• Title, Summary, Keyword: CaO recovery

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The Characteristics of Manufacture Filter Media for Water Treatment Using Mixture Response with Ash and Food Waste (연소재 및 식품폐기물의 혼합 반응에 따른 수처리 여과재 제조 특성)

  • Park, Seung-Do;Lee, Won-Ho;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2018
  • The porosity formation by the addition of additives was found to be the highest in the case of aluminum powder 3% and $Ca(OH)_2$ 2% under the condition that strength was maintained. The optimum mixing ratio of the binder was shown to be the most effective at (Ash+Food waste+clay):(water glass+colloidal silica) 7:3, and the temperature response is most economical and effective at $1,000^{\circ}C$. The optimal mixing ratio is the strength in 30% of ash, 30% of clay and 10% of food waste, which is the effective in non-point pollution water treatment. Filter media produced under optimal mixing conditions were analyzed as $SiO_2$ 65.8%, density $1.4g/cm^3$, porosity 25.6%, pH 9.8, and no hazardous substances were detected. As a result of the filtration of the water treatment, the mean concentration of the filtered SS was $14.06mg/{\ell}$, and the removal efficiency of SS was 90%, the recovery rate of the reversal is 97.1%. This enables the development of filter media considering economic efficiency and efficiency as well as the utilization of waste resources, enabling high value added of waste resources.

Changes of Chemical and Microbial Properties of Soils after Forest Fires in Coniferous and Deciduous Forests (침엽수와 활엽수 산림에서 산불 후 토양화학적 및 토양미생물학적 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Jong-Gap;O, Gi-Cheol
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to examine the recovery of forest ecosystem by changes of soil chemical properties and soil microorganism at the burned areas of coniferous (Mt. Chocdae) and broad leaved forest (Samsinbong in Mt. Chiri). In the soil chemical properties of the burned area of Samsinbong, pH was 5.8, and contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, available P₂O/sub 5/, exchangeable K/sup +/, exchangeable Ca/sup ++/ and exchangeable Mg/sup ++/ were 7.42%, 0.73%, 28.5 ㎎/㎏, 1.3 me/100g, 13.3 me/100g and 2.2 me/100g, respectively. But they showed a tendency to decrease with time. In the soil chemical properties of the burned area of Mt. Chocdae, pH was 5.3, and contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, available P2O5, exchangeable K/sup +/, exchangeabe Ca/sup ++/ and Exchangeable Mg/sup ++/ were 6.42%, 0.25%, 24.4 ㎎/㎏, 0.7 me/100g, 3.7 me/100g and 2.1 me/100g, respectively, and they also showed a tendency to decrease with time. In contrast, they were not changed with time at the unburned areas. At the burned area of Samsinbong, soil microorganism showed to order of fungi (69×10⁴ CFU), actinomycetes (523×10⁴ CFU) and aerobic bacteria (291×10⁴ CFU), and at the unburned area, showed to order of actinomycetes (745×10⁴ CFU), fungi (594×10⁴ CFUU), and aerobic bacteria (160×10/sup 4/ CFU). At the burned area of Mt. Chocdae, soil microorganism showed to order of fungi (676×10⁴ CFU), actinomycetes (434×10⁴ CFU) and aerobic bacteria (350×10⁴ CFU), and at the unburned area, showed to order of fungi (461 ×10⁴ CFU), aerobic bacteria (328×10⁴ CFU) and actinomycetes (319×10⁴ CFU). Soil microorganisms of the aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi appeared at the burned areas were much more abundant than unburned areas. The aerobic bacteria appeared at the coniferous forest were also much more than the broad-leaved forest. The actinomycetes and fungi appeared at the broad-leaved forest were much more abundant than the coniferous forest.

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Application of Adsorption Characteristic of Ferrous Iron Waste to Phosphate Removal from Municipal Wastewater (폐산화철의 흡착특성을 이용한 도시하수내 인 처리)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyung;Lim, Chae-Sung;Kim, Keum-Yong;Kim, Dae-Keun;Lee, Sang-Ill;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.231-238
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    • 2008
  • This study proposed the method of phosphate recovery from municipal wastewater by using ferrous iron waste, generated from the mechanical process in the steel industry. In the analysis of XRD, ferrous iron waste was composed of $Fe_3O_4$ (magnetite), practically with $Fe^{2+}$ and $Fe^{3+}$. It had inverse spinel structure. In order to identify the adsorption characteristic of phosphate on ferrous iron waste, isotherm adsorption test was designed. Experimental results were well analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm theories. Empirical constants of all isotherms applied increased with alkalinity in the samples, ranging from 1.2 to 235 $CaCO_3/L$. In the regeneration test, empirical constants of Langmuir isotherm, i.e., $q_{max}$ (maximum adsorption capacity) and b (energy of adsorption) decreased as the frequency of regeneration was increased. Experiment was further performed to evaluate the performance of the treatment scheme of chemical precipitation by ferrous iron waste followed by biological aerated filter (BAF). The overall removal efficiency in the system increased up to 80% and 90% for total phosphate (TP) and soluble phosphate (SP), respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations were detected below 2 mg/L and 1 mg/L for TP and SP, respectively. However, short-circuit problem was still unsolved operational consideration in this system. The practical concept applied in this study will give potential benefits in achieving environmentally sound wastewater treatment as well as environmentally compatible waste disposal in terms of closed substance cycle waste management.

Long-term Bias of Internal Markers in Sheep and Goat Digestion Trials

  • De Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto;Garcia, Rasmo;Vieira Pires, Aureliano Jose;Silva, Roberio Rodrigues;Detmann, Edenio;Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes;Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2013
  • Two digestion trials, one with sheep and another with goats, were conducted to evaluate the long-term bias (LTB) of the indigestible dry matter (iDM), indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) internal markers. The study used eight Santa In$\hat{e}$s castrated male sheep (average body weight of 16.6 kg) distributed in two $4{\times}4$ Latin squares and eight Saanen castrated male goats (average body weight of 22.6 kg) distributed in two $4{\times}4$ Latin squares. The experiments were conducted simultaneously, and the animals were housed in 1.2 $m^2$ individual pens with wood-battened floors equipped with individual feeders and drinkers. The animals received isonitrogenous diets that were offered ad libitum and contained 14% crude protein and 70% sugar cane (with 0, 0.75, 1.5 or 2.25% CaO, in natural matter percentage), corrected with 1% urea and 30% concentrate. The experiment consisted of four experimental periods of 14 d each, with the feed, leftovers and feces sampled on the last four days of each period. The marker concentrations in the feed, leftovers and fecal samples were estimated by an in situ ruminal incubation procedure with a duration 240 h. The relationship between the intake and excretion of the markers was obtained by adjusting a simple linear regression model, independently from the treatment (diets) fixed effects and Latin squares. For both the sheep and goats, a complete recovery of the iDM and iNDF markers was observed (p>0.05), indicating the absence of LTB for these markers. However, the iADF was not completely recovered, exhibiting an LTB of -9.12% (p<0.05) in the sheep evaluation and -3.02% (p<0.05) in the goat evaluation.

Production of uranium tetrafluoride from the effluent generated in the reconversion via ammonium uranyl carbonate

  • Neto, Joao Batista Silva;de Carvalho, Elita Fontenele Urano;Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari;Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo;Riella, Humberto Gracher;Durazzo, Michelangelo
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.1711-1716
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    • 2017
  • Uranium tetrafluoride ($UF_4$) is the most used nuclear material for producing metallic uranium by reduction with Ca or Mg. Metallic uranium is a raw material for the manufacture of uranium silicide, $U_3Si_2$, which is the most suitable uranium compound for use as nuclear fuel for research reactors. By contrast, ammonium uranyl carbonate is a traditional uranium compound used for manufacturing uranium dioxide $UO_2$ fuel for nuclear power reactors or $U_3O_8-Al$ dispersion fuel for nuclear research reactors. This work describes a procedure for recovering uranium and ammonium fluoride ($NH_4F$) from a liquid residue generated during the production routine of ammonium uranyl carbonate, ending with $UF_4$ as a final product. The residue, consisting of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium ($NH_4^+$), fluoride ($F^-$), and carbonate ($CO_3^{2-}$), has significant concentrations of uranium as $UO_2^{2+}$. From this residue, the proposed procedure consists of precipitating ammonium peroxide fluorouranate (APOFU) and $NH_4F$, while recovering the major part of uranium. Further, the remaining solution is concentrated by heating, and ammonium bifluoride ($NH_4HF_2$) is precipitated. As a final step, $NH_4HF_2$ is added to $UO_2$, inducing fluoridation and decomposition, resulting in $UF_4$ with adequate properties for metallic uranium manufacture.

Study on the Salt Tolerance of Rice and Other Crops in Reclaimed Soil Areas. -6. On the Effects of Increased N. P. K. Applications for Rice Plant in Reclaimed Salty Areas (간척지(干拓地)에서 수도(水稻) 및 기타작물(其他作物)의 내염성(耐鹽性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -6. 염분간척지(鹽分干拓地)에서 수도(水稻)에 대한 N, P, K,의 증비효과에 관(關)하여)

  • Im, H.B.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1970
  • The experiment was conducted at the salt concentration of 0.5% and 1% end of April, respectively, in low and high-salty and the non-salty areas of silt loam with the Nongkwang, rice variety. The factorial design with confounding blocks of 3 levels each of 10, 15 and 20 kg of N, 8, 12 and 16kg of phosphate and potash, respectively, per 10a was applied. 1. N applications increased by 1.5 and 2 times with the fixed amount of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ (8kg/10a each) increased the proportion absorbed to the applications of N in both non salty and low-salty areas. It was observed that the absorption of Ca and Si was inhibited by either an increased treatment of N alone or combination with the other nutrients in the salty area. 2. In the non-salty area, an increased applications of standard amount of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ respectively did not increased the yields. Doubling the application of $K_2O$ resulted in a decreased yield. 3. Applications of additional of 1.5 and 2 times the 10 kg of N per 10a increased the rice yields 12% and 21% respectively, in the low-salty area. An increased application of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ failed to bring about an increased yield. 4. Increasing the application of N gave a significant increased in the yield of rice grain and 1.5 times of N applications were seemed profitable on the high-salty area. Although an increased applications $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ seemed to increase the yields of grain, no significant increase was observed. 5. An increased application of N increased the number of panicles up to 1.5 times the standard amount in the non-salty area, but no further increase resulted by doubling the application. The number of panicles was increased in proportion to the increased application of N in both low and high-salty areas. An increased application of $P_2O_5$ increase the number of panicles per unit area in each experimental plot while that of $K_2O$ had no effect but rather decreased the number. 6. The effect of an increased application of N decreased the weight of panicle in the non-salty area, but when the application was increased to 1.5 times or more an increased weight of panicle resulted in both salty areas. Doubling the application had approximately the same effect as 1.5 times the application. Increasing the applications of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ had no effect on the panicle weight in the experimental plots. Increasing the applications of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ did not effect the weight of 1,000 grains produced in the non-salty and salty areas. Increasing the application of N decreased the number of grains per panicle in the non-salty area but increased the number of grains per panicle in either salty areas. 7. The ratio of matured grains was highest in the low-salty area and the lowest in the high-salty area. An increased N applications decreased the ratio of matured grains in the non-salty area. No effect was observed in both low and high-salty areas. Increased the $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ application showed no effect on the ratio of matured grains in the experimental plots. 8. Increased applications of N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ was observed not to change the percentage of milling recovery in any experimental plots. Broken rice was increased equally by an increased application of N in the non-salty and salty areas but more remarkably so in the former. 9. Increased applications of N increased the straw production equally in the non-salty, low and high-salty areas. However, no increased production was observed from heavier applications of $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$. Additional N applications reduced the rate of rough grain weight v.s. straw weight in the non-salty area but increased the ratios in both low and high-salty areas. Additional $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ had no effect with the ratio.

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The Effect of Two Terpenoids, Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid on Epidermal Permeability Barrier and Simultaneously on Dermal Functions (우솔릭산과 올레아놀산이 피부장벽과 진피에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구)

  • Suk Won, Lim;Sung Won, Jung;Sung Ku, Ahn;Bora, Kim;In Young, Kim;Hee Chang , Ryoo;Seung Hun, Lee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.263-278
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    • 2004
  • Ursolic acid (UA) and Oleanolic acid (ONA), known as urson, micromerol and malol, are pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds which naturally occur in a large number of vegetarian foods, medicinal herbs, and plants. They may occur in their free acid form or as aglycones for triterpenoid saponins, which are comprised of a triterpenoid aglycone, linked to one or more sugar moieties. Therefore UA and ONA are similar in pharmacological activity. Lately scientific research, which led to the identification of UA and ONA, revealed that several pharmacological effects, such as antitumor, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperlipidemic could be attributed to UA and ONA. Here, we introduced the effect of UA and ONA on acutely barrier disrupted and normal hairless mouse skin. To evaluate the effects of UA and ONA on epidermal permeability barrier recovery, both flanks of 8-12 week-old hairless mice were topically treated with either 0.01-0.1mg/mL UA or 0.1-1mg/mL ONA after tape stripping, and TEWL (transepidermal water loss) was measured. The recovery rate increased in those UA or ONA treated groups (0.1mg/mL UA and 0.5mg/mL ONA) at 6h more than 20% compared to vehicle treated group (p < 0.05). Here, we introduced the effects of UA and ONA on acute barrier disruption and normal epidermal permeability barrier function. For verifying the effects of UA and ONA on normal epidermal barrier, hydration and TEWL were measured for 1 and 3 weeks after UA and ONA applications (2mg/mL per day). We also investigated the features of epidermis and dermis using electron microscopy (EM) and light microscopy (LM). Both samples increased hydration compared to vehicle group from 1 week without TEWL alteration (p < 0.005). EM examination using RuO4 and OsO4 fixation revealed that secretion and numbers of lamellar bodies and complete formation of lipid bilayers were most prominent (ONA=UA > vehicle). LM finding showed that thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was slightly increased and especially epidermal thickening and flattening was observed (UA > ONA > vehicle). We also observed that UA and ONA stimulate epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via PPAR Protein expression of involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin increased at least 2 and 3 fold in HaCaT cells treated with either ONA (10${\mu}$M) or UA (10${\mu}$M) for 24 h respectively. This result suggested that the UA and ONA can improve epidermal permeability barrier function and induce the epidermal keratinocyte differentiation via PPAR Using Masson-trichrome and elastic fiber staining, we observed collagen thickening and elastic fiber elongation by UA and ONA treatments. In vitro results of collagen and elastin synthesis and elastase inhibitory activity measurements were also confirmed in vivo findings. These data suggested that the effects of UA and ONA related to not only epidermal permeability barrier functions but also dermal collagen and elastic fiber synthesis. Taken together, UA and ONA can be relevant candidates to improve epidermal and dermal functions and pertinent agents for cosmeseutical applications.

Effect of Moutan Cortex Radicis on gene expression profile of differentiated PC12 rat cells oxidative-stressed with hydrogen peroxide (모단피의 PC12 cell 산화억제 효과 및 neuronal 유전자 발현 profile 분석에 대한 연구)

  • Kim Hyun Hee;Rho Sam Woong;Na Youn Gin;Bae Hyun Su;Shin Min Kyu;Kim Chung Suk;Hong Moo Chang
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.529-541
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    • 2003
  • Yukmijihwang-tang has been widely used as an and-aging herbal medicine for hundred years in Asian countries. Numerous studies show that Yukmijihwangtang has anti-oxidative effect both in vivo and in vitro. It has been reported that Moutan Cortex Radicis extract (MCR) was the most effective herb in Yukmijihwang-tang on undifferentiated PC12 cells upon oxidative-stressed with hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this study is to; 1) evaluate the recovery of neuronal damage by assessing the anti-oxidant effect of MCR on PC12 cells differentiated with nerve growth factor (NGF), 2) identify candidate genes responsible for anti-oxidative effect on differentiated PC12 cells by oligonucleotide chip microarray. PC12 cells, which were differentiated by treating with NGF, were treated without or with hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of various concentration of MCR. Cell survival was determined by using MTS assay. Measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using the H2DCFDA assay The viability of cells treated with MCR was significantly recovered from stressed PC12 cell. In addition, wide rage of concentrations of MCR shows dose-dependent inhibitory effect on ROS production in oxidative-stressed cells. Total RNAs of cells without treatment(Control group), only treated with H₂O₂ (stressed group) and treated with both H₂O₂ and of MCR (MCR group) were isolated, and cDNAs was synthesized using oligoT7(dT) primer. The fragmented cRNAs, synthesized from cDNAs, were applied to Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Neurobiology U34 Array. mRNA of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta subunit(CaMKII), neuron glucose transporter (GLUT3) and myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(MOG) were downregulated in Stressed group comparing to Control group. P2X2-5 receptor (P2X2R-5), P2X2-4 receptor (P2X2R-4), c-fos, 25 kDa synaptosomal attachment protein(SNAP-25a) and GLUT3 were downregulated, whereas A2 adenosine receptor (A2AR), cathechol-O-methyltransferase(COMT), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), EST223333, heme oxygenase (HO), VGF, UI-R-CO-ja-a-07-0-Ul.s1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were upregulated in MCA group comparing to Control group. Expression of Putative potassium channel subunit protein (ACK4), P2X2A-5, P2X2A-4, Interferon-gamma inducing factor isoform alpha precursor (IL-18α), EST199031, P2XR, P2X2 purinoceptor isoform e (P2X2R-e), Precursor interleukin 18 (IL-18) were downregulated, whereas MOO, EST223333, GLUT-1, MIF, Neuronatin alpha, UI-R-C0-ja-a-07-0-Ul.s1, A2. adenosine receptor, COMT, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), HO, VGF, A rat novel protein which is expressed with nerve injury (E12625) were upregulated in MCR group comparing to Stressed group. The results suggest that decreased viability and AOS production of PC12 cell by H₂O₂ may be, at lease, mediated by impaired glucose transporter expression. It is implicated that the MCR treatment protect PC12 cell from oxidative stress via following mechanisms; improving glucose transport into the cell, enhancing expression of anti-oxidative genes and protecting from dopamine cytotoxicity by increment of COMT and MIF expression. The list of differentially expressed genes may implicate further insight on the action and mechanism behind the anti-oxidative effects of herbal extract Moutan Cortex Radicis.

A Study on the Anaerobic Treatment of the Phenol-bearing Wastewater with two Sludge Blanket-Packed Bed Reactors in Series (2단의 슬러지-고정상 반응기에서 페놀 함유 폐수의 혐시성 처리에 관한 연구)

  • 정종식;안재동;박동일;신승훈;장인용
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried to investigate the biodegradability of phenol in the wastewater with the two sludge blanket-packed bed reactor in series. Each reactor had a dimension of 0.09 m i.d. and 1.5 m height and consisted of two regions. The lower region was a sludge blanket of 0.5 m height and the upper region was a packed-bed of 1 m height. The packed bed region was charged with ceramic raschig rings of 10 mm i.d., 15 mm o.d. and 20 mm length. The reactors were operated at 35$\circ$C and the hydraulic retention time(HRT) was maintained 24 hours. The synthetic wastewater composed of glucose and phenol as major components was fed into the reactor in a continuous mode with incereasing phenol concentration. In addition, the nutrient trace metals($Na^+, Mg^{2+}, Ca^{2+}, PO_4^{3-}, NH_4^+, Co^{2+}, Fe^{2+}$ etc.) were added for growing anaerobes. The phenol concentration of the effluent, the overall gas production, the composition of product gas, the efficiency of COD reduction and the duration of acclimation period were measured to determine the performance of the anaerobic wastewater treatment system as the phenol concentration of the influent was increased from 600 to 2400 mg//l. Successfully stable biodegradation of phenol could be achieved with the anaerobic treatment system from 600 to 1, 800 mg/l of the influent phenol concentration. The upper level of influent phenol loading was high enough to meet most of the practical requirement. The duration of acclimation increased with the phenol loading. At steady state of the influent phenol concentration of 1800 mg/l, the treatment performance indicated the phenol reduction efficiency of 99%, the COD reduction efficiency of 99% and the gas production rate of 37 l/day. At the influent phenol concentration of 2400 mg/l, however, the operation of the treatment system was noted unstable. While the concentration of methane in biogas decreased with increasing the influent phenol loading, the carbon dioxide was increased. However, the concentration of hydrogen was varied negligibly. The concentration of methane was high enough to be used as a fuel. As a result, it is suggested that anaerobic phenol wastewater treament was economical in the sense of energy recovery and wastewater treatment.

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Effects of Ouabain and Vanadate on the Spontaneous Contractions and Electrical Activity in Guinea-pig Taenia Coli (결장뉴 전기활동도에 대한 Ouabain과 Vanadate의 작용)

  • Park, Jong-Kyou;Kim, Ki-Whan;So, In-Suk
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.189-206
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    • 1988
  • The effects of ouabain on the contractile and electrical activities were investigated in the isolated preparations of guinea-pig taenia coli, and compared with those of vanadate. Spontaneous contractions were recorded with force transducer, and electrical activites were measured by use of suction electrode, or single sucrose-gap technique. The contractions were induced by the electrical stimulation for 5 seconds every 1 minute with alternating current (60 Hz, 3.0 V/cm) through the platinum electrodes located in parallel with the long axis of the preparation. All experiments were performed in tris-buffered Tyrode solution which was aerated with $100%{\;}O_2$ and kept at $35^{\circ}C$. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Responses of spontaneous contractions to ouabain were concentration-dependent; $10^{-7}M$ ouabain caused a rise of basal tone. Above the concentration of $10^{-6}M$ ouabain, an initial increase followed by a decrease in tension was observed. 2) A continuous spike discharge was induced by the administration of $10^{-7}M$ ouabain. Above $10^{-6}M$ ouabain, a transient initial increase followed by a decrease in spike frequency and amplitude was produced, and finally membrane potential was sustained at a certain level without a spike discharge. 3) The characteristic response to $10^{-7}M$ ouabain was not blocked by the pretreatment with $10^{-7}M$ atropine. 4) The electrically induced contractions were completely suppressed at the concentration of $2{\times}10^{-7}M$ ouabain. These contractions were blocked more rapidly in paralled with the increase in ouabain concentration. 5) Effects of vanadate on the spontaneous activities were quite different from those of ouabain; $10^{-6}M$ vanadate increased the amplitude of contractions and $10^{-5}M$ vanadate increased slightly both amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. $10^{-4}M$ vanadate showed irregular phasic contractions superimposed on the increased basal tone. 6) $10^{-5}M$ vanadate depolarized the membrane potential and shortened the interval between the bursts of spike discharge, whereas $10^{-4}M$ vanadate induced continuous spike discharge with membrane depolarization. 7) Vanadate caused a characteristic inhibitory response to the contractions induced by electrical stimulation; An initial rapid inhibition of tension development and then gradual recovery to a certain level. From the above results, the following conclusions could be made: 1) The rise of basal tone at $10^{-7}M$ ouabain is due to continuous spike discharge without a silent period. The continuous spike discharge is likely to be associated with a slight membrane depolarization caused by the blockage of Na pump. 2) The biphasic response induced by above $10^{-6}M$ ouabain seems to occur by the different mechanisms. The initial increase in tension is associated with depolarization along with an increase in spike frquency, whereas the subsequent relaxation occurs through a non-electrical mechanism. 3) The characteristic response to $10^{-7}M$ ouabain is resulted not from the action on intrinsic nerve terminal, but from its direct action on the membrane of smooth muscle cells. 4) The phasic contractions superimposed on the increased basal tone at the concentration of $10^{-4}M$ vanadate is resulted from the continuous spike discharge with membrane depolarization, of which mechanism remains unknown. 5) The inhibitory action of ouabain on the electrically induced contractions suggests that the increasein intracellular Na in some way inhibits the electrically induced $Ca^{2+}$ influx. The mechanism of vanadate action on the induced contractions remains unknown.

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