• Title, Summary, Keyword: Calculated LDL cholesterol

### Validity for Use of Non-HDL Cholesterol Rather than LDL Cholesterol

• Kwon, Se-Young;Na, Young-Ak
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.45 no.2
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• pp.54-59
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• 2013
• NonHDL cholesterol values have been suggested as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. NonHDL cholesterol values were calculated, using a very simple measurement [nonHDL cholesterol=serum total cholesterol-HDL cholesterol]. This formula is very useful as a screening tool for identifying dyslipoproteinemias, risk assessment, and assessing the results of hypolipidemic therapy. The data from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Analysis was done for 1,992 subjects with lipid panels (Cholesterol, HDL, LDLdirect and Triglycerides) results. We studied the relationship between nonHDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. As a result, nonHDL cholesterol values were plotted against the LDL direct and calculated values. The linear regression equation for nonHDL cholesterol and direct LDL cholesterol was $nonHDLchol=23.60+1.03{\times}LDLdirect$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.80$) in all subjects. The subjects were classified into triglyceride values. When triglycerides are below 400 mg/dL, the linear fit to LDL direct is found to be $[nonHDLchol=17.34+1.07{\times}LDLdirect]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.88$) and to the Friedewald LDL calculation is $[nonHDLchol=23.10+1.02{\times}LDLcalc]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.82$). For triglycerides above 400 mg/dL, the linear fit equation is $[nonHDLchol=87.57+0.92{\times}LDLdirect]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.50$) and to the LDL calculated, it is $[nonHDLchol=142.70+0.50{\times}LDLcalc]$ (p<0.0001, $r^2=0.32$). This study provides examples of the utility of nonHDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical medicine.

### The Effects of Solvent Fractions of Kimchi on Plasma Lipid Concentration of Rabbit Fed High Cholesterol Diet (김치의 용매획분이 고콜레스테롤 식이를 섭취한 토끼의 혈중지질 농도 변화에 미치는 영향)

• 송영옥;황지원
• Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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• v.29 no.2
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• pp.204-210
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• 2000
• The antioxidative effects of solvent fractions of kimchi on LDL oxidatiojn in vitro as well as hypolipidemic effects of these fractions in rabbit fed atherogenic diet were studied. Methanol extract of deffated kimchi was fractionated sequentially with dichloromethane, ethylacetate, butanol and water. All solvent fractions of kimchi inhibited Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation. Among these fractions, the dicholoromethane fraction at the concentration of 25$\mu\textrm{g}$/mL showed the highest antioxidant effects against LDL oxidation in the aspect of inhibiting TBARS production by 28.03% or prolonged lag phase duration 2-fold compared to those of control. Based on the results from in vitro study, New Zealand White Rabbits grouped six each were fed for 8 weeks either basal diet containing 1% cholesterol or experimental diet containing dichloromethane, ethylacetate or water fraciton added to the basal diet. The amount of solvent fraction of kimchi added to the experimental diet was equivalent to 5% of freeze-dried kimchi. The hypolipidemic effects was observed from all experimental gropus, especially from dichloromethane fraction added group. The plasma and LDL cholesterol levels of this group were decreased by 49% and 47%, respectively while that of HDL increased by 91% compared to those of control. The calculated atherogenic index for the dichloromethane group was the lowest among groups. However, TG lowering effect of experimental group was not observed since solbent fraction of kimchi was used instead of freeze-dried kimchi. The TBARS concentration of LDL isolated from rabbit fed dichloromethane fraction was decreased 21% than that of control. These results indicate that active principles responsible for inhibiting LDL oxidation and lowering plasma cholesterol may present abundantly in dichloromethane fraction of kimchi.

### Friedewald-Estimated Versus Directly Measured LDL-Cholesterol: KNHANES 2009-2010 (LDL-콜레스테롤의 Friedewald 계산값과 실측값 비교: 국민건강영양조사 2009-2010)

• Jang, Sungok;Lee, Jongseok
• Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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• v.16 no.8
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• pp.5492-5500
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• 2015
• Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major modifiable risk factor for cardio- cerebrovascular disease. In clinical practice, however, it is primarily calculated using the Friedewald formula as a cost-effective method. The aim of this study was to compare Friedewald-estimated and directly measured LDL-C values and assess the concordance in guideline LDL-C risk classification between the two methods. The data were derived from the 2009 and 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES). Analysis was done for 4,319 subjects with lipid panels-total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), directly measured LDL-C using an enzymatic homogeneous assay, and triglycerides (TG). For subjects with TG lower than 400 mg/dL, Friedewald-estimated and directly measured LDL-C were highly correlated (r = 0.958, p < 0.001) and overall concordance was 82.7%. As TG increased, overall concordance decreased. Overall concordance was 85.4% at TG lower than 150 mg/dL; 78.2% at TG of 150-199 mg/dL; and 71.4% at TG of 200-399 mg/dL. The Friedewld equation tended to overestimate LDL-C when TG are of < 150 mg/dL; however, underestimate LDL-C when TG are of ${\geq}150mg/dL$. As a result, Friedewald estimation misclassified 382 subjects (9.1%) in a higher category versus 348 subjects (8.3%) in a lower category. Our findings suggest that overestimation of LDL-C by the Friedewald formula can be a great problem as well as underestimation.

### The Risk Factors Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Heavy Industry Workers (중공업근로자의 체질량지수 상승요인)

• Lee, Mi-Hwa
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.42 no.3
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• pp.129-135
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• 2010
• This study was performed to determine the risk factors associated with increased body mass index (BMI) in 672 heavy industry men workers. Subjects were examined in March, 2010 to September, 2010 in Gyeongnam province. Height, weight, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. And fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured by Olympus AU 680, and their BMIs calculated. Age, smoking statue, and alcohol drinking of the workers were surveyed by questionnairs. The mean total cholesterol levels were $190.06{\pm}36.62mg/dL$, HDL-cholesterol $53.65{\pm}11.92mg/dL$, LDL-cholesterol $104.28{\pm}30.31mg/dL$, triglyceride $151.11{\pm}99.53mg/dL$, and fasting blood glucose $96.92{\pm}19.53mg/dL$. Mean systolic blood pressure was $126.08{\pm}13.78mmHg$, and diastolic blood pressure $71.88{\pm}10.45mmHg$. Subjects were categorized into two BMI groups, BMI ${\geq}23$ and BMI ${\leq}22.9$. The subjects with BMI of 23 or above had significantly higher levels of LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride, with lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. BMI showed the highest level at the age of thirties, increasing with age. BMI of smokers was higher than BMI of non-smokers, not showing a link between alcoholics and non alcoholics. In conclusion, age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol are mostly relevant to the increase of BMI in this study.

### Association of Hypertension with Cluster of Obesity, Abnormal glucose and Dyslipidemia in Korean Urban Population (한국인의 일부 도시인에서 비만, 이상혈당, 이상지질혈증의 집락과 고혈압의 관련성)

• Lee, Kang-Sook;Kim, Jeong-Ah;Park, Chung-Yill
• Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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• v.31 no.1
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• pp.59-71
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• 1998
• To examine the association of hypertension with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose and dyslipidemia in Korean urban population, we conducted this cross-sectional study among 3027 men and 2127 women age 20-85 years who visited a prevention center between May 1991 and June 1995 for a multiphasic health check at St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul. By the self-administered questionnaire, the informations of educational attainments, monthly income, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and physical excercise level were obtained. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured by a trained nurse. The fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride were tested by enzyme method. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was calculated by 'total cholesterol - HDL cholesterol - triglyceride/5'. For testing the differences of cardiovascular risk factors between hypertension and normotension group, 1-test and $\chi^2$-test were performed. For the age adjusted odds ratios of hypertension in persons with obesity, abnormal glucose, and dyslipidemia compared with normal, logistic regression was performed by using SAS pakageprograme. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Age, weight, body mass index(BMI), blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride of hypertension group in men and women were significantly higher than normotension group, but height and HDL cholesterol of hypertension group only in women significantly lower than normotension group. The frequency of obesity $(BMI\geq25kg/m^2)$, abnormal glucose $(\geq\;120mg/dl)$, hypercholesterolemia $(\geq\;240mg/dl)$, lower HDL cholesterol (<45 mg/dl in women only), higher LDL cholesterol $(\geq\;160mg/dl)$, and hyper hypertriglyceridemia $(\geq\;250mg/dl)$ in hypertension group of men and women were significantly higher than normotension group. 2. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were negatively correlated with hight, but positively with age, weight, BMI, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride in men and women. BMI was positively correlated with fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride but negatively with HDL cholesterol. 3. The age adjusted odds ratios of hypertension were as follows in men and women : among persons who were obese compared with those nonobese, 2.53 (95% Confidence Intervals [C.I.] 2.08-3.07) and 2.22 (95%C.I. 1.71-2.87): among persons who were abnormal glucose compared with those normoglycemic, 1.43 (95%C.I 1.13-1.82) and 2.01 (95%C.I 1.36-2.94): and among persons who were dyslipidemia (hypercholesterolemia or lower HDL cholesterol or higher LDL cholesterol or hypertriglyceridemia) compared with those normal lipid, 1.59 (95%C.I 1.30-1.95) and 1.51 (95%C.I 1.16-1.96). After combined more than one risk factor, the odds ratios were increased. Among persons with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose, and dyslipidemia, the odds ratio of hypertension was 2.25 (95%C.I 1.47-3.37) in men and 3.02 (95%C.I 1.71-5.30) in women. In conclusion, it was suggested that hypertension was associated with cluster of obesity, abnormal glucose, dyslipidemia in this Korean urban population.

### Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Lipid Concentrations of Serum and Liver in Ovariectomized Rats (난소 절제 흰쥐에서 카페인 첨가가 혈액과 간 지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

• Choi, Mi-Ja;Jo, Hyun-Ju
• Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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• v.20 no.3
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• pp.363-371
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• 2010
• The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of caffeine on lipid concentrations in ovariectomized rats. Forty-four rats (75${\pm}$5 g) were randomly divided into ovariectomy(ovx) and sham groups, each of which were randomly divided into two subgroups that were fed the control diet or a caffeine-supplemented diet (0.03%/diet). The experimental groups were classified into 1) sham-control, 2) sham-caffeine, 3) ovx-control and 4) ovx-caffeine groups. All rats had been fed on experimental diet and deionized water ad libitum for 6 weeks. Triglyceride concentration and total cholesterol were measured in serum and liver. Serum HDL-cholesterol was measured. Serum LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index were calculated. Weight gain and food efficiency ratio were higher in ovx groups than in sham groups (p<0.05). Caffeine intake did not affect weight gain and food efficiency ratio. Mean food intake was significantly increased in ovx-caffeine group than other three groups. There were no significant differences in serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index between the control diet group and caffeine diet group. In addition, hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol level was unaffected by caffeine intake or ovariectomy. Therefore, we suggest that caffeine (0.03%/diet) intake may not have adverse effects on serum lipid level in ovariectomized rats.

### Effects of Green Tea Powder Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes (녹차가루 식이가 당뇨쥐의 혈당 및 혈중 지질 농도에 미치는 영향)

• Choi, Mi-Ja;Kim, Sun-Hwa
• Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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• v.20 no.1
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• pp.46-53
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• 2010
• The study examined the effects of dietary green tea powder supplementation on blood glucose, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations in diabetic rats. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight $200{\pm}5\;g$) were divided into two groups (diabetic and non-diabetic), which were each randomly divided into two subgroups that were fed a control and 1% green tea powder-supplemented diet. Serum and liver lipid concentrations were measured by established techniques. Low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated from an established equation. Body weight gain and feed efficiency ratio were lower in diabetic rats than in non-diabetic rats regardless of diet. There were no differences in weight gain in diabetic and non-diabetic rats consuming the control and green tea powder-supplemented diets. The levels of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and atherogenic index of diabetic rats were significantly higher than that of non-diabetic rats. Conversely, the levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) of diabetic rats was significantly lower than that of non-diabetic rats. Fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and atherogenic index were significantly lower in diabetic rats fed the green tea powder diet than in rats fed the control diet, and HDL-C was significantly higher in rats fed the green tea powder diet than in rats fed the control diet. The content of liver total cholesterol and triglyceride of diabetic rats were significantly higher than that of non-diabetic rats. Liver total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in diabetic rats fed green tea powder-supplemented diet than in rats fed the control diet. It is concluded that green tea powder supplementation positively influences blood glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. The present study, although not directly applicable to humans, may have some implications for individuals who habitually consume green tea powder.

### The Relative Factors to Insulin Resistance and β Cell Function Determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment in Nondiabetic Adults

• Kwon, Se-Young;Na, Young-Ak
• Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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• v.45 no.4
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• pp.131-138
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• 2013
• Insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction have been established as being related to the diabetes. Lately, what is emphasizing is that those have been shown as something related to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), simple index is calculated on blood levels of fasting glucose and insulin. And HOMA has been widely validated and applied for insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. We also assessed the factors relative to insulin resistance and ${\beta}$ cell function determined by HOMA. The data from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Analysis was done for 3,465 nondiabetic subjects (male 1,357, female 2,108). At baseline, anthropometric measurements were done and fasting glucose, insulin, lipid (Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides) profiles were measured. HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA ${\beta}$-cell) were calculated from fasting glucose and insulin levels. In male, the value of HOMA-IR and HOMA ${\beta}$-cell was the highest among 30's and decreased as the age increased. In female, the value of HOMA-IR increased with age, while HOMA ${\beta}$-cell decreased. High HOMA-IR and low HOMA ${\beta}$-cell were associated with the highest value of fasting glucose and systolic blood pressure. Low HOMA-IR and high HOMA ${\beta}$-cell showed the lowest concentration of fasting glucose and the highest concentration of HDL cholesterol. High HOMA-IR and high HOMA ${\beta}$-cell were connected with BMI, Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and Triglycerides. There was a negative correlation between HOMA ${\beta}$-cell and age. The correlation coefficients of HOMA-IR and HOMA ${\beta}$-cell showed the highest value among weight, BMI and WC.

### Relationship between health behaviors and high level of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol applying cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adults: based on the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), 2013 ~ 2015 (성인의 심혈관계 위험인자를 적용한 고저밀도지단백-콜레스테롤혈증과 건강행태의 관련성 연구 : 국민건강영양조사 제6기 (2013 ~ 2015) 자료 이용)

• Cha, Bo-Kyoung
• Journal of Nutrition and Health
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• v.51 no.6
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• pp.556-566
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• 2018
• Purpose: This study was designed to determine the relationship between health behaviors and high levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) according to cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the sixth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES VI). Participants were 13,841 adults aged 19 years and older. Cardiovascular risk factors were stroke, myocardial infarction or angina, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension, aging, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) under 40 mg/dL and HDL-cholesterol over 60 mg/dL. Cardiovascular risk groups were classified as very high risk (stroke, myocardial infarction or angina), high risk (diabetes mellitus), moderate risk (over 2 risk factors), and low risk (below 1 risk factor). The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was calculated using the LDL-cholesterol target level according to cardiovascular risk group. Results: The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was 25.5% in males and 21.7% in females. Complex sample cross tabulation demonstrated that the high LDL-cholesterol and normal groups differed significantly according to age, education, body mass index, percentage of energy from carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat and n-6 in males and females. These two groups were also significantly different according to smoking in males and the percentage of energy from n-3 in females. Complex sample multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for multiple confounding factors demonstrated that the probability of high LDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with current smoking (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.40-1.99), obesity (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.64-2.31) in males, and current smoking (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.19-2.52), obesity (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39-1.90), percentage of energy from n-3 (quartile 1 vs. quartile 2; OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; quartile 1 vs. quartile 3; OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.94; quartile 1 vs. quartile 4: OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) in females. Conclusion: This study reveals the impact of smoking, obesity, energy percentage of nutrient intake on LDL-cholesterol.

### A Study on Hyperlipidemia in Koran -Specially Related to Hematological Characteristics and Risk Factors of Hypercholesterolemia- (한국인의 고지혈증에 관한 연구 -고콜레스테롤혈증 소견자의 혈액학적 특성과 위험인자를 중심으로-)

• 황금희;노영희;허영란
• Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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• v.28 no.3
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• pp.710-721
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• 1999
• This study was conducted to investigate the hematological characteristics and risk factors of hypercholesterolemia(HC) in Korean. 344 adult men who took the annual health check ups at D or J hospitals were participated in this cross sectional study. The subjects were grouped by plasma total cholesterol level into three groups: normal cholesterolemic(n=139), borderline hypercholesterolemic (n=93) and hypercholesterolemic(n=112) groups. The data of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), hemoglobin, plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol levels were collected from medical records. The levels of plasma triglyceride(TG), HDL C, phospholipid, insulin, apo A and apo B were measured. The levels of plasma LDL C, VLDL C and atherogenic index(AI) were calculated. The subjects with HC had significantly higher SBP and DBP, albumin, TG, phospholipid, HDL C, LDL C, VLDL C and apo B level than those of the normal subjects. The relative and attributable risks on HC were 1.59 and 0.18 for hypertension(SBP/DBP$\geq$160/95), 2.08 and 0.35 for hypertriglyceridemia (TG $\geq$400mg/dl). Plasma total cholesterol level was positively correlated with several hematologic parameters: age(r=0.1242, p<0.05), DBP(r=0.1194, p<0.05), albumin(r=0.2029, p<0.001), plasma TG(r= 0.3829, p<0.001), phospholipid(r=0.6036, p<0.001), LDL C(r=0.8572, p<0.001), HDL C(r=0.2399, p< 0.001), AI(r=0.3116, p<0.001), apo B(r=0.2602, p<0.05) and Lp(a)(r=0.1372, p<0.05). However, plasma total cholesterol level was negatively correlated with the levels of Apo A1(r= 0.2922, p<0.001), and ABR(r= 0.3598, p<0.001).