• Title, Summary, Keyword: Calbindin-$D_{28k}$

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Immuno-Electron Microscopic Studies on the Distribution of Dopamine and $Calbindin-D_{28K}$ in the Optic lobes of Cephalopods (Todarodes pacificus and Octopus minor) inhabiting the Korean waters (한국 연근해산 두족류 (Todarodes pacificus and Octopus minor) 시엽내 Dopamine 및 $Calbindin-D_{28K}$의 분포에 관한 면역전자현미경적 연구)

  • Han, Jong-Min;Chang, Nam-Sub
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.175-183
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    • 2002
  • In this study, we carried out immunostaining and immunogold labeling with rabbit anti-dopamine (TH) and rabbit anti-calbindin-$D_{28K}$ to examine the characteristics and functions of the neurons that secrete neurotransmitters in optic lobes of Todarodes pacificus and Octopus minor inhabiting the Korean waters. The obtained results are as follow. In the immunostaining with anti-dopamine, only a few of the large amacrine cells in an the upper part of an outer granule cell layer and the cells forming the islands of medulla showed positive reaction in Todarodes pacificus, while $2{\sim}3$ cells in the upper and middle parts of an outer granule cell layer and more than 5 cells in the islands of medulla reacted positively in Octopus minor. For the case of anti-calbindin case, $2{\sim}3$ small amacrine cells in the upper portion of the outer granule cell layer and $1{\sim}2$ cells which are located in the lower part of an inner granule cell layer showed positive reaction in Todarodes pacificus, while, in Octopus minor, 4 cells in the outer granule cell layer reacted positively, no immunoreactive cell being found in the inner granule cell layer. As a result of performing the immunogold labeling, relative large number ($17{\sim}26$) of gold particles were labeled per $0.5{\mu}m^2$ of the cytoplasm of the cells which showed the immunoreactivity to the anti-dopamine and anti-calbindin in Todarodes pacificus, however, small number (10) of gold particles were labeled in Octopus minor, which reach only half of the number in the Todarodes pacificus.

TRIIODTHYRONINE (T3) ENHANCES THE STIMULATORY EFFECT OF 1, 25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 ON CALBINDIN-D28k mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE KIDNEY AND INTESTINE BUT NOT IN CEREBELLUM OF THE CHICK

  • Sechman, A.;Shimada, K.;Saito, N.;Ieda, T.;Ono, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1996
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the role of thyroid hormones in the regulation of gene expression of calbindin-$D_{28k}$ (CaBP-D28K) in the chicken. By employing slot blot and RIA analyses, levels of CABP-D28K mRNA and CaBP-D28K protein in the intestine, kidney, cerebellum and liver were measured 6 and 12 h after i.m. injection of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ [1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$; 250 ng/chick] and 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine ($T_3$; 500 ng/chick) in one-day-old chicks. The abundant messages of CaBP-D28K mRNA were detected in the intestine, kidney and cerebellum while there was little message in the liver. After 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ treatment (6 + 12 hours), levels of CaBP-D28K mRNA increased in the intestine, but there was no change in the mRNA levels in the kidney and cerebellum. Although $T_3$ alone had no effect on CaBP-D28K mRNA levels, simultaneous administration of $T_3$ enhanced the 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ effect of levels of CaBP-D28K mRNA in the intestine both 6 and 12 h post-treatment, and in the kidney 12 h post-treatment. At a protein level, co-treatment with 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ and $T_3$ elicited a significant increase in CaBP-D28K expression in the intestine 12 h post-treatment, as compared to treatment with only 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$, whereas no differences were observed in the CaBP-D28K protein levels in the kidney and cerebellum. These results suggest that thyroid hormones may play a synergistic role with 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ for CaBP-D28K gene expression in the intestine and kidney in chicks.

Immunocytochemical Localization of Parvalbumin and Calbindin-D 28K in Monkey Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (원숭이 외측슬상체배측핵에서 칼슘결합단백 Parvalbumin과 Calbindin-D 28K의 분포)

  • Ko, Seung-Hee;Bae, Choon-Sang;Park, Sung-Sik
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.61-77
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    • 1994
  • The calcium-binding proteins (CaBP), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin-D 28K (calbindin) are particularly abundant and specific in their distribution, and present in different subsets of neurons in many brain regions. Although their physiological roles in the neurons have not been elucidated, they are valuable markers of neuronal subpopulations for anatomical and developmental studies. This study is designed to characterize dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) neurons and axon terminals in terms of differential expression of immunoreactivity (IR) for two well-known CaBPs, PV and calbindin. The experiments were carried out on 6 adult monkeys. Monkeys were perfused under deep Nembutal anesthesia with 2% paraformaldehyde and 0.2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer. After removal, the brains were postfixed for 6-8 hr in 2% paraformaldehyde at $4^{\circ}C$ and infiltrated with 30% sucrose at $4^{\circ}C$. Thereafter, they were frozen in dry ice. Serial sections of the thalamus, at $20{\mu}m$, were made in the frontal plane with a sliding microtome. The sections were stained for PV and calbindin with indirect immunocytochemical methods. For electron microscopy, after infiltration with 30% sucrose the blocks of thalamus were serially sectioned at $50{\mu}m$ with a Vibratome in the coronal plane and stained immediately by indirect ABC methods without Triton X-100 in incubation medium. Stained sections were postfixed in 0.2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated and flat-embedded in Spurr resin. The block was then trimmed to contain only a selected lamina or interlaminar space. The dLGN proper showed strong PV IR in fibers in all laminae and interlaminar zones. Particularly dense staining was noted in layers 1 and 2 that contain many stained fibers from optic tract. Neuronal cell body stained with PV was concentrated only in the laminae. In these laminae staining was moderate in cell bodies of all large and medium-sized neurons, and was strong in cell bodies of some small neurons together with their processes. Calbindin IR was marked in the neuronal cell body and neuropil in the S layers and interlaminar zones whereas moderate in the neuropil throughout the nucleus. Regional difference in distribution of PV and calbindin IR cell is distinct; the former is only in the laminae and the latter in both the S layer and interlaminar space. The CaBP-IR elements were confined to about $10{\mu}m$ in depth of Vibratome section. The IR product for CaBP was mainly associated with synaptic vesicle, pre- and post-synaptic membrane, and outer mitochondrial membrane and along microtubule. PV-IR was noted in various neuronal elements such as neuronal soma, dendrite, RLP, F, PSD and some myelinated or unmyelinated axons, and was not seen in the RSD and glial cells. Only a few neuronal components in dLGN was IR for calbindin and its reaction product was less dense than that of PV, and scattered throughout cytoplasm of soma of some relay neurons, and was also persent in some dendrite, myelinated axons and RLP. The RSD, F, PSD and glial elements were always non-IR for calbindin. Calbindin labelled RLP were presynaptic to unlabeled dendrite or dendritic spine and PSD. Calbindin-labeled dendrite of various sizes were always postsynaptic to unlabeled RSD, RLP or F. From this study it is suggested that dLGN cells of different functional systems and their differential projection to the visual cortex can be distinguished by differential expression of PV and calbindin.

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Optimized Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Using a Specific Biomarker, Calbindin D28k

  • Kim, Byung-Joo;Lee, So-Yeon;Kim, Hyung-Woo;Park, Eun-Jung;Kim, Jun;Kim, Sang-Jeong;So, In-Suk;Jeon, Ju-Hong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.373-378
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    • 2009
  • Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) play a crucial role in motor functions and their progressive degeneration is closely associated with spinocerebellar ataxias. Although immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis can provide a valuable tool for understanding the pathophysiology of PC disorders, the method validation of IHC analysis with cerebellar tissue specimens is unclear. Here we present an optimized and validated IHC method using antibodies to calbindin D28k, a specific PC marker in the cerebellum. To achieve the desired sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we modified IHC analysis procedures for cerebellar tissues. We found that the sensitivity of staining varies depending on the commercial source of primary antibody. In addition, we showed that a biotin-free signal amplification method using a horseradish peroxidase polymer-conjugated secondary antibody increases both the sensitivity and specificity of ICH analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that dye filtration using a $0.22\;{\mu}m$ filter eliminates or minimizes nonspecific staining while preserving the analytical sensitivity. These results suggest that our protocol can be adapted for future investigations aiming to understand the pathophysiology of cerebellar PC disorders and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies for treating' these diseases.

Alterations of Calcium-binding Protein Immunoreactivities in the Hippocampus Following Traumatic Brain Injury (외상성 뇌손상 후 해마내 칼슘결합단백질 면역반응의 변화)

  • Oh, Yun-Jung;Kim, Baek-Seon;Park, Dae-Kyoon;Park, Kyung-Ho;Ko, Jeong-Sik;Kim, Duk-Soo
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.235-248
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    • 2011
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in children and adults and is a major risk factor for the development of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). Recent studies have provided significant insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of epilepsy. Although the link between brain trauma and epilepsy is well recognized, the complex biological mechanisms that result in PTE following TBI have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study investigated in order to identify whether or not the abnormal expression of calcium-binding proteins in the lesioned hippocampus plays a role in neuronal damage by brain trauma and whether or not the expressions may change in the contralateral hippocampus during the adaptive stage as early time point following TBI. During early time point following TBI, both parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D-28k (CB) immunoreactivities were decreased with in the lesioned hippocampus. However, these expressions were recovered to control levels as depend on time courses. On the other hand, PV immunoreactivity in contralateral hippocampus was transiently reduced as compared to the control levels, whereas CB expression was unchanged. These findings indicate that the alterations of the calcium-binding proteins, especially PV and CB, may contribute to the neuronal death and/or damage induced by abnormal inhibitory neurotransmission at early time period following brain trauma and the development of epileptogenesis in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Observation of Dendritic Spines of Purkinje Cell Using High-Voltage Electron Microscopy (고압전자현미경을 이용한 소뇌 조롱박세포 가지돌기가시 관찰)

  • Rhyu, Im-Joo;Lee, Kea-Joo;Suh, Young-Suk
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2001
  • The morphological features of neuronal dendritic spines are changed their shapes, sizes and density in response to physiological or pathological conditions . Therefore, exact analysis of spines warrants understanding of neuronal function. The size of the spine is at the borderline of resolution with light microscopy. High voltage electron microscopy Provide excellent resolution of the spines with proper stain techniques thanks to its higher resolution and penetration power. We evaluated more effective staining method for observing dendritic spines after labeling Purkinje cells with anti-calbindin 28 kD immunohistochemistry or Golgi staining methods. 4 fm thickness sections were observed with high voltage electron microscopy and some morphometric analyses were performed. Both Golgi staining and immunohistochemistry revealed the detail structures of the Purkinje cell such as soma, dendrites, and dendritic spines. High voltage electron micrographs with Golgi staining provide more precise morphology and are easy to measure. Average density of spine is $24.5{\pm}3.6/10{\mu}m$ and its length is $1.12{\pm}0.22{\mu}m$. For quantitative analysis of the spines, high voltage electron, micrographs with Golgi staining are more effective. This preliminary result is expected to be useful for further study of spine plasticity in various conditions.

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Retrograde Tracer Studies of Tecto-Reticulospinal Pathway and Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus on GluR1- and GluR4-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Hamster Superior Colliculus (Tecto-reticulospinal pathway (TRS)와 dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN)에서 역행성이동추적물질 이용 햄스터 상구에서 GluR1-, GluR4- 면역반응 신경세포 연구)

  • Choi, Jae-Sik;Lee, Jea-Young;Jang, Yu-Jin;Lee, Eun-Shil;Jeon, Chang-Jin
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • We recently reported the distributions of AMPA ($\alpha$-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) receptor subtypes glutamate receptors (GluR) 1 and GluR4 in the superior colliculi (SC) of hamsters with antibody immunocytochemistry and the effect of enucleation on these distributions. We also compared these labelings to those of calcium-binding proteins calbindin D28K, calretinin, parvalbumin, and GABA. In the present study, we investigated whether the GluR1- and GluR4-immunoreactive (IR) neurons are interneurons or projection neurons by injection of the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into one of each major ascending and descending pathways of the SC. HRP injections were made into a tecto-reticulospinal pathway (TRS) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Animals were then allowed to recover and to survive for 48 hr before perfusion. Sections containing retrograde-labeled neurons were then treated for GluR-immunoreactivity. HRP injections proved that only a small population of the GluR1-IR cells project into TRS (1.4%) and dLGN (2.6%). However, a large subpopulation of GluR4-IR cells project into TRS (32.7%). The differential compositions of inter/projection neurons, along with our previous studies on the separate distribution of the GluR subunits, its differential co-localization with calcium-binding proteins and GABA, and differential reactions to enucleations, strongly imply the functional variety of the receptor subunits in visual behavior responses.

Mechanism of Ethanol-induced Purkinje Cell Death in Developing Rat Cerebellum: Its Implication in Apoptosis and Oxidative Damage

  • Song, Ji-Hoon;Kang, Ji-Hoon;Kang, Hee-Kyung;Kim, Kwang-Sik;Lee, Sung-Ho;Choi, Don-Chan;Cheon, Min-Seok;Park, Deok-Bae;Lee, Young-Ki
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.205-213
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    • 2011
  • Ethanol treatment during the brain growth spurt period has been known to induce the death of Purkinje cells. The underlying molecular mechanisms and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triggering ethanol-induced Purkinje cell death are, however, largely unresolved. We undertook TUNEL staining, western blotting assay and immunohistochemistry for the cleaved forms of caspase-3 and -9, with calbindin D28K double immunostaining to identify apoptotic Purkinje cells. The possibility of ROS-induced Purkinje cell death was immunohistochemically determined by using anti-8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a specific cellular marker for oxidative damage. The results show that Purkinje cell death of PD 5 rat cerebellum following ethanol administration is mediated by the activation of caspase-3 and -9. However, unexpectedly, TUNEL staining did not reveal any positive Purkinje cells while there were some TUNEL-positive cells in the internal and external granular layer. 8-OHdG was detected in the Purkinje cell layers at 8 h, peaked at 12-24 h, but not at 30 h post-ethanol treatment. No 8-0HdG immunoreactive cells were detected in the internal and external granular layer. The lobule specific 8-OHdG staining patterns following ethanol exposure are consistent with that of ethanol-induced Purkinje cell loss. Thus, we suggest that ethanol-induced Purkinje cell death may not occur by the classical apoptotic pathway and oxidative damage is involved in ethanol-induced Purkinje cell death in the developing cerebellum.