIR of NHL in females was 2.31 (1.23-3.95, 13 cases) and that of thyroid cancer in males was 2.11 (1.49-2.89, 38 cases). The excess incidence of NHL was significant in female assembly operators [SIR=3.15 (1.02-7.36, 5 cases)], but not significant in fabrication workers. The SIR of NHL in the group working for 1-5 years was higher than the SIR of NHL for those working for more than five years. The excess incidence of male thyroid cancer was observed in both office and manufacturing workers. Conclusion: There was no significant increase of leukemia in the Korean semiconductor industry. However, the incidence of NHL in females and thyroid cancer in males were significantly increased even though there was no definite association between work and those diseases in subgroup analysis according to work duration. This result should be interpreted cautiously, because the majority of the cohort was young and the number of cases was small.

Feasibility of Household Surveys for Population Risk Assessment of Cancer and Cancer Registration Support

  • Habib, Omran S;Hussain, Riyadh Abdul-Ameer
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.213-218
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    • 2016
  • Cancer is a major health problem in the Arab region including Iraq. An adequate database is essential for effective cancer control strategies. Such a database may be provided through cancer registration but supportive household surveys may be useful. This article reports selected results on the feasibility of household surveys to support and validate cancer registration in Basrah governorate - southern Iraq. A large scale multi-stage cluster sample household survey was carried out in Basrah during 2013. It covered 6,999 households and involved gathering data on demographic characteristics and both incident cancer cases and cancer-related deaths among members of these households during a three-year recall period (2010-2012). The data obtained yielded an average annual incidence rate of 91 per 100,000 population (age-standardized incidence rate of 148.8 /100,000) and cancer specific mortality rate of 68 per 100,000 population (age-standardized mortality rate of 126.3/100,000). The results showed an overall pattern of cancer similar to that reported according to cancer registration but the household survey results were consistently higher than those of the cancer registration by a margin of approximately 20- 30% with respect to incident cancer and about 70 % with respect to cancer-specific mortality. Household surveys on cancer, while costly and time consuming, are a very useful additional source of information on cancer at the population level. They can be performed for specific purposes with effective resource mobilization.

Burden of Breast Cancer in Iranian Women is Increasing

  • Sharifian, Abdolhamid;Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin;Emadedin, Majid;Nejad, Mohammad Rostami;Ashtari, Sara;Hajizadeh, Nastaran;Firouzei, Seyed Alireza;Hosseini, Seyed Jalil
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.5049-5052
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    • 2015
  • Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of oncological death for women, in both developed and developing countries. In Iran, breast cancer ranks first among cancers diagnosed in women. The aim of this study was to present the burden of this cancer including incidence, mortality and years life lost (YLL) due to breast cancer in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: National incidence data from the Iranian annual National Cancer Registration reports from 2003 to 2009 and national death statistics reported by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education from 1995 to 2010, stratified by age group, were included in this analysis. Also calculated YLLs provided by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 were employed to express the years lost due to BC for Iranian women. Results: The general mortality rate of breast cancer increased during these years from 0.96 to 4.33 per 100,000 and incidence increased from 16.0 to 28.3 per 100,000 for the years under study. YLLs calculated by IHME showed both increasing and decreasing patterns, with a tendency for stabilization. Conclusions: The burden of breast cancer for Iranian women is still increasing. Thus, health education programs to inform women regarding the signs and risk factors, and national screening to facilitate early diagnosis are needed for the female community in Iran.

Gastric Cancer Epidemiology in Korea

  • Shin, Ae-Sun;Kim, Jeong-Seon;Park, So-Hee
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2011
  • Gastric cancer has been the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Korea although the age-standardized mortality and incidence has decreased gradually during last two decades. $Helicobacter$ $pylori$ infection and cigarette smoking are well-established risk factors, and the role of dietary factors, such as salted foods, fresh vegetables and fruits, soy foods, and processed or grilled meats on gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested. In this review, we review national and international gastric cancer statistics, studies on environmental risk factors conducted in the Korean population, and gastric cancer screening activities.