• Title, Summary, Keyword: Camellia sinensis L

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Isolation and Characterization of Indole-3-methylethanoate from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz. and its biological activity

  • Roy, Malabika;Ganguly, S.N.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.106-107
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    • 1997
  • Indole-3-methylethanoate was isolated for the first time form natural source i.e. from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz and fully characterized by physical and chemical evidence, the biological activity of the compound was studied by wheat coleoptile bioassay which showed growth promoting activity.

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Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze and Profile of Antimicrobial Agents Resistance for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

  • Yum, Jong Hwa
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.288-292
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    • 2019
  • In vitro antimicrobial activities of hot water extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were compared to commonly used conventional antimicrobial agents. CRE was not only resistant to imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem, but also to various antimicrobial agents, such as amikacin (> $128{\mu}g/mL$). The hot water extracts of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze had the lowest MIC ($0.06{\sim}0.5{\mu}L/mL$) of the carbapenem-resistant E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp. tested, and it was possible more potent than various conventional antimicrobial agents. Synergistic combinations of the extract with used commonly antimicrobial agents might even improve its antimicrobial chemotherapy property.

A New Furocoumarin from the Leaves of Camellia sinensis(L.) O. Kuntze

  • Banerjee, Jayashree;Ganguly, S.N.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-13
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    • 1997
  • From the methanolic extract of defatted tender leaf of Camellia sinensis a new 4-hydroxy angular furocoumarin $C_{12}H_8O_5$, m.p. $212^{\circ}C$, was isolated using high-speed counter-current chromatographic technique. The structure of the compound was established as 4-hydroxy-2'-methoxy angular furocoumarin on the basis of physical methods viz. $^1H$ NMR, $^{13}C$ NMR and MS.

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Antibacterial Activities of Phenolic Components from Camellia sinensis L. on Pathogenic Microorganisms

  • Shin, Jung-Sook;Chung, Ha-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2007
  • Antibacterial activities of the major phenolic components from Camellia sinensis L. were investigated against several pathogenic microorganisms including Gram-positive strains like Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Streptococcus pyogens 308A; and Gram-negative strains like Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Escherichia coli 078, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9027, and Enterobacter cloacae 1321E. The MIC values demonstrate that both (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin were more considerably toxic against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 than the other two catechins like (-)-epicatechingallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. (-)-Epicatechingallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate were most inhibitory against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. As a result, (-)-epicatechin showed predominant antibacterial activities among tea varieties. The contents of major polyphenolic components such as four catechins, theaflavin, and quercetin were different according to fermentation processes. The total contents of four catechins were ranged from 13.81 to 1.33%, with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate being dominant among tea varieties; theaflavin was found the characteristic pigment in fully-fermented black tea.

Effects of Extraction Method on the Thermal Oxidative Stability of Seed Oils from Camellia sinensis L. (녹차 종실유의 제조법에 따른 열산화 안정성 비교)

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Lee, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Myong-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.788-794
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    • 2010
  • Camellia sinensis L. (green tea) seed oils were prepared by roasting at $213^{\circ}C$ and pressing (RP), pressing (P), and nhexane extraction (H). The physico-chemical properties of the RP, P, and H samples, including fatty acid composition, color, and sensory characteristics were analyzed. RP, P and H samples were thermally oxidized at $180^{\circ}C$, and oxidative stability was determined by DPPH, CDA, and p-AV at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 min. Compared to the P and H samples, RP resulted in significantly higher thermal oxidative stability according to the DPPH, CDA, and p-AV results (p<0.05). The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids among RP, P, and H samples were significantly different (p<0.05). The oleic acid and linoleic acid contents in green tea seed oils were 58 and 23%, respectively. Hunter's color value of lightness (L) for the RP, P, and H samples was not significant. Redness (a) of RP was $3.47{\pm}0.119$ and yellowness (b) of H was $60.10{\pm}2.483$, which were significantly different. Compared to RP samples, H and P samples had the highest color and off-odor values in the sensory evaluation. RP samples showed the highest taste value and were significant overall (p<0.05). The thermal stability of RP extraction was more stable than any other method. Camellia sinensis L. seed oil extracted by RP had better sensory characteristics than other edible oils, including soybean oil, grape seed oil, and extra virgin olive oil.

Effect of Fermentation Time on the Chemical Composition of Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Leaf Teas (발효시간이 뽕잎차 구성성분에 미치는 효과)

  • Bae, Hui-Ae;Baek, Hyeon;Park, Hae-Il;Choung, Myoung-Gun;Sohn, Eun-Hwa;Kim, Sam-Hyun;Kim, Dae-Su;Chung, Ill-Min;Seong, Eun-Soo;Yu, Chang-Yeon;Lim, Jung-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.276-286
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    • 2011
  • Morus alba (Mulberry) leaves were exposed to fermentation for varying amounts of time: no fermentation (0 min, MANF), medial fermentation (10 h, MAMF), and full fermentation (24 h, MAFF). The chemical compositions of the teas were determined and compared with those of commercial Camellia sinensis teas. The results showed that mulberry leaf teas contained significantly higher amounts of ash and fat than Camellia sinensis tea. Compared with Camellia sinensis teas, all mulberry leaf teas contained significantly more total free amino acids (24.26~54.25mg L-glutamic acid equivalent $g^{-1}$), but the concentration of caffeine was relatively low for mulberry leaf teas. High thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin contents were found in all mulberry leaf teas, but ascorbic acid and pyridoxine were found at higher levels in Camellia sinensis teas than in mulberry leaf teas. Color measurements demonstrated that mulberry leaf tea infusions generally had lower $a^*$ (greenness) and $b^*$ (yellowness) values than Camellia sinensis tea infusions. All infusions exhibited low turbidity levels (less than 10%). The contents of total phenols were measured as 71.8 and 74.9mg 100 $ml^{-1}$ infusion in MANF and MAFF, respectively, but the MAMF tea infusion showed significantly lower total phenols (64.6mg 100$ml^{-1}$ infusion). The total flavonoid contents of mulberry leaf tea infusions were lower (8.9~20.6mg 100 $ml^{-1}$ infusion) than those of Camellia sinensis teas and thus had lower antioxidant capacities (DPPH: 326.8~526.9 ${\mu}M$ trolox equivalent $g^{-1}$ and FRAP: 364.6~387.6 ${\mu}M$ trolox equivalent $g^{-1}$) than Camellia sinensis teas. The amounts of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin were higher in fermented mulberry leaf teas; the level of GABA increased with increasing fermentation time and the content was highest in MAFF, but rutin content was highest in MAMF.

Antimicrobial synergism of Camellia sinensis-isolated five phenol compounds and R-(-)-carvone against mutans streptococci (다엽의 5가지 페놀성분과 R-(-)-carvone의 치아우식균 Mutans Streptococci에 대한 항균력 상승효과)

  • Song, Ok-Hee;Kang, Ok-Hua;Mun, Su-Hyun;Kim, Min-Chul;Han, Young-Sun;Choi, Sung-Hoon;Lee, Young-Seob;Kwon, Dong-Yeul
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : Camellia sinensis (Theaceae) possesses a various beneficial effects such as free radical-scavenging, inactivation of urokinase in cancer cell proliferation, antibacterial, and hypotensive. Dental caries is one of the most common oral infectious disease in a human. Oral microorganisms play a significant role in the etiology of dental caries. An aberration to this ecology due to dietary habits, improper oral hygiene or systemic factors lead to an increase in cariogenic microorganisms. Cariogenic microorganisms like Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus encourage the accumulation and adherence of plaque biofilm by metabolizing sucrose into glucans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds of Camellia sinensis and R-carvone, monoterpenes, is can be found naturally in numerous essential oils, on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus .Methods : The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was determined by the broth microdilution method and checkerboard dilution assay to investigate the potential synergistic effects of each five compounds of Camellia sinensis (C. sinensis) and R-carvone.Results : C. sinensis-isolated compounds and R-carvone were determined with MIC of more than 1,000 ㎍/mL. However, the combination test showed significant synergism against S. mutans and S. sobrinus, implicated in the lowered MICs.Conclusions : These results suggest that combinatory application of phenolic five compounds (theophyllin, l-theanine, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and caffeine) from C. sinensis and R-carvone has a potential synergistic effect and thus may be useful as a mouthrinse in helping control cariogenic microorganism.

Chlorophyll Fluorescence and $CO_2$ Fixation Capacity in Leaves of Camellia sinensis, Camellia japonica, and Citrus unshiu (차나무, 동백나무, 귤나무 잎에서 엽록소 형광 및 $CO_2$ 흡수능의 비교 분석)

  • Oh, Soonja;Lee, Jin-Ho;Ko, Kwang-Sup;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.98-106
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    • 2012
  • The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation capacity of leaves from three major crop trees found on Jeju Island, Camellia sinensis L., Camellia japonica L., and Citrus unshiu M., were analyzed. The photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate of C. sinensis was similar to that of C. unshiu, and much higher than that of C. japonica which belongs to the same genus. Stomatal conductance in the three species was high at dawn and low during daytime. The intercellular $CO_2$ concentration of the three species was also high at dawn and decreased at midday. The transpiration rate showed an opposite trend from the intercellular $CO_2$ concentration. The photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm) in C. sinensis were slightly lower at midday compared to the level at dawn and/or dusk. The decline in Fv/Fm of C. sinensis at midday was much smaller than that of C. japonica. These results indicate that C. sinensis is better acclimated to high levels of radiation under natural conditions in late summer, although its PSII reaction center was inhibited by strong radiation. Of the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the species, the RC/CS decreased significantly while the ABS/RC, TRo/RC, ETo/RC, and DIo/RC increased significantly at midday in late summer. However, C. unshiu did not show significant changes in these values depending on the time of day. Among the three species, the daily $CO_2$ fixation rate in C. sinensis ($320.1mmol\;m^{-2}d^{-1}$) was the highest, followed by that of C. unshiu ($292.5mmol\;m^{-2}d^{-1}$) and C. japonica ($244.8mmol\;m^{-2}d^{-1}$). Thus, C. sinensis may be a valuable crop tree in terms of the uptake of $CO_2$ under natural field conditions.

Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition and Methyl-ester Properties of Camellia and Tea Oil (동백나무와 차나무 기름의 지방산 조성 및 메틸에스테르 특성 분석)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo;Lee, Yong-Hwa;Jang, Young-Seok;Choi, In-Hu
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2013
  • To secure raw materials of biodiesel production, the possibility of camellia (C. japonica L.) and tea (C. sinensis L.) seed oil was studied to produce biodiesel. In this research, crude oil contents and fatty acid compositions of seeds were analyzed by Solxlet and Gas chromatography (GC). The oil contents in the seeds of camellia were 69.8%~73.8%, and tea were 26.3%~29.4%. Among the fatty acids of camellia and tea oil, oleic acid was dominant. The unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 88.4% and 80.2% of the whole fatty acids of camellia and tea seed oil. Total seed oil content and fatty acid composition of tea seed were influenced by collecting date. Across maturation period, oil content of tea seed averaged 18.3% on $6^{th}$ September increasing to 27.9% by $11^{th}$ October. For largest seed yield and oil content, the optimum time to harvest tea is in middle october, and camellia is late september and thereafter. The extraction efficiency of oil from seeds by extraction methods was determined. Biodiesel were synthesized in 92.1~92.8% yields from camellia and tea oils by transesterification. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including oxidation stability, iodine value and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). Oxidation stability of camellia was 8.6~8.8 hours and tea was 2.9~3.6 at $110^{\circ}C$. Camellia oil had considerably better oxidation stability and CFPP than tea oil.