• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cancer incidence and mortality

Search Result 303, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Epidemiological Aspects of Morbidity and Mortality from Cervical Cancer in Kazakhstan

  • Igissinov, Nurbek;Nuralina, Indira;Igissinova, Gulnur;Kim, Sergei;Moore, Malcolm;Igissinov, Saginbek;Khassenova, Zauresh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2345-2348
    • /
    • 2012
  • Epidemiological studies of cancer incidence in Kazakhstan have revealed an uneven distribution for cervical cancer. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated for different regions of the republic, including the two major cities of Almaty and Astana, in 1999-2008. Defined levels for cartograms for incidence were low (up to 12.8/100,000), medium (12.8 to 15.9) and high (above 15.9) and for mortality were up to 7.1, 7.1 to 10.8 and more than 10.8, respectively. Basically high incidence rates were identified in the eastern, central and northern parts of the country and in Almaty. Such differences in cervical cancer data, and also variation in mortality/ incidence ratios, from a low of 0.4 in Almaty to a high of 0.71 in Zhambyl, point to variation in demographic and medical features which impact on risk and prognistic factors for cervical cancer in the country. Further research is necessary to highlight areas for emphasis in cancer control programs for this important cancer.

Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship to Development in Asia

  • Ghoncheh, Mahshid;Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.14
    • /
    • pp.6081-6087
    • /
    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer, and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Materials and Methods: This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between SIR and SMR and HDI and its individual components. Statistical significance was assumed if P<0.05. All reported P-values are two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). Results: In 2012, 639,824 cases of breast cancer were recorded in Asian countries. Countries with the highest standardized incidence rate (ASIR) (per 100,000) were Israel (80.5), Lebanon (78.7), Armenia (74.1) and the highest standard mortality rate (ASMR) was observed in Pakistan (25.2), Armenia (24.2), and Lebanon (24). There was a positive correlation between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI (r = 0.556, p <0.001), whereas there was a negative correlation between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI (r = -0.051). Conclusions: Breast cancer incidence in countries with higher development is greater, while mortality is greatest in countries with less development. There was a positive and significant relationship between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI and its components. Also there was a negative but non significant relationship between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI.

Can We Rely on GLOBOCAN and GBD Cancer Estimates? Case Study of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates and Trends in Iran

  • Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi;Heidari, Mohammad;Hadipour, Maryam
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.7
    • /
    • pp.3265-3269
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: Around half of input data in the global burden of disease cancer collaboration (GBD-CC) and GLOBOCAN projects come from low quality sources, mainly from developing countries. This may lead to loss of precision in estimates. Our question was: Are the absolute values and trends of the GBD-CC and GLOBOCAN estimates for lung cancer (LC) in Iran consistent with available statistics?. Materials and Methods: Incidence and mortality statistics were extracted from national reports (N.IRs & N.MRs) and GBD-CC (GBD-incidence & mortality) and GLOBOCAN databases for 1990-2013 where available. Trends were analyzed and absolute values and annual percentage changes (APCs) were estimated and compared. Incompleteness of case ascertainment at the Iranian national cancer registry and Iranian national civil registration was assessed for better understanding. Results: Trends of N.IRs were significantly rising for males (APC: 19.4; 95% CI: 12.5-26.7) and females (23.2; 16.0-30.8). Trends of GBD-incidence were stable for males (-0.2; -1.5-1.1) and females (-1.0; -2.3-0.4). Absolute N.IRs were less than GBD-incidence steadily except for 2009. Trend of N.MRs was increasing up to 2004, but stable thereafter. Trends of GBD-mortality were also stable. Absolute N.MRs were less than GBD-mortality for years up to 2003 and more than GBD-mortality since 2005. The estimates of GLOBOCAN were more than N.IRs and N.MRs. Conclusions: The GBD-CC and GLOBOCAN values for LC in Iran are underestimates. Generation of data quality indices to present along with country specific estimates is highly recommended.

Differences in Incidence, Mortality and Survival of Breast Cancer by Regions and Countries in Asia and Contributing Factors

  • Kim, Yeonju;Yoo, Keun-Young;Goodman, Marc T
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.7
    • /
    • pp.2857-2870
    • /
    • 2015
  • Although the incidence of breast cancer in Asia remains lower than in North America, Western Europe, and Oceania, rates have been increasing rapidly during the past few decades, and Asian countries now account for 40% of breast cancer cases diagnosed worldwide. Breast cancer mortality has also increased among Asian women, in contrast to decreased mortality in Northern America, Western Europe, and Oceania. These increased rates are associated with higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors (e.g., reduced parity, delayed childbirth, increased obesity) that have accompanied economic development throughout the region. However, Asian regions (western, south-central, south-eastern, and eastern) and countries differ in the types and magnitude of changes in breast cancer risk factors, and cannot be viewed as a single homogeneous group. The objective of this paper was to contrast the heterogeneous epidemiology of breast cancer by Asian regions and countries, and to suggest potential avenues for future research.

Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in 7 Metropolitan Cities in Korea. (7대 광역시에서 대기오염과 폐암 발생 및 사망에 대한 공간 분석)

  • Hwang, Seung-Sik;Lee, Jin-Hee;Jung, Gyu-Won;Lim, Jeong-Hun;Kwon, Ho-Jang
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.233-238
    • /
    • 2007
  • Objectives : We aimed to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and lung cancer in the Republic of Korea. Methods : Using the Annual Report of Ambient Air Quality in Korea, Annual Report of National Cancer Registration, and Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics, we calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer for both sexes in 74 areas from 7 Korean metropolitan cities. We performed random intercept, Poisson regression using empirical Bayes method. Results : Both SMRs and SIRs in the 7 metropolitan cities were higher in women than in men. Mean SIRs were 99.0 for males and 107.0 for females. The association between $PM_{10}$ and lung cancer risk differed according to gender. $PM_{10}$ was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in males, but both incidence and mortality of lung cancer were positively associated with $PM_{10}$ in females. The estimated percentage increases in the rate of female lung cancer mortality and incidence were 27% and 65% at the highest $PM_{10}$ category $({\geq}70\;{\mu}g/m^3)$, compared to the referent category $({\geq}50\;{\mu}g/m^3)$. Conclusions : Long-term exposure to $PM_{10}$ was significantly associated with female lung cancer incidence in 7 Korean metropolitan cities. Further study is undergoing to estimate the relative risk of $PM_{10}$ using multi-level analysis for controlling individual and regional confounders such as smoking and socioeconomic position.

Multidisciplinary Approach to Breast Cancer Care

  • Juon, Hee-Soon
    • Perspectives in Nursing Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2007
  • Aim: The purpose of this paper is to present the importance of multidisciplinary strategies in cancer prevention and control, especially comprehensive breast cancer care. Background: Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among women and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Although the incidence of breast cancer in Asian countries is still lower than in Western countries, the rate of increase for the last two decades is striking. Methods: Data on cancer mortality, incidence, and risk factors were summarized by using the most recent data available from population-based cancer registries affiliated with the International Union Against Cancer, the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and the CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). Results: Global differences in breast cancer incidence and fluctuations in rates within a country still exist. The incidence of breast cancer in Asian countries was lower than in Western countries. Breast cancer incidence in the United States decreased each year during 1999-2003. On the other hand, morbidity and mortality related to breast cancer in Asia has increased significantly. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary strategies to reduce breast cancer mortality and promote breast cancer awareness are addressed. Lessons learned from multidisciplinary approaches to cancer treatment and control will be valuable in implementing future breast cancer research in the fields of basic, clinical, and population research in Asia.

  • PDF

Global Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates According to the Human Development Index

  • Khazaei, Salman;Rezaeian, Shahab;Ayubi, Erfan;Gholamaliee, Behzad;Pishkuhi, Mahin Ahmadi;Khazaei, Somayeh;Mansori, Kamyar;Nematollahi, Shahrzad;Sani, Mohadeseh;Hanis, Shiva Mansouri
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.8
    • /
    • pp.3793-3796
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading causes of death, especially in developed countries. The human development index (HDI) and its dimensions seem correlated with incidence and mortality rates of PC. This study aimed to assess the association of the specific components of HDI (life expectancy at birth, education, gross national income per 1000 capita, health, and living standards) with burden indicators of PC worldwide. Materials and Methods: Information of the incidence and mortality rates of PC was obtained from the GLOBOCAN cancer project in year 2012 and data about the HDI 2013 were obtained from the World Bank database. The correlation between incidence, mortality rates, and the HDI parameters were assessed using STATA software. Results: A significant inequality of PC incidence rates was observed according to concentration indexes=0.25 with 95% CI (0.22, 0.34) and a negative mortality concentration index of -0.04 with 95% CI (-0.09, 0.01) was observed. Conclusions: A positive significant correlation was detected between the incidence rates of PC and the HDI and its dimensions including life expectancy at birth, education, income, urbanization level and obesity. However, there was a negative significant correlation between the standardized mortality rates and the life expectancy, income and HDI.

Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

  • Koh, Dong-Hee;Kim, Tae-Woo;Jang, Seung-Hee;Ryu, Hyang-Woo
    • Safety and Health at Work
    • /
    • v.2 no.3
    • /
    • pp.243-249
    • /
    • 2011
  • Objectives: Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods: The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office work. Cancer mortality and incidence in workers were observed from 1992 to 2007 and 1997-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios were calculated according to the five job classifications. Results: There was an increased standardized incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.56 (27/17.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26) in production workers. The standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer increased in production workers. However, was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our result suggests a potential association between cement exposure and stomach cancer. Hexavalent chromium contained in cement might be a causative carcinogen.

Overview of Cancer Registration Research in the Asian Pacific from 2008-2013

  • Moore, Malcolm A.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.8
    • /
    • pp.4461-4484
    • /
    • 2013
  • Cancer registration provides a firm basis for cancer control efforts and research into changing patterns of incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence is of obvious importance. Most of the countries of Asia have already published relevant data although the level of coverage and accuracy do vary a great deal both between and within countries. The present review concerns the relevant literature for the period 2008-2013, focusing on the types of research conducted and the conclusions that can be drawn with regard to what should be done in the future to translate the information available into effective intervention efforts to reduce the burden of disease. A major emphasis has been on determining variation in incidence and mortality/survival on the basis of ethnicity and socioeconomic as well as geographical background, as well as trends over time, either for cancer in general or specific organ sites. In addition a small number of papers focused on methodological, quality and cancer control issues, very pertinent to the future development of cancer registry based research.

Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2010

  • Zheng, Zhao-Xu;Zheng, Rong-Shou;Zhang, Si-Wei;Chen, Wan-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.19
    • /
    • pp.8455-8460
    • /
    • 2014
  • Background: The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) affiliated to the Bureau of Disease Control, National Health and Family Planning Commission of China is responsible for cancer surveillance in the entire country. Cancer registration data from each local registry located in each province are collected by NCCR annually to be analyzed and published to provide useful information for policy makers and cancer researchers. Materials and Methods: Until 1st June, 2013, 219 population-based cancer registries submitted data of 2010 to the National Central Cancer Registry of China covering about 207,229,403 population, and 145 cancer registries were selected after quality evaluation for this study. Colorectal cancer cases were selected from the database according to ICD-10 coded as "C18-C20". We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates by sex, age groups and location (urban/rural). The China population in 2000 and Segi's population were used as standardized populations for the calculation of age-standardized rates. The 6th National Population Census data of China was used to combined with the cancer registries' data to estimate the colorectal cancer burden in China in 2010. Results: Colorectal cancer was the sixth most common cancer in China. It was estimated that there were 274,841 new cases diagnosed in 2010 (157,355 in males and 117,486 in females), with the crude incidence rate of 20.1/100,000, highest in males in urban areas. Age-standardized rates by China standard population of 2000 (ASRcn) and World standard population (Segi's population, ASRwld) for incidence were 16.1/100,000 and 15.9/100,000 respectively. There were 132,110 cases estimated to have died from colorectal cancer in China in 2010 (76,646 men and 55,464 women) with the crude mortality rate of 10.1/100,000. The ASRcn and ASRwld for mortality were 7.55/100,000 and 7.44/100,000 respectively, higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. The incidence and mortality rates increased with age, reaching peaksin the 80-84 year old, and oldest age groups, respectively. Conclusions: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common incident cancers and cause of cancer death in China. Primary and secondary prevention, with attention to a health lifestyle, physical activity and screening should be enhanced in the general population.