• Title, Summary, Keyword: Cancer incidence and mortality

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Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study

  • Khazaei, Salman;Rezaeian, Shahab;Khazaei, Somayeh;Mansori, Kamyar;Moghaddam, Ali Sanjari;Ayubi, Erfan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.253-256
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    • 2016
  • Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

Estimation of the Projections of the Incidence Rates, Mortality and Prevalence Due to Common Cancer Site in Isfahan, Iran

  • Moradpour, Farhad;Fatemi, Zeinab
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3581-3585
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    • 2013
  • Background: Accurate statistics on the cancer burden are essential, both for purposes of research and for setting priorities in healthcare management. So that in vast countries with partial registration coverage, such as Iran, local data are more useful. We here estimated the incidence, prevalence and mortality time trend of four major cancer site, lung, stomach, breast and prostate, over the period 2001-2010 and provided short-range projections to 2015 in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: Estimates were derived by applying the mortality-incidence analysis method, a back-calculation approach to estimate and project incidence, prevalence and mortality of chronic degenerative disease, starting from knowledge of mortality and relative survival information. Results: Age adjusted incidence, mortality and prevalence rates in Isfahan exhibited a clear upward trend for all four sites during the period 2001-2015, with marked increasees in prostate and breast predicted for the future. Difference in incidence trends between males and females might be attributable to the difference in risk factors specific to certain cancer sites, with smoking being the main risk factor. Conclusions: In this study, males and females displayed an increasing pattern for incidence and mortality rate over the entire study period until 2015. This information can be used as basis for planning healthcare management and allocating recourses in public health.

Ovarian Cancer in Iranian Women, a Trend Analysis of Mortality and Incidence

  • Sharifian, Abdolhamid;Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin;Norouzinia, Mohsen;Vahedi, Mohsen
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10787-10790
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    • 2015
  • Background: Ovarian cancer is an important cause of mortality in women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates and trends in the Iranian population and make predictions. Materials and Methods: National incidence from Iranian annual of National Cancer Registration report from 2003 to 2009 and National Death Statistics reported by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education from 1999 to 2004 were included in this study. A time series model (autoregressive) was used to predict the mortality for the years 2007, 2008, 2012 and 2013, with results expressed as annual mortality rates per 100,000. Results: The general mortality rate of ovarian cancer slightly increased during the years under study from 0.01 to 0.75 and reaching plateau according to the prediction model. Mortality was higher for older age. The incidence also increased during the period of the study. Conclusions: Our study indicated remarkable increasing trends in ovarian cancer mortality and incidence. Therefore, attention to high risk groups and setting awareness programs for women are needed to reduce the associated burden in the future.

Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in the World in 2012

  • Ghoncheh, Mahshid;Mirzaei, Maryam;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8439-8443
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and its incidence is generally increasing. In 2012, it was the second most common cancer in the world. It is necessary to obtain information on incidence and mortality for health planning. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the human development index (HDI), and the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in the world in 2012. Materials and Methods: This ecologic study concerns incidence rate and standardized mortality rates of the cancer from GLOBOCAN in 2012, and HDI and its components extracted from the global bank site. Data were analyzed using correlation tests and regression with SPSS software (version 15). Results: Among the six regions of WHO, the highest breast cancer incidence rate (67.6) was observed in the PAHO, and the lowest incidence rate was 27.8 for SEARO. There was a direct, strong, and meaningful correlation between the standardized incidence rate and HDI (r=0.725, $p{\leq}0.001$). Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and components of the HDI (life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and GNP). On the other, a non-significant relationship was observed between ASIR and HDI overall (r=0.091, p=0.241). In total, a significant relationship was not found between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) and components of HDI. Conclusions: Significant positive correlations exist between ASIR and components of the HDI. Socioeconomic status is directly related to the stage of the cancer and patient's survival. With increasing the incidence rate of the cancer, mortality rate from the cancer does not necessariloy increase. This may be due to more early detection and treatment in developed that developing countries. It is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in the latter.

Incidence and Mortality of Female Breast Cancer in Jiangsu, China

  • Wu, Li-Zhu;Han, Ren-Qiang;Zhou, Jin-Yi;Yang, Jie;Dong, Mei-Hua;Qian, Yun;Wu, Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2727-2732
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in Jiangsu Province of China. Methods: Incidence and mortality data for female breast cancer and corresponding population statistics from eligible cancer registries in Jiangsu from 2006 to 2010 were collected and analyzed. Crude rates, age-specific rates and age-standardized rates of incidence and mortality were calculated, and annual present changes (APCs) were estimated to describe the time trends. Results: From 2006 to 2010, 11,013 new cases and 3,068 deaths of female breast cancer were identified in selected cancer registry areas of Jiangsu. The annual average crude incidence and age-standardized incidence by world population (ASW) were 25.2/ and 17.9/100,000 respectively. The annual average crude and ASW for mortality rates were 7.03/ and 4.81/100,000. The incidence was higher in urban areas than that in rural areas, and this was consistent in all age groups. No significant difference was observed in mortality between urban and rural areas. Two peaks were observed when looking at age-specific rates, one at 50-59 years and another at over 85 years. During the 5 years, incidence and mortality increased with APCs of 4.47% and 6.89%, respectively. Compared to the national level, Jiangsu is an area with relatively low risk of female breast cancer. Conclusion: Breast cancer has become a main public health problem among Chinese females. More prevention and control activities should be conducted to reduce the burden of this disease, even in relatively low risk areas like Jiangsu.

Incidence and Mortality from Mucosal Head and Neck Cancers amongst Australian States and Territories: What It Means for the Northern Territory

  • Singh, Jagtar;Jayaraj, Rama;Baxi, Siddhartha;Ramamoorthi, Ramya;Thomas, Mahiban
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5621-5624
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    • 2013
  • Mucosal head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that develop in the upper-aero digestive epithelium. Together they constitute the sixth most common cancer with an estimated 900,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths each year reported worldwide. The risk factors are tobacco, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Our research team initially reported a high incidence rate of HNC in the indigenous population of the Northern Territory. Mortality rates also vary in the Australian States and Territories, with particularly high mortality observed in the Northern Territory. There is a paucity of incidence studies of HNC for the Australian States and Territories. Therefore this review primarily focuses on variation in incidence and mortality iacross the country and highlights specifically the high incidence and mortality in the Northern Territory. Attention is also given to sex-specific incidence and mortality rates.

Human Development Inequality Index and Cancer Pattern: a Global Distributive Study

  • Rezaeian, Shahab;Khazaei, Salman;Khazaei, Somayeh;Mansori, Kamyar;Moghaddam, Ali Sanjari;Ayubi, Erfan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.201-204
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to quantify associations of the human development inequality (HDI) index with incidence, mortality, and mortality to incidence ratios for eight common cancers among different countries. In this ecological study, data about incidence and mortality rates of cancers was obtained from the Global Cancer Project for 169 countries. HDI indices for the same countries was obtained from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) database. The concentration index was defined as the covariance between cumulative percentage of cancer indicators (incidence, mortality and mortality to incidence ratio) and the cumulative percentage of economic indicators (country economic rank). Results indicated that incidences of cancers of liver, cervix and esophagus were mainly concentrated in countries with a low HDI index while cancers of lung, breast, colorectum, prostate and stomach were concentrated mainly in countries with a high HDI index. The same pattern was observed for mortality from cancer except for prostate cancer that was more concentrated in countries with a low HDI index. Higher MIRs for all cancers were more concentrated in countries with a low HDI index. It was concluded that patterns of cancer occurrence correlate with care disparities at the country level.

Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia

  • Ghoncheh, Mahshid;Mahdavifar, Neda;Darvishi, Efat;Salehiniya, Hamid
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2016
  • Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in Asia and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health and more studies. This study aimed to investigate the age-specific incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Asia in 2012. A total of 639,824 cases of breast cancer were recorded in Asian countries, those with the five highest standardized incidence rates being Israel, Lebanon, Armenia, Singapore, and Kazakhstan. The highest number of deaths was observed in India, China, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Japan, respectively. Tith increasing income and improving living standards in developing countries, the incidence of breast cancer increases. This may be due to longer life, higher exposure to risk factors, eating more fatty foods and obesity, and lower pregnancy rates. The variation in incidence rates of breast cancer is very pronounced in Asia (from 80.5 in Israel to 4.6 in Bhuta). A similar situation exists for mortality rates (from 1.8 in Bhutan to 25.2 in Pakistan).

Temporal Epidemiological Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004-2013

  • Zhabagin, Kuantkan;Igissinov, Nurbek;Manambayeva, Zukhra;Adylkhanov, Tasbolat;Sandybayev, Marat;Nurgazin, Murat;Massadykov, Adilzhan;Tanatarov, Sayat;Aldyngurov, Daniyar;Urazalina, Nailya;Abiltayeva, Aizhan;Baissalbayeva, Ainoor;Zhabagina, Almagul;Sabitova, Dinara;Zhumykbayeva, Nurgul;Kenbayeva, Dinara;Rakhimbekov, Alexander
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6413-6416
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    • 2015
  • Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan are relatively high but exact statistics have hitherto been lacking and trends over time are unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to retrospectively assess data for East Kazakhstan, accessed from the central registration office, for the period 2004-2013. Approximate age standardized data for incidence and mortality were generated and compared across age groups, gender and year. It was determined that during the studied period 3,417 new cases of colorectal cancer were registered and 2,259 died of this pathology. Average cancer cancer incidence and mortality over the ten years were $24.1/10^5$ and $15.9/10^5$ respectively, and the overall ratio of mortality/incidence (M/I) was 0.69:1 (range 0.58-0.73). Both incidence and mortality tended to remain constant in both males and females. The male to female ratios also did not significantly vary over time but a trend for improvement of the mortality to incidence ratio was observed, especially for rectum. Whether this might be related to screening remains unclear. These preliminary data indicate that whereas colorectal cancer continues to be important, change in environmental factors are not having a great impact on incidence in East Kazakhstan.

Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Morocco: Comparison with Other Countries

  • Khalis, Mohamed;El Rhazi, Karima;Charaka, Hafida;Chajes, Veronique;Rinaldi, Sabina;Nejjari, Chakib;Romieu, Isabelle;Charbotel, Barbara
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.5211-5216
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In Morocco, there have been few recent descriptive studies on female breast cancer. The aim of this study was to describe the latest available incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer among Moroccan women and to compare them with rates in other regional and Western countries. Methods: For this descriptive study, Moroccan incidence data were obtained from the most recent reports of the cancer registries of Casablanca and Rabat. Information on breast cancer incidence for different countries were obtained primarily from publicly available cancer registries and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Volume X. Mortality data were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Results: The age-standardized incidence (World) rate of breast cancer in Moroccan women increased from 35.0 to 39.0 per 100,000 women between 2004 and 2008, showing an annual increase of 2.85 %. The highest incidence rates were registered in the age groups of 45-49, 50-54 and 55-59 years (106.1, 108.2 and 108.5 respectively). Sixty-nine percent of female breast cancer cases were diagnosed at stages II and III. In 2012, the estimated number of women who died of breast cancer in Morocco was 2,878. The crude, age-standardized (World) mortality rates were 17.3 and 18.0 per 100,000, respectively. Conclusion: Although the incidence of female breast cancer in Morocco is lower than in Western countries, evidence shows that the rate is rising. This increase of breast cancer incidence has been observed in parallel with changes in reproductive behavior and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Prevention policies need to be implemented.