• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cancer incidence and mortality

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Protein Intake Recommendation for Korean Older Adults to Prevent Sarcopenia: Expert Consensus by the Korean Geriatric Society and the Korean Nutrition Society

  • Jung, Hee-Won;Kim, Sun-Wook;Kim, Il-Young;Lim, Jae-Young;Park, Hyoung-Su;Song, Wook;Yoo, Hyung Joon;Jang, HakChul;Kim, Kirang;Park, Yongsoon;Park, Yoon Jung;Yang, Soo Jin;Lee, Hae-Jeung;Won, Chang Won
    • Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2018
  • Sarcopenia, a common clinical syndrome in older adults, is defined as decreased muscle mass, strength, and physical performance. Since sarcopenia is associated with the incidence of functional decline, falls, and even mortality in older adults, researchers and health care providers have been keen to accumulate clinical evidence to advocate the screening and prevention of sarcopenia progression in older adults. The factors that may accelerate the loss of muscle mass and function include chronic diseases, inactivity, and deficiency in appropriate nutritional support. Among these, nutritional support is considered an initial step to delay the progression of muscle wasting and improve physical performance in community-dwelling older adults. However, a nationwide study suggested that most Korean older adults do not consume sufficient dietary protein to maintain their muscle mass. Furthermore, considering age-associated anabolic resistance to dietary protein, higher protein intake should be emphasized in older adults than in younger people. To develop a dietary protein recommendation for older adults in Korea, we reviewed the relevant literature, including interventional studies from Korea. From these, we recommend that older adults consume at least 1.2 g of protein per kg of body weight per day (g/kg/day) to delay the progression of muscle wasting. The amount we recommend (1.2 g/kg/day) is 31.4% higher than the previously suggested recommended daily allowance (i.e., 0.91 g/kg/day) for the general population of Korea. Also, evidence to date suggests that the combination of exercise and nutritional support may enhance the beneficial effects of protein intake in older adults in Korea. We found that the current studies are insufficient to build population-based guidelines for older adults, and we call for further researches in Korea.

Surgical Treatment of Primary Lung Cancer (원발성 폐암의 외과적 치료)

  • 김성완;구본원;이응배;전상훈;장봉현;이종태;김규태;강덕식
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 1998
  • Primary lung cancer has recently increased progressively in its incidence in Korea. It is clearly evident that surgical resection offers the best offortunity for cure of non-small cell carcinoma. This study was designed to analyse the clinical data of 100 primary non-small cell carcinoma patients who underwent lung resection surgery from January 1992 to July 1995 at the department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Sugery, Kyungpook National University Hospital. There were 86 males and 14 females(6:1). In the age distribution, the peak incidence was recorded in the seventh decade(43%). The methods of tissue diagnosis were bronchoscopic biopsy in 53 patients(50.5%), percutaneous needle aspiration in 17 patients(16.2%), transbronchial lung biopsy in 11 patients(10.5%), mediastinoscopic biopsy in 2 patients (1.9%), sputum cytology in 2 patients(1.9%), and thoracotomy in 20 patients(19.0%). Fifty-five lobectomies, 22 pneumonectomies, 15 bilobectomies, 2 segmentectomies, 4 sleeve lobectomies, a sleeve pneumonectomy, and a wedge pneumonectomy were performed. Operative mortality occured in 4 cases(sepsis in 2 cases, respiratory failure in 1 case, and acute myocardiac infarction in 1 case). The histologic types of tumor were 67 squamous cell carcinomas, 26 adenocarcinomas, 6 large cell carcinomas, and an adenosquamous cell carcinoma. Eighteen patients with N2 mediastinal lymph node metastases had 8 squamous cell carcinomas(11.9%), 9 adenocarcinomas(34.6%), and a large cell carcinoma(16.7%). The primary tumors in these patients were in the right upper lobe in 4 patients, the right middle and lower lobe in 9 patients, the left upper lobe in 3 patients, and the left lower lobe in 2 patients. With regard to pathologic stages, 45 patients had stage I disease; 13 patients, stage II; 36 patients, stage IIIa; 5 patients, stage IIIb; and 1 patient, stage IV. The overall actuarial survival rate was 77.5% at 12 months, 56.1% at 24 months and 43.7% at 43 months. The actuarial survival rates at 43 months were 81.3% in Stage I, 20.8% in Stage II, 27.9% in Stage IIIa, 25.0% in Stage IIIb and 33.3% in Stage IV. These facts suggest that early detection and surgical resection are recommended for favorable postoperative survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

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Gastrointestinal Complications after Lung Transplantation (폐이식 후 발생한 소화기계 합병증)

  • Haam, Seok-Jin;Paik, Hyo-Chae;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Doo-Yun;Kim, Chang-Wan;Kim, Jung-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.280-284
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    • 2010
  • Background: The postoperative management following lung transplantation has dramatically improved in the recent decade. However, some complications still remain as troublesome problems. We retrospectively reviewed the gastrointestinal complications and their management after lung transplantation. Material and Method: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 25 cases in 23 patients who underwent lung and heart-lung transplantations from July 1996 to March 2009. The definition of gastrointestinal complication was the gastrointestinal tract-related disease that occurred after lung transplantation. There were eight postoperative deaths (within postoperative 30 days) that were excluded from the analysis. Result: Twenty three gastrointestinal complications occurred in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 cases. The median follow-up period was 6.9 months (range: 2 months to 111 months), and chronic gastritis (23.5%, 4 of 17 cases) was the most common complication. Severe, prolonged (more than 2 weeks) diarrhea occurred in 3 cases. Three patients had gastric ulcer with one case requiring gastric primary closure for gastric ulcer perforation. This patient had gastric bleeding due to recurrent gastric ulcer 2 months after laparotomy. Cytomegalovirus gastritis and esophagitis occurred in 2 cases and 1 case, respectively, and esophageal ulcer occurred in 2 cases. There were esophageal strictures in 2 patients who underwent esophageal stent insertion. Other complications were one case each of ileus, early gastric cancer requiring endoscopic mucosal resection, gall bladder stone accompanied with jaundice, and pseudomembranous colitis. Conclusion: The incidence of gastrointestinal complication is relatively high in patients after they undergo lung transplantation. Since gastrointestinal complications can induce malnutrition, which might be related to considerable morbidity and mortality, close follow-up is necessary for the early detection and proper management of gastrointestinal complications.