• Title/Summary/Keyword: Cancer

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Asian Cancer Registry Forum 2014-Regional Cooperation for Cancer Registration: Priorities and Challenges

  • Moore, Malcolm A.;Sangrajrang, Suleeporn;Bray, Freddie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.1891-1894
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    • 2014
  • In February 6-7th, the Thai National Cancer Institute, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and its Mumbai Hub for Cancer Registration, together with the International Association of Cancer Registries and the APOCP/APJCP, jointly organized an Asian cancer registry forum to discuss regional cooperation for cancer registration. Held in the Grande Mercure Fortune Hotel, Bangkok, the meeting brought together leading scientists in cancer registration from South-East and North-East Asia as well as Australia, India and Iran and IARC itself, with coverage of various priorities and challenges of cancer registries regarding cancer control policy, operational parameters, assessment of survival and contributions to screening, for example. The current situation was highlighted and future directions and possible expansion of activities were discussed, with especial attention to the necessity for networks to help improve cancer registration across Asia and Africa.

Analysis of Death Causes of In-patients with Malignant Tumors in Sichuan Cancer Hospital of China from 2002 to 2012

  • Wang, Xiao;Song, Zheng-Fang;Xie, Rui-Meng;Pei, Jiao;Xiang, Ming-Fei;Wang, Huan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4399-4402
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To analyze underlying disease, fatality rate and the major causes of death of in-patients with malignant tumors in Sichuan Cancer Hospital. Methods: Clinical data of in-patients from 2002 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The top 10 tumors (82.0%of the total) of the malignant tumors of the in-patients were lung, cervical, esophagus, breast, colorectal, nasopharynx, liver and gastric cancers, lymphomas and ovarian cancers. The overall fatality rate was 2.7% during these eleven years, 3.4% and 2.0% for male and females, respectively with statistical significance for the difference (${\chi}^2$=164.737, P<0.001). The top 10 death causes were lung cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, esophagus cancer, gastric cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer and nasopharynx cancer. In-patients with pancreatic cancer had the highest fatality rate (9.6%). There were different ranks of death causes in different sex groups and age groups. Conclusion: Prevention and control work of cancer should be enhanced not only for cancers with high incidence such as lung cancer, esophageal cancer but also for the cancers which have low incidence but high fatality rate, such as pancreatic cancer and gallbladder cancer, which would help to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients in the future.

Global Activity of Cancer Registries and Cancer Control and Cancer Incidence Statistics in Korea (암등록과 암관리사업의 최신 국제 경향 및 우리나라 암발생 통계)

  • Shin, Hai-Rim
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2008
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that cancer killed 7.6 million people in the world in 2005, and that 40% of all cancer deaths can be prevented. According to the WHO Global Action Plan Against Cancer (GAPAC), monitoring of cancer patients is the essential part of cancer control, and should be conducted through cancer registration. Originally, cancer registries were primarily concerned with the description of cancer patterns, trends of cancer occurrence, and etiology of cancer. In the last 20 years, cancer registries provided not only information on the incidence and characteristics of specific cancers, but also supplied the source of cancer control planning and evaluation and the care of individual cancer patients with survival. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) presents incidence data from populations all over the world every five year. Volume IX in the series (data for 1998-2002) has recently (November 2007) been published online at International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Nine data from Korea Central Cancer Registry (National data), Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Gwangju, Incheon, Daejeon, Usan, Jejudo regional cancer registries were included in that volume. In this paper, the editorial process, the characteristics of national data, and quality indices in CI5 IX are being described. In addition, cancer control activities related to cancer registration in some selected countries are also presented.

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus 16 in Esophageal Cancer Among the Chinese Population: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Zhang, Shao-Kai;Guo, Lan-Wei;Chen, Qiong;Zhang, Meng;Liu, Shu-Zheng;Quan, Pei-Liang;Lu, Jian-Bang;Sun, Xi-Bin
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.23
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    • pp.10143-10149
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    • 2015
  • Background and Aim: No firm evidence of HPV infection in esophageal cancer has been established to date. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prevalence of HPV 16 in esophageal cancer in China, which had a high burden of the disease. Materials and Methods: Studies on HPV infection and esophageal cancer were identified and a random-effects model was used to pool the summary prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 3,429 esophageal cancer cases were evaluated from 26 eligible studies in this meta-analysis. The summary estimate for HPV16 prevalence was 0.381 (95% CI: 0.283, 0.479). The prevalence varied by geographical areas of the study, publication year, HPV detection method and types of specimen. In sensitivity analysis, HPV 16 prevalence ranged from 0.368 (95% CI: 0.276, 0.460) to 0.397 (95% CI: 0.286, 0.508). Conclusions: The results indicate a relatively high level of HPV 16 prevalence in esophageal cancer among Chinese population, although there was variation between different variables. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in esophageal carcinogenesis with careful consideration of study design and laboratory detection method, providing more accurate assessment of the HPV status in esophageal cancer.

Concept and limitation of breast cancer stem cells (유방암 줄기세포 개념 및 제한점)

  • Kim, Jong Bin;An, Jeong Shin;Lim, Woosung;Moon, Byung-In
    • Journal of Medicine and Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.46-50
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    • 2018
  • Cancer, a leading mortality disease following cardiovascular disease worldwide, has high incidence as one out of every four adults in Korea. It was known to be caused by several reasons including somatic mutation, activation of oncogene and chromosome aneuploidy. Cancer cells show a faster growth rate and have metastatic and heterogeneous cell populations compared to normal cells. Cancer stem cells, the most invested field in cancer biology, is a theory to explain heterogeneous cell populations of cancer cells among several characteristics of cancer cells, which is providing the theoretical background for incidence of cancer and treatment failure by drug resistance. Cancer stem cells initially explain heterogeneous cell populations of cancer cells based on the same markers of normal stem cells in cancer, in which only cancer stem cells showed heterogeneity of cancer cells and tumor initiating ability of leukemia. Based on these results, cancer stem cells were reported in various solid cancers such as breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Breast cancer stem cells were first reported in solid cancer which had tumor initiating ability and further identified as anti-cancer drug resistance. There were several identification methods in breast cancer stem cells such as specific surface markers and culture methods. The discovery of cancer stem cells not only explains heterogeneity of cancer cells, but it also provides theoretical background for targeting cancer stem cells to complete elimination of cancer cells. Many institutes have been developing new anticancer drugs targeting cancer stem cells, but there have not been noticeable results yet. Many researchers also reported a necessity for improvement of current concepts and methods of research on cancer stem cells. Herein, we discuss the limitations and the perspectives of breast cancer stem cells based on the current concept and history.

Costs of Initial Cancer Care and its Affecting Factors (암 환자의 발생 초기 의료비와 이에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, So-Young;Kim, Sung-Gyeong;Park, Jong-Hyock;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The purposes of this study is to estimate the cost of cancer care after its diagnosis and to identify factors that can influence the cost of cancer care. Methods : The study subjects were patients with an initial diagnosis one of four selected tumors and had their first two-years of cancer care at a national cancer center. The data were obtained from medical records and patient surveys. We classified cancer care costs into medical and nonmedical costs, and each cost was analyzed for burden type, medical service, and cancer stage according to cancer types. Factors affecting cancer care costs for the initial phase included demographic variables, socioeconomic status and clinical variables. Results : Cancer care costs for the initial year following diagnosis were higher than the costs for the following successive year after diagnosis. Lung cancer (25,648,000 won) had higher costs than the other three cancer types. Of the total costs, patent burden was more than 50% and medical costs accounted for more than 60%. Inpatient costs accounted for more than 60% of the medical costs for stomach and liver cancer in the initial phase. Care for latestage cancer was more expensive than care for early-stage cancer. Nonmedical costs were estimated to be between 4,500,000 to 6,000,000 won with expenses for the caregiver being the highest. The factors affecting cancer care costs were treatment type and cancer stage. Conclusions : The cancer care costs after diagnosis are substantial and vary by cancer site, cancer stage and treatment type. It is useful for policy makers and researchers to identify tumor-specific medical and nonmedical costs. The effort to reduce cancer costs and early detection for cancer can reduce the burden to society and improve quality of life for the cancer patients.

Cancer Metabolism: Strategic Diversion from Targeting Cancer Drivers to Targeting Cancer Suppliers

  • Kim, Soo-Youl
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.99-109
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    • 2015
  • Drug development groups are close to discovering another pot of gold-a therapeutic target-similar to the success of imatinib (Gleevec) in the field of cancer biology. Modern molecular biology has improved cancer therapy through the identification of more pharmaceutically viable targets, and yet major problems and risks associated with late-phase cancer therapy remain. Presently, a growing number of reports have initiated a discussion about the benefits of metabolic regulation in cancers. The Warburg effect, a great discovery approximately 70 years ago, addresses the "universality" of cancer characteristics. For instance, most cancer cells prefer aerobic glycolysis instead of mitochondrial respiration. Recently, cancer metabolism has been explained not only by metabolites but also through modern molecular and chemical biological techniques. Scientists are seeking context-dependent universality among cancer types according to metabolic and enzymatic pathway signatures. This review presents current cancer metabolism studies and discusses future directions in cancer therapy targeting bio-energetics, bio-anabolism, and autophagy, emphasizing the important contribution of cancer metabolism in cancer therapy.

The Role of Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 4 (NR1H4) in Colon Cancer Cell Survival through the Regulation of c-Myc Stability

  • Lee, Yun Jeong;Lee, Eun-Young;Choi, Bo Hee;Jang, Hyonchol;Myung, Jae-Kyung;You, Hye Jin
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.459-468
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    • 2020
  • Nuclear receptor subfamily group H member 4 (NR1H4), also known as farnesoid X receptor, has been implicated in several cellular processes in the liver and intestine. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested a role of NR1H4 in colon cancer development; however, how NR1H4 regulates colon cancer cell growth and survival remains unclear. We generated NR1H4 knockout (KO) colon cancer cells using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CAS9) technology and explored the effects of NR1H4 KO in colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Interestingly, NR1H4 KO cells showed impaired cell proliferation, reduced colony formation, and increased apoptotic cell death compared to control colon cancer cells. We identified MYC as an important mediator of the signaling pathway alterations induced by NR1H4 KO. NR1H4 silencing in colon cancer cells resulted in reduced MYC protein levels, while NR1H4 activation using an NR1H4 ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid, resulted in time- and dose-dependent MYC induction. Moreover, NR1H4 KO enhanced the anti-cancer effects of doxorubicin and cisplatin, supporting the role of MYC in the enhanced apoptosis observed in NR1H4 KO cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that modulating NR1H4 activity in colon cancer cells might be a promising alternative approach to treat cancer using MYC-targeting agents.