• Title, Summary, Keyword: Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H)

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Durability Characteristics of Concrete with Nano Level Ceramic Based Coating (나노합성 세라믹계 도장재를 도포한 콘크리트의 내구성능)

  • Kim, Seong-Soo;Lee, Jeong-Bae;Han, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.639-646
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    • 2007
  • This study performed several tests for the durability of the concrete coated with nano synthesis ceramics which do not contain volatile organic compounds harmful to environment. The tests were adhesion test on dry and humid concrete, SEM test, MIP analysis, carbonation, chloride diffusion by electronic facilitation, freezing-thawing resistance, alkaline resistance, and brine resistance test. In the adhesion test on dry and humid concrete, nano synthesis ceramics coating produced the highest results among all the coatings tested. Nano synthesis ceramics adhered solidly on the concrete surface. The adhesive strength seemed to result from the hydrogen bond between nano synthesis ceramics which are inorganic and generated by hydrolysis and re-condensation reaction and the concrete's hydrates such as calcium silicate aluminate or calcium silicate hydrate. SEM test and MIP analysis results show surface structure with finest crevices pore in the nano synthesis ceramics coating applied concretes. In the carbonation, chloride diffusion, and freezing-thawing resistance tests, the concretes with nano synthesis ceramics coating indicated the best results. Based on these test results, further progress in application of nano synthesis ceramics coatings to various concrete structures including costal structures and sewerage arrangements can be expected.

The Strength Properties of Alkali-Activated Slag Mortars by Combined Caustic Alkali with Sodium Carbonate as Activator (가성알칼리와 탄산나트륨을 혼합한 활성화제를 사용한 알칼리 활성화 고로슬래그 모르타르의 강도 특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.745-752
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    • 2012
  • This paper studies the effect of the compressive strength for combined alkali-activated slag mortars. The effect of activators such as alkali type and dosage factor on the strength was investigated. The alkalis combinations made using five caustic alkalis (sodium hydroxide (NaOH, A series), calcium hydroxide ($Ca(OH)_2$, B series), magnesium hydroxide ($Mg(OH)_2$, C series), aluminum hydroxide ($Al(OH)_3$, D series), and potassium hydroxide (KOH, E series)) with sodium carbonate ($Na_2CO_3$) were evaluated. The mixtures were combined in different dosage at 1M, 2M, and 3M. The study results showed that the compressive strength of combined alkali-activated slag mortars tended to increase with increasing sodium carbonate. The strength of combined alkali-activated slag mortars was better than that of control cases (without sodium carbonate). The result from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that there were reaction products of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and alumina-silicate gels from combined alkali-activated slag specimens.

Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar: Development of Structure-Property Relationships

  • Ghebrab, Tewodros Tekeste;Soroushian, Parviz
    • International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2011
  • Theoretical models for prediction of the mechanical properties of cement mortar are developed based on the morphology and interactions of cement hydration products, capillary pores and microcracks. The models account for intermolecular interactions involving the nano-scale calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) constituents of hydration products, and consider the effects of capillary pores as well as the microcracks within the hydrated cement paste and at the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). Cement mortar was modeled as a three-phase material composed of hydrated cement paste, fine aggregates and ITZ. The Hashin's bound model was used to predict the elastic modulus of mortar as a three-phase composite. Theoretical evaluation of fracture toughness indicated that the frictional pullout of fine aggregates makes major contribution to the fracture energy of cement mortar. Linear fracture mechanics principles were used to model the tensile strength of mortar. The predictions of theoretical models compared reasonably with empirical values.

Isothermal Conduction Calorimetry Analysis of Alkali Activated Slag Binder (알칼리 활성 슬래그 결합재의 미소수화열 분석)

  • Choi, Young-Cheol;Cho, Hyun-Woo;Oh, Sung-Woo;Moon, Gyu-Don
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2015
  • In this research, isothermal conduction calorimetry analysis has been conducted to investigate the reactivity of alkali activated slag binders. In order to secure the reactivity and workability of alkali activated slag binders, experiences with various types and concentrations of alkali activators were performed. Isothermal conduction calorimetry were measured with different alkali activators and mass ratio of $SO_3$ to binders as variables, and sodium tripolyphosphate ($Na_2P_3O_{10}$) and hydrated sodium borate ($Na_2B_4O_710H_2O$) were used to control setting time. As a results, alkali activated slag binders required alkali activators with 4 to 5 percent of concentration to accelerate the formation of calcium silicate hydrate(C-S-H) by alkali-activation, and overall heat generation rate delayed as accumulated heat decreased due to the high $SO_3$ contents. Moreover, the use of hydrated sodium borate as setting retarder causes elongated setting time due to delaying heat generation, so it can be considered that setting retarder played an important role in delaying total heat generation rate.

Prediction of chloride binding isotherms for blended cements

  • Ye, Hailong;Jin, Xianyu;Chen, Wei;Fu, Chuanqing;Jin, Nanguo
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.655-672
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    • 2016
  • A predictive model for chloride binding isotherms of blended cements with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) was established in this work. Totally 560 data points regarding the chloride binding isotherms of 106 various cements were collected from literature. The total amount of bound chloride for each mixture was expressed a combinational function of the predicted phase assemblage and binding isotherms of various hydrated phases. New quantitative expressions regarding the chloride binding isotherms of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H), AFm, and hydrotalcite phases were provided. New insights about the roles of SCMs on binding capabilities of ordinary portland cements (OPC) were discussed. The proposed model was verified using separate data from different sources and was shown to be reasonably accurate.

Studies on structural interaction and performance of cement composite using Molecular Dynamics

  • Sindu, B.S.;Alex, Aleena;Sasmal, Saptarshi
    • Advances in Computational Design
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.147-163
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    • 2018
  • Cementitious composites are multiphase heterogeneous materials with distinct dissimilarity in strength under compression and tension (high under compression and very low under tension). At macro scale, the phenomenon can be well-explained as the material contains physical heterogeneity and pores. But, it is interesting to note that this dissimilarity initiates at molecular level where there is no heterogeneity. In this regard, molecular dynamics based computational investigations are carried out on cement clinkers and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) under tension and compression to trace out the origin of dissimilarity. In the study, effect of strain rate, size of computational volume and presence of un-structured atoms on the obtained response is also investigated. It is identified that certain type of molecular interactions and the molecular structural parameters are responsible for causing the dissimilarity in behavior. Hence, the judiciously modified or tailored molecular structure would not only be able to reduce the extent of dissimilarity, it would also be capable of incorporating the desired properties in heterogeneous composites. The findings of this study would facilitate to take step to scientifically alter the structure of cementitious composites to attain the desired mechanical properties.

Influence of Alumina on Hydrothermal Synthesis of 11Å Tobermorite (알루미나가 11Å Tobermorite의 수열합성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yim Going;Yim Chai Suk
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2005
  • [ $11\AA$ ] tobermorite$(5CaO{\cdot}6SiO_2{\cdot}5H_2O)$ is synthesized from the mixtures of calcium hydroride and quartz using alumina in a molar ratio $Ca(OH)_2/SiO_2$ of 0.8 at $180^{\circ}C$ for 8 and 24 hrs under saturated steam pressure. The influence of alumina on the formation of $11\AA$ tobermorite was investigated by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. $11\AA$ tobermorite containing increasingly larger amounts of aluminum showed a shift of the basal spacing from 11.3 to $11.6\AA$. In general, there was a direct linear relation between the basal spacing and added content of alumina. The differential thermal analysis curves showed that $11\AA$ tobermorite with increasing alumina contents exhibited the exothermic peak at high temperature, namely $11\AA$ tobermorite containing aluminum gave a sharp exothermic peak at temperature around $850\~860^{\circ}C$ in the case of $S_3\~S_5$. The absorption band at $1607\~1620cm^{-1}$ is attributed to the bending vibration of water, and the position of the main O-H stretching and Si-O lattice vibration of $11\AA$ tobermorite at 3500 and $965cm^{-1}$ respectively is not altered. Consequently the existence of alumina accelerates the crystallization of $11\AA$ tobermorite, and that the aluminum ion appears to substitute for the silicon ion in $11\AA$ tobermorite structure. Al-containing tobermorite is distinguished from Al-free tobermorite.

Evaluation on mechanical enhancement and fire resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced concrete

  • Yu, Zechuan;Lau, Denvid
    • Coupled systems mechanics
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.335-349
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    • 2017
  • To cope with the demand on giant and durable buildings, reinforcement of concrete is a practical problem being extensively investigated in the civil engineering field. Among various reinforcing techniques, fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) has been proven to be an effective approach. In practice, such fibers include steel fibers, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) carbon fibers and asbestos fibers, with the length scale ranging from centimeters to micrometers. When advancing such technique down to the nanoscale, it is noticed that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are stronger than other fibers and can provide a better reinforcement to concrete. In the last decade, CNT-reinforced concrete attracts a lot of attentions in research. Despite high cost of CNTs at present, the growing availability of carbon materials might push the usage of CNTs into practice in the near future, making the reinforcement technique of great potential. A review of existing research works may constitute a conclusive reference and facilitate further developments. In reference to the recent experimental works, this paper reports some key evaluations on CNT-reinforced cementitious materials, covering FRC mechanism, CNT dispersion, CNT-cement structures, mechanical properties and fire safety. Emphasis is placed on the interplay between CNTs and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) at the nanoscale. The relationship between the CNTs-cement structures and the mechanical enhancement, especially at a high-temperature condition, is discussed based on molecular dynamics simulations. After concluding remarks, challenges to improve the CNTs reinforcement technique are proposed.

Effects of Magnesium and Sulfate Ions on the Sulfate Attack Resistance of Alkali-activated Materials (알칼리 활성화 결합재 모르타르의 황산염 침식 저항성에 미치는 마그네슘 및 황산 이온의 영향)

  • Park, Kwang-Min;Cho, Young-Keun;Shin, Dong-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.415-424
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of sulfate (${SO_4}^{2-}$) and magnesium ($Mg^{2+}$) ions on sulfate resistance of Alkali-activated materials using Fly ash and Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). In this research, 30%, 50% and 100% of GGBFS was replaced by sodium silicate modules ($Ms(SiO_2/Na_2O)$, molar ratio, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). In order to investigate the effects of $Mg^{2+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$, compression strength, weight change, lengh expansion of the samples were measured in 10% sodium sulfate ($Na_2SO_4$), 10%, 5% and 2.5% magnesium sulfate ($MgSO_4$), 10% magnesium nitrate ($Mg(NO_3)_2$), 10% [magnesium chloride ($MgCl_2$) + sodium sulfate ($Na_2SO_4$)] and 10% [magnesium nitrate $(Mg(NO_3)_2$ + sodium sulfate ($Na_2SO_4$)] solution, respectively and X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted after each experiment. As a result, when $Mg^{2+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$ coexist, degradation of compressive strength and expansion of the sample were caused by sulfate erosion. It was found that the reaction of $Mg^{2+}$ with Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) occurred and $Ca^{2+}$ was produced. Then the Gypsum ($CaSO_4{\cdot}2H_2O$) was formed due to reaction between $Ca^{2+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$, and also Magnesium hydroxide ($Mg(OH)_2$, Brucite) was produced by the reaction between $Mg^{2+}$ and $OH^-$.

Reaction Properties of Non-Cement Mortar Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (고로슬래그 미분말을 사용한 무시멘트 경화체의 반응 특성)

  • Park, Sun-Gyu;Kwon, Seung-Jun;Kim, Yun-Mi;Lee, Sang-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.392-399
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to identify the manufacturing possibility of non-cement mortar using blast furnace slag and alkali accelerator. In this experimental study, the blast furnace slag which is the by-product of the steel industry substitute for cement, and the potassium hydroxide(KOH), calcium hydroxide ($Ca(OH)_2$) and sodium hydroxide(NaOH) as stimulus were added to each specimen. And the analysis on reaction property of non-cement mortar was conducted by measurement such as flexural and compressive strength, XRD, EDS and SEM. From the test results, it can be founded that $SiO_2$ and CaO included in the blast furnace slag are released and make the calcium silicate hydrate like the hydration reaction of the cement. Also, the continued study is need to reduce emission of $CO_2$ because of major content in filed of the building construction.