• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cancer incidence and mortality

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Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Rate of Gastrointestinal Cancer in Isfahan, Iran: Application of the MIAMOD Method

  • Moradpour, Farhad;Gholami, Ali;Salehi, Mohammad;Mansori, Kamiar;Maracy, Mohammad Reza;Javanmardi, Setareh;Rajabi, Abdolhalim;Moradi, Yousef;Khodadost, Mahmod
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.11-15
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    • 2016
  • Gastrointestinal cancers remain the most prevalent cancers in many developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence, prevalence and mortality, as well as time trends for gastrointestinal cancers in Isfahan province of Iran for the period 2001 to 2010 and to project these estimates to the year 2020. Estimates were driven by applying the MIAMOD method (a backward calculation approach using mortality and relative survival rates). Mortality data were obtained from the Ministry of Health and the relative survival rate for all gastrointestinal cancers combined was derived from the Eurocare 3 study. Results indicated that there were clear upward trends in age adjusted incidence (males 22.9 to 74.2 and females 14.9 to 44.2), prevalence (males 52.6 to 177.7 and females 38.3 to 111.03), and mortality (males 14.6 to 47.2 and females 9.6 to 28.2) rates per 100,000 for the period of 2001 to 2010 and this upward state would persist for the projected period. For the entire period, the male to female ratio increased slightly for all parameters (incidence rate increased from 1.5 to 1.7, prevalence from 1.4 to 1.6, and mortality from 1.5 to 1.7). In males, totals of 2,179 incident cases, 5,097 prevalent cases and 1,398 mortality cases were predicated to occur during the study period. For females the predicted figures were 1,379, 3,190 and 891, respectively. It was concluded that the upward trend of incidence alongside increase in survival rates would induce a high burden on the health care infrastructure in the province of Isfahan in the future.

The Incidence and Mortality of Liver Cancer and its Relationship with Development in Asia

  • Mohammadian, Maryam;Soroush, Ali;Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah;Towhidi, Farhad;Hadadian, Fatemeh;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2041-2047
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    • 2016
  • Background: Liver cancer (LC) is the sixth world most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death. Due to the importance and necessity of awareness about the incidence and mortality of diseases to perform prevention programs, this study focused on data for LC and its relationship with the human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Materials and Methods: This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data for Asian countries. We assessed correlations between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of LC with HDI and its components using of SPSS18. Results: A total of 582,420 incident cases and 557,097 deaths were recorded in Asian countries in 2012. The five with the highest SIR were Mongolia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Republic of Korea and Thailand and those with the highest SMR were Mongolia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. A negative relation was observed between HDI and LC for SIR of 0.049 (P=0.748) and for SMR of 0.07 (P=0.645), with life expectancy at birth a positive relation for SIR of 0.061 (P=0.687) and a negative relation for SMR of 0.079 (P=0.603), with the average years of education a negative relation fo SIR of 0.476 (p=0.952) and for SMR of 0.032 (P=0.832), and with the country income level per person a negative relation for SMI of 0.11 (p=0.465) and for SMR of 0.113 (P=0.455). Conclusions: The incidence of LC is more in less developed and developing countries but statistically significant correlations were not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of LC, and HDI and its dimensions.

Epidemiology of Pancreatic Cancer in Vojvodina Province in Serbia

  • Smiljana, Rajcevic;Mikov, Marica Miladinov;Petrovic, Vasa;Jasna, Trifunovic;Tihomir, Dugandzija;Milanka, Tatic
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10779-10782
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Analysis of descriptive epidemiological characteristics of pancreatic cancer in Vojvodina, Serbia. Materials and Methods: The study covers population of Vojvodina in the period from 2000 to 2009. The method used for data processing was the descriptive. The data, referring to a specified period of time, were analyzed from chronological and demographic aspects and according to histological diagnosis. Results: In the period from 2000 to 2009, there were 2,108 registered cases of pancreatic cancer of which 1,886 had a fatal outcome. Standardized incidence rates varied between 5.7 and 9.1 per 100,000 population in males and between 4.2 and 5.3 in females. Linear incidence trends in males in the specified period of time, based on crude (r=0.7883, p<0.05) and standardized (r=0,6373, p<0,05) incidence rates, demonstrated increase. Annual percent increase in the crude incidence rate was 4.5% in males, and 2.8% in females. Age-standardized mortality rates varied between 5.2 and 7.5 per 100,000 population in males and 3.6 and 4.7 in females. Linear mortality trends in males in the specified period of time, based on crude (r=0.8795, p<0.05) and standardized (r=0.7669, p<0.05) mortality rates, also demonstrated annual percent increase. Conclusions: Data analysis shows unfavorable onco-epidemiological situation related to pancreatic cancer in Vojvodina, in aspects of both incidence and mortality. Absence of primary and secondary prevention does not allow medical institutions to successfully fight against this disease.

Cancer Incidence and Mortality Data in Aktobe, West Kazakhstan, 2000-2010

  • Bekmukhambetov, Yerbol;Imangazina, Zina;Jarkenov, Timur;Mamyrbayev, Arstan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2379-2383
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    • 2015
  • The article provides an assessment of the dynamics of cancer incidence and mortality in the territory of Aktobe city for the period 2000-2010. The most common cancers were found in the lungs, stomach, esophagus and breast throughout the period, with slight increase in colon cancer and decrease in esophageal cancer being apparent. In an attempt to cast light on effects of environmental pollution, the authors also compared data on total emissions of chemicals into the air. While preliminary, the findings provide a basic picture of cancer burden in this industrialised city in Kazakhstan which should be followed up by more comprehensive monitoring.

Attributable Causes of Liver Cancer Mortality and Incidence in China

  • Fan, Jin-Hu;Wang, Jian-Bing;Jiang, Yong;Xiang, Wang;Liang, Hao;Wei, Wen-Qiang;Qiao, You-Lin;Boffetta, Paolo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7251-7256
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To estimate the proportion of liver cancer cases and deaths due to infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), aflatoxin exposure, alcohol drinking and smoking in China in 2005. Study design: Systemic assessment of the burden of five modifiable risk factors on the occurrence of liver cancer in China using the population attributable fraction. Methods: We estimated the population attributable fraction of liver cancer caused by five modifiable risk factors using the prevalence data around 1990 and data on relative risks from meta-analyses, and large-scale observational studies. Liver cancer mortality data were from the 3rd National Death Causes Survey, and data on liver cancer incidence were estimated from the mortality data from cancer registries in China and a mortality/incidence ratio calculated. Results: We estimated that HBV infection was responsible for 65.9% of liver cancer deaths in men and 58.4% in women, while HCV was responsible for 27.3% and 28.6% respectively. The fraction of liver cancer deaths attributable to aflatoxin was estimated to be 25.0% for both men and women. Alcohol drinking was responsible for 23.4% of liver cancer deaths in men and 2.2% in women. Smoking was responsible for 18.7% and 1.0%. Overall, 86% of liver cancer mortality and incidence (88% in men and 78% in women) was attributable to these five modifiable risk factors. Conclusions: HBV, HCV, aflatoxin, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were responsible for 86% of liver cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. Our findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for liver cancer prevention and control in China and other developing countries.

Epidemiological Characteristics and Prediction of Esophageal Cancer Mortality in China from 1991 to 2012

  • Tang, Wen-Rui;Fang, Jia-Ying;Wu, Ku-Sheng;Shi, Xiao-Jun;Luo, Jia-Yi;Lin, Kun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6929-6934
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    • 2014
  • Background: To analyze the mortality distribution of esophageal cancer in China from 1991 to 2012, to forecast the mortality in the future five years, and to provide evidence for prevention and treatment of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: Mortality data for esophageal cancer in China from 1991 to 2012 were used to describe its epidemiological characteristics, such as the change of the standardized mortality rate, urban-rural differences, sex and age differences. Trend-surface analysis was used to study the geographical distribution of the mortality. Curve estimation, time series, gray modeling, and joinpoint regression were used to predict the mortality for the next five years in the future. Results: In China, the incidence rate of esophageal cancer from 2007 and the mortality rate of esophageal cancer from 2008 increased yearly, with males at $8.72/10^5$ being higher than females, and the countryside at $15.5/10^5$ being higher than in the city. The mortality rate increased from age 45. Geographical analysis showed the mortality rate increased from southern to eastern China, and from northeast to central China. Conclusions: The incidence rate and the standardized mortality rate of esophageal cancer are rising. The regional disease control for esophageal cancer should be focused on eastern, central and northern regions China, and the key targets for prevention and treatment are rural men more than 45 years old. The mortality of esophageal cancer will rise in the next five years.

Melanoma Incidence Mortality Rates and Clinico-Pathological Types in the Siberian Area of the Russian Federation

  • Gyrylova, Svetlana Nikolaevna;Aksenenko, Mariya Borisovna;Gavrilyuk, Dmitriy Vladimirovich;Palkina, Nadezda Vladimirovna;Dyhno, Yuriy Alexandrovich;Ruksha, Tatiana Gennadievna;Artyukhov, Ivan Pavlovich
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.2201-2204
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    • 2014
  • Russian rates for melanoma incidence and mortality are relatively low as compared to some other white populations but the tumor is of increasing importance. In this paper, data are based on a retrospective descriptive analysis of melanoma epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics in Krasnoyarsk Territory belonging to the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for the period 1996-2009 were determined with subsequent retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data of 103 primary melanoma cases. Our results showed that incidence and mortality rates in the region under consideration match the Russian national trends and correspond to epidemiological data of the countries of Eastern Europe. Stratification of melanoma cases by age, sex, clinicopathological state and localization revealed a prevalence of lesions on the trunk and lower extremities. Most melanomas diagnosed were of superficial spreading type and the third Clark's level of tumor invasion and stage II according to AJCC. In spite of comparatively low rates of incidence and mortality the trend to increase of melanoma cases in the region under consideration obviously calls for more attention and further investigation.

Breast Cancer Statistics and Prediction Methodology: A Systematic Review and Analysis

  • Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar;Gupta, Umesh;Jain, Sonal
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4237-4245
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    • 2015
  • Breast cancer is a menacing cancer, primarily affecting women. Continuous research is going on for detecting breast cancer in the early stage as the possibility of cure in early stages is bright. There are two main objectives of this current study, first establish statistics for breast cancer and second to find methodologies which can be helpful in the early stage detection of the breast cancer based on previous studies. The breast cancer statistics for incidence and mortality of the UK, US, India and Egypt were considered for this study. The finding of this study proved that the overall mortality rates of the UK and US have been improved because of awareness, improved medical technology and screening, but in case of India and Egypt the condition is less positive because of lack of awareness. The methodological findings of this study suggest a combined framework based on data mining and evolutionary algorithms. It provides a strong bridge in improving the classification and detection accuracy of breast cancer data.

Cervical Cancer Mortality Trends in China, 1991-2013, and Predictions for the Future

  • Du, Pei-Ling;Wu, Ku-Sheng;Fang, Jia-Ying;Zeng, Yang;Xu, Zhen-Xi;Tang, Wen-Rui;Xu, Xiao-Ling;Lin, Kun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6391-6396
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    • 2015
  • Background: To analyze cervical cancer mortality trends in China from 1991-2013 and forecast the mortality distribution in future five years (2014-2018), and provide clues for prevention and treatment. Materials and Methods: Mortality data for cervical cancer in China from 1991 to 2013 were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics and distribution, including the trend of the standardized mortality rate, urban-rural differences, and age variation. Trend-surface analysis was used to analyze the geographical distribution of mortality. Curve estimation, time series, gray modeling, and joinpoint regression were performed to predict and forecast mortality trends. Results: In recent years, the mortality rate of cervical cancer has increased, and there is also a steady increase in the incidence from 2003 to 2013 in China. Mortality rates in rural areas are higher than in urban areas. The mortality dramatically increases in the 40+ yr age group, reaching a peak in the >85 yr age group. In addition, geographical analysis showed that the cervical cancer mortality increased from the southwest to west-central and from the southeast to northeast of the country. Conclusions: The incidence rate and the mortality rate are increasing from 1991 to 2013, and the predictions show this will continue in the future. Thus, implementation of prevention and management programs for cervical cancer are necessary in China, especially for rural areas, young women in urban areas, and high risk regions (the west-central).

Sex Differences in Cancer: Epidemiology, Genetics and Therapy

  • Kim, Hae-In;Lim, Hyesol;Moon, Aree
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.335-342
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    • 2018
  • The incidence and mortality of various cancers are associated with sex-specific disparities. Sex differences in cancer epidemiology are one of the most significant findings. Men are more prone to die from cancer, particularly hematological malignancies. Sex difference in cancer incidence is attributed to regulation at the genetic/molecular level and sex hormones such as estrogen. At the genetic/molecular level, gene polymorphism and altered enzymes involving drug metabolism generate differences in cancer incidence between men and women. Sex hormones modulate gene expression in various cancers. Genetic or hormonal differences between men and women determine the effect of chemotherapy. Until today, animal studies and clinical trials investigating chemotherapy showed sex imbalance. Chemotherapy has been used without consideration of sex differences, resulting in disparity of efficacy and toxicity between sexes. Based on accumulating evidence supporting sex differences in chemotherapy, all clinical trials in cancer must incorporate sex differences for a better understanding of biological differences between men and women. In the present review, we summarized the sex differences in (1) incidence and mortality of cancer, (2) genetic and molecular basis of cancer, (3) sex hormones in cancer incidence, and (4) efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapy. This review provides useful information for sex-based chemotherapy and development of personalized therapeutic strategies against cancer.