• Title, Summary, Keyword: Callus

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Studies on Tissue Culute in Rice, Oryza sativa L. (벼 조유배양에 관한 연구)

  • Gun-Sik Chung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.20
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 1975
  • In order to provide basic information for the application of tissue culture to a rice breeding program. experiments were carried out on the callus formation from seedings and anthers and organ differentiation from the callus of rice varieties and their hybrids. It appeared that in general the callus tissue was more easily induced in japonicas than in indicas with significant varietal differences. A highly significant positive correlation (r=0.896$^{**}$) was obtained between the fresh weight of callus induced in NAA medium and in 2, 4-D medium in the same variety. Callus formed on the medium with 2, 4-D was more friable than that formed on the medium with NAA. The callus formation from seedlings was better than from anthers in upland rice varieties. The easiness of the callus formation appeared to be a dominant character in crosses of rice varieties. Varietal difference was also noticed in the organ differentiation from the callus and the root differentiation seemed to be easier than the shoot differentiation. Most of the plants derived from the cal1us were albinos and the frequency of occurrence of albinos was greater in callus of seedlings than in that of anthers. Greater amount of callus tissue was formed from anthers of $F_1$ plants than anyone of their parents in remote-crosses but it was clear in close-crosses. A highly significant positive correlation (r=0.504$^{**}$) was found between the callus formation from seedlings and from anthers.

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High Efficiency of Plant Regeneration from Seed-Derived Callus of Zoysiagrass cv. Zenith (Zoysiagrass japonica의 효율적인 재분화체계에 관한 연구)

  • Ming Liang Chai
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 1998
  • The development of a protocol for high efficiency of embryogenic callus separation, maintenance and plant regeneration from the seeds of zoysiagrass cv. Zenith was studied. Embryogenic callus ratio is absolutely determined by genotype, but by adding high concentration of copper into medium, changing light condition and maintaining callus on initial induction medium for 8∼10 weeks, embryogenic callus can be easily distinguished and its growth can be promoted. There were significant differences among selected callus lines (each from one seed) according to their growth rates and regeneration percentages. Callus pre-treatment with activated charcoal inhibited callus growth, increased the level of precocious germination during culture and promoted shoot cluster formation after transfer to regeneration medium. For long-term callus maintenance, N6AA medium was better than MS medium, because the former inhibited non-embryogenic callus formation and kept vigor of embryogenic callus. The best callus lines Z-(5) has been successfully used for transformation and somaclonal variation selection in our laboratory.

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Research on the Selection of Al Tolerant AlFalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on the Sometic Cell Level I. Effect of some factors affecting callus induction of alfalfa (체세포 수준에서의 내 Al 성 알팔파의 선발에 관한 연구 I. 알팔파의 캘러스 유인에 미치는 몇가지 요인의 영향)

  • Byung Wook Yun;Dae Young Son;Young Goo;Jin Ki Jo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.124-128
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    • 1989
  • This experiment was conducted to determine factors affecting callus induction of Vernal alfalfa. Growth regulators, basal medium, medium pH, explant age, and agar concentration for callus induction were investigated. The results obtained were as follows: For the callus induction, 2-5 mg/l 2,4-D alone was found to be most effective on callus induction. Cytokinins did not have positive effect on the callus induction, and even the more cytokinin added induced the less callus. Callus yield was much higher in B5 or SH medium than in any other media. The calli induced in PC and MS media were more friable than those induced in other media. The medium pH of 5.8 gave the best response of callus induction. At higher than pH 7.0, callus induction was inhibited severely. The effective seedling age for callus induction was around 9 days. In agar concentration, 0.5 % (W/V) was suitable for callus induction and it was severely depressed at above 1 %. Callus induction was not influenced by day length or illumination. Calli cultured under 1618 hour lightldark cycle became more compact and green than those cultured under the dark.

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Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Stolon in Zoysiagrass (한국잔디류에서 포복경 배양을 통한 캘러스 유기와 재분화에 관한 연구)

  • 김종보;박순정;김두환
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.311-320
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to induce and maintain callus from 59 zoysiagrass lines, to know the effective disinfestation method for zoysiagrass stolon as explant and the difference in the response of callus induction among 59 lines, and to investigate the effect of medium, growth regulators, light, temperature, stolon part and internode position on callus induction and emhryogenic callus(E.C.) formation. The treatment of 0.lmg/L $HgCl_2$for 15 min resulted in no contamination and the highest callus induction(46.6%). Callus was induced from the 59 zoysiagrass lines. The callus growth of Z. japonica and Z. sinica was generally better than Z. matrella Ten cell lines whose callus and stolon grow fast in culture and in field, respectively were selected to he used for breeding. Callus induction was the most effective at 2.0mg /L of both 2, 4-D and picloram in MS medium. MS medium was the best for callus induction and growth while LS medium was the best for embryogenic callus and shoot formation. Callus induction and growth was better at 28, 31$^{\circ}C$. than 25$^{\circ}C$. and dark condition was better than light condition in MS me-dium containing 2mg/L 2,4-D. While callus induction was better with node part as explant than with internode part, callus growth and embryogenic callus formation was better with internode part. In 'Japonica 1', the first internode was the most effective in callus induction, but third internode was the best in '$M_2$ X $S_2$'.

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Patterns of Soluble Protein, Reducing Sugar and Ginsenosides in Transformed Calli of Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (형질전환 인삼 Callus의 단백질, 환원당 및 Ginsenoside의 양상)

  • Yang, Deok-Jun;Choe, Gwang-Tae;Yang, Deok-Deok
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 1991
  • This study was conducted to obtain basic information about the transformation of ginseng tissue, identification of opine compound and protein, and saponin production from ginseng callus transformed with Ti-plasmic of AW$.$obacterium tumefaiens C58. Ginseng crown gall callus induced by pTiC58 could be continuously cultured on the Phytohormone-free medium. The transformation was reconfirmed by the detection and identification of opine compound, from the gall callus. The transformed ginseng callus contained higher amounts of protein than normal callus and the protein pattern of transformed callus was quite different from that of normal callus. The xylose which is not detected in the normal callus and ginseng root was identified in gall callus. The saponin contents of gall callus of ginseng were three times higher than that of normal callus, and ginsenoside composition of the transformed callus was similar to that of the cultivated ginseng root, but quite different from that of normal callus.

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Organogenesis from Callus Derived from In Vitro Root Tissues of Wild Prunus yedoensis Matsumura

  • Cheong, Eun Ju
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2019
  • In vitro organogenesis system of the valuable ornamental species, Prunus yedoensis which is native to Korea, was established through callus culture derived from root tissues. Callus were induced on the medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA or NAA and kinetin. Organogenesis was differ from the callus type, and NAA and kinetin combination was effective to induce organogenic callus. Growth of callus was influenced by sucrose concentrations. High level of sucrose (over 5%) had adverse effects such as decreased fresh weight and increased mortality of callus. Shoots developed from the callus when $GA_3$ was treated with BA in the medium. Results showed that $GA_3$ is essential for shoot development and elongation from callus in this species.

Studies on The Anther Culture of Solanum nigrum L. II (Solanum nigrum L.의 약배양에 관한 연구 II)

  • 한창열
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.7-10
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    • 1971
  • Haploid cell obta-ined from microspores of Solanum nigrum were cultured on two kinds of medium, "Callus-inducing medium" and "Differentiation medium", in order to conduct histological studies of callus and examine differentiation of plantlets. On the callus-inducing medium the calli grew rapidly. The bulk of callus mass was light brown colored "Wet callus" covered on the surface with thin layers of rough and gleaming "White callus". The wet callus was consisted of parenchyma and meristematic tissues, while the white callus had no meristematic tissues. Large parenchyma cells, by successive divisions, became multicellular or poly nucleate cells which developed later to be meristematic tissues. The calli embedded on the differentiation medium quickly turned to dark brown color. Plantlets, however, came out later from these blackened callus mass. In the callus sectioned about ten weeks after imbedding on the differentiation medium, radially elongated tissue, concentric tissue, epidermis, tracheid-like structure, and plant jprimordia were observed.ure, and plant jprimordia were observed.

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Effect of Some Factors Affecting Callus Formation of Red Clover (레드 클로버의 캘러스 유도에 미치는 몇가지 요인의 영향)

  • Dae Young Son;Jin Ki Jo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 1995
  • This experiment was conducted to determine factors affecting callus formation of some varieties of red clover. Growth regulators. basal medium, medium pH, agar concentration, and plant age for explant were investigated. The result obtained were as follows. As auxin source, 0.1 mg/ l picloram was found to be effective on callus formation. Callus formation was the highest on PC medium among several growth media. The callus produced on PC medium was more friable than those produced on the other media. The medium pH 5.8 gave the best response for callus formation. The effective seedling age for callus formatiom was around 5-7 days old. In agar concentration, 0.5-0.8%(WN) was suitable for callus formation.

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Effect of NaCl on Salt-tolerant Callus in Tobacco (내염성 담배 캘러스에 대한 NaCl의 효과)

  • 차현철
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 1993
  • Effects of various NaCl concentrations on salt-tolerant callus of tobacco were investigated. Selection of NaCl-tolerant (S) callus was conducted by subculturing Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY 4 callus in 200 mM NaCl-containing MS medium for more than 18 months. In spite of the long subculture period, characteristics of salt tolerance were maintained very stably. Significant differences were found in ion contents of each callus which was subcultured with treatment of various NaCl concentrations: Na+ and Cl- became higher but Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+ became lower with the increasing external salt contents. Therefore, the ratios of Na+/Ca2+ and Na+/K+ also increased resulting close to those of halophytic property. The contents of chlorophylls and carotenoids in S callus were estimated to 3.1 and 2.9 times more, respectively. than those of non-selected (NS) callus (control). The higher content of external NaCl tended to increase the amount of water soluble proteins and to decrease the amounts of the total sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids. The activity of peroxidase was increased with higher contents of external NaCl in S callus, but it was maintained at a higher level than S callus at lower NaCl, followed by a subsequent decrease above 80 mM NaCl in NS callus. These results suggest that S callus may have a biological system converting energy source to efficient growth leading to reduction of the growth inhibition under stress environment.

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Effects of Cold Pretreatment and Medium Composition on Anther Culture Initiation in Strawberry

  • Na, Hae-Young;Kim, Dae-Young;Chun, Chang-Hoo
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.488-493
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    • 2011
  • Callus culture initiation of strawberry (Fragaria${\times}$ananassa Duch.) was investigated at different Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium strengths, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, and incorporating a cold pretreatment period to determine the optimal nutritional and environmental conditions. No high quality callus was induced on MS media without auxin regardless of medium strength. When 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) was combined with indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), high quality callus were highly induced compared to medium supplemented with auxin alone. When $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ BA was combined with IAA, NAA, and 2,4-D, high quality callus induction was more effective than the medium supplemented with the other BA concentrations. The best combination of auxin and cytokinin for high quality callus induction was $1.0mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ NAA and $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ BA. Although the differences in callus induction were not significant, high quality callus induction at half strength MS medium was more effective than at full strength medium. When $30g{\cdot}L^{-1}$ sucrose was added to the half strength MS medium, the rate of high quality callus induction increased. The optimum cold pretreatment temperature and period for high quality callus induction were $4^{\circ}C$ and 72 h, respectively. Regeneration rate of high quality callus increased in MS medium supplemented with thidiazuron.