• Title, Summary, Keyword: CaO recovery

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Separation for the Determination of $^{59/63}Ni$ in Radioactive Wastes (방사성 폐기물 내 $^{59/63}Ni$ 정량을 위한 분리)

  • Lee, Chang-Heon;Jung, Kie-Chul;Choi, Kwang-Soon;Jee, Kwang-Young;Kim, Won-Ho
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.309-317
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    • 2005
  • A study on the separation of $^{99}Tc,\;^{94}Nb,\;^{55}Fe,\;^{90}Sr\;and\;^{59/63}Ni$ in various radioactive wastes discharged from nuclear power plants has been performed for a use in their quantification which is indispensible for the evaluation of the radionuclide inventory Ni was recovered along with Ca, Mg, Al, Cr, Ti, Mn, Ce, Na, K, and Cu through the sequential separation procedure of Re(as a surrogate of $^{99}Tc$), Nb, Fe and Sr by anion exchange and Sr-Spec extraction chromatography. In this research, chemical separation of Ni from the co-existing elements was investigated by cation exchange and Ni-Spec extraction chromatography. Precipitation behaviour of Ni and the co-existing elements with dimethylglyoxime(DMG) was investigated in ammonium $citrate/ethanol-H_2O$ and tartaric $acid/acetone-H_2O$ in order to purify separated Ni fractions and to prepare $^{59/63}Ni$ source for the radioactivity measurement using a gas proportional counter. Recovery of Ni separated through ion exchange chromatographic separation procedure was $92.1\%$ with relative standard deviation of $0.9\%$. In addition, recovery of Ni with DMG in the tartaric $acid/acetone-H_2O$ was $85.6\%$ with relative standard deviation of $1.9\%$.

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The Characteristic Dissolution of Valuable Metals from Mine-Waste Rock by Heap Bioleaching, and the Recovery of Metallic Copper Powder with Fe Removal and Electrowinning (더미 미생물용출에 의한 폐-광석으로부터 유용금속 용해 특성과 Fe 제거와 전기분해를 이용한 금속구리분말 회수)

  • Kim, Bong-JuK;Cho, Kang-Hee;Choi, Nag-Choul;Park, Cheon-Young
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.207-222
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    • 2014
  • In order to recover the metallic copper powder from the mine-waste rock, heap bioleaching, Fe removal and electrowinning experiments were carried out. The results of heap leaching with the mine-waste rock sample containing 0.034% Cu showed that, the leaching rate of Cu were 61% and 62% in the bacteria leaching and sulfuric acid leaching solution, respectively. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$) and calcium hydroxide ($Ca(OH)_2$) were applied to effectively remov Fe from the heap leaching solution, and then $H_2O_2$ was selected for the most effective removing Fe agent. In order to prepare the electrolytic solution, $H_2O_2$ were again treated in the heap leaching, and Fe removal rates were 99% and 60%, whereas Cu removal rates were 5% and 7% in the bacteria and sulfuric acid leaching solutions, respectively. After electrowinning was examined in these leaching solution, the recovery rates of Cu were obtained 98% in bacteria and obtained 76% in the sulfuric leaching solution. The dendritic form of metallic copper powder was recovered in both leaching solutions.

Petrological characteristics of the granitic building stone in the Mungyeong-Sangju area

  • Yun, Hyun-Soo
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 1993
  • The light pinkish granite (LPG) and pinkish granite (PG) distributing widely in the Mungyeong-Sangju area are characterized by miarolitic texture of various shape and size. By the joint frequency contour diagram, the joints of orthogonal thpe are recognized in the LPG and PG. From the petrologic textures, joint pattern, and joint spacings, it is recommended that the LPG has more possibility than the PG in recovery ratio of stone. The average physical properties such as specific gravity, absorption ratio (%), porosity (%) and compressive strength (kg/$cm^2$) have been tested 2.6 and 2.6, 0.5 and 0.6, 1.4 and 1.5, 1440 and 1680 for the LPG and PG, respectively. The stones belong to the hard rock, and represent applicable building stone. The thermal conductivity (w/m.k) showing proportional relationships with the absorption ratio and porosity is 2.2~3.2 and suggests massive texture. With increasing of the compressive strength, the ratio of $Fe_2O_3$/($Fe_2O_3$+FeO) show irregular trend and CaO, $Na_2O$ and $K_2O$ have uniformal values without variations. These results suggest there are no matual relationships.

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Recovery of $\alpha$-iron from converter dust in a steelmaking factory (제철소 전노 dust로부터 철분강 회수에 관한 연구)

  • 김미성;김미성;오재현;김태동
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 1993
  • In this study, we investigated the grinding and sedimentation(elutriation) process of the dusts for the effective separation of high purity iron and iron oxides. For characterization of the dust, particle size distribution and chemical composition, were examined. The results obtained in this study may be summarized as follows : 1. The converter CF(clarifier) dust of the Pohang 1st, 2nd steel making factory and EC(Evaporation Cooler), EP(Eltrostatic precititator) dust of the Kwangyang 2nd steel making factory are composed $\alpha$-Fe(21~50%), FeO(wustite)$Fe_3$$O_4$(magnetite), $Fe_2$$O_3$, CaO, $Al_2$$O_3$, $SiO_2$, and etc. 2. Pure iron has ductile characteristic in nature, particle size of the pure iron increase by increasing the grinding time. On the other hand, it is conformed that bo고 particles of hematite and magnetite become less than 325 mesh after 10 minutes grinding. 3. By applying the elutriation technique for the EC dust of the Kwangyang 2nd steel making factory, the iron powder of high content more than 99.17% of pure Fe was recovered with 37.8% yield at grinding time for 40 minutes. 4. By applying the elutriation technique for the CF dust of the Pohang 2nd steel making factory, the iron powder of high content more than 98.38% of pure Fe was recovered with 44.42% yield at grinding time for 40 minutes. 5. When magnetic separation was performed using plastic bonding magnet of 70 gauss, more than 98% Fe grade of iron powder was recovered in the size range +65 -200 mesh but the recovery of it was low.

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Determination of Arsenic in Water by ICP-DRC/MS (ICP-DRC/MS를 이용한 수중의 비소 측정)

  • Jeong, Gwan-Jo;Kim, Dok-Chan;Park, Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.620-625
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    • 2006
  • In this investigation, an ICP-DRC/MS method to measure arsenic with ultra-trace concentration without any interference by the compounds such as $^{40}Ar^{35}Cl^+\;and\;^{40}Ca^{35}Cl^+$, which disturb the precise measurement of arsonic was described. Thus, the oxgen was introduced into the dynamic reaction cell as reaction gas and reacted with arsenic ion created in plasma gas, $AsO^+$ was formed and detected with m/z of 91 by ICP-MS. It resulted in better detection limit than the old method with m/z of 75($As^+$). The optimum condition for oxygen supply as the reaction gas was 0.5 mL/min. The analytical features of the method are as follows: detection limit of $0.02{\mu}g/L$, precision(RSD) of 3.4%, and recovery of 96%. Arsenic in the water samples from the tributary streams to the Han River and the main stream of Paldang were analyzed with this method to identify the characteristics in its distribution. The concentration of As ranged from 0.53 to $1.26{\mu}g/L$. We could measure As with very low concentration, less than $1.0{\mu}g/L$, with excellent reproducibility. The method developed is expected to be applied to analyze As of the samples from sea water, food, and domestic and industrial waste water which have high concentration of Cl and/or Ca.

Effects of $Ca^{++}$, Verapamil and $La^{+++}$ on the Spontaneous Contraction and K-contracture in the Isolated Rat Uterine Smooth Muscle (칼슘, 베라파밀, 란타눔이 흰쥐 자궁근의 자발적 수축과 칼륨 경축에 미치는 효과)

  • Hwang, Sang-Ik
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1984
  • The effects of $Ca^{++}$ and its antagonists (verapamil and $La^{+++}$) upon the spontaneous contraction and the contracture induced by 60 mM K-Tyrode solution were studied in the isolated uterine muscle. Longitudinal muscle strips were prepared from the rat uteri at estrous stage. All experiments were performed in tris-buffered Tyrode solution which was aerated with 100% $O_2$ and kept at 35^{\circ}$. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In the uterine strips contracting spontaneously, both the amplitude of peak tension and the area of contraction curve increased dose-dependently in the range of $0.5${\sim}8$ mM $Ca^{++}$. The frequency of contraction increased as the concentration of $Ca^{++}$ increased up to 2 mM, but above this concentration the frequency decreased. In $Ca^{++}-free$ media, however, contraction did not develop. In the contracture induced by 60 mM K-Tyrode solution, the developed tension increased dose-dependently as the concentration of external $Ca^{++}$ increased to 8 mM. In the absence of external $Ca^{++}$ K-contracture appeared, but it was not sustained. 2) The spontaneous contraction of rat uterus was suppressed by verapamil in proportion to an increase of its concentration and totally abolished at the concentration of $3{\times}10^{-4}\;g/l$, but the spontaneous contraction re-appeared by addition of $Ca^{++}$. The amplitude of peak tension recovered completely but the recovery of frequency was incomplete. K-contracture decreased in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment with verapamil and totally disappeared at its concentration of $3{\times}10^{-4}\;g/l$. Even in this case contracture developed again by extra $Ca^{++}$. 3) The spontaneous contractile activity was inhibited by $La^{+++}$. At the concentration of $10^{-4}$M $La^{+++}$, fibrillation appeared. In the strip inhibited by $10^{-5}M\;La^{+++}$, contractility recovered completely by extra $Ca^{++}$ while in the $10^{-4}M\;La^{+++}$ treated preparation, the rhythmic spontaneous contraction did not develop even at the concentration of 16 mM $Ca^{++}$. After the initial transient depression of contracture tension by $10^{-3}M$ of $La^{+++}$, the strip stowed considerably large size of contracture, hardly influenced by external $Ca^{++}$ or verapamil. The results obtained in this experiment suggest that in the rat uterine muscle there would be some competitive actions between $Ca^{++}$ and its antagonists. It is speculated that $Ca^{++}$ plays an important role in the conduction of excitation, and $La^{+++}$ influences upon cellular $Ca^{++}$ mobilization and re-uptake process as well as transmembrane $Ca^{++}$ transport in a K-depolarized state.

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Effects of crystallization reagent and pH on the sulfide crystallization of Cu and Ni in fluidized bed reactor (유동층 반응기를 이용한 구리와 니켈의 황화물 결정화에 결정화 시약 및 pH가 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Eunhoo;Shim, Soojin;Yun, Seong Taek;Hong, Seok Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2014
  • Wastewater containing heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) is harmful to humans and the environment due to its high toxicity. Crystallization in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has recently received significant attention for heavy metal removal and recovery. It is necessary to find optimum reaction conditions to enhance crystallization efficacy. In this study, the effects of crystallization reagent and pH were investigated to maximize crystallization efficacy of Cu-S and Ni-S in a FBR. CaS and $Na_2S{\cdot}9H_2O$ were used as crystallization reagent, and pH were varied in the range of 1 to 7. Additionally, each optimum crystallization condition for Cu and Ni were sequentially employed in two FBRs for their selective removal from the mixture of Cu and Ni. As major results, the crystallization of Cu was most effective in the range of pH 1-2 for both CaS and $Na_2S{\cdot}9H_2O$ reagents. At pH 1, Cu was completely removed within five minutes. Ni showed a superior reactivity with S in $Na_2S{\cdot}9H_2O$ compared to that in CaS at pH 7. When applying each optimum crystallization condition sequentially, only Cu was firstly crystallized at pH 1 with CaS, and then, in the second FBR, the residual Ni was completely removed at pH 7 with $Na_2S{\cdot}9H_2O$. Each crystal recovered from two different FBRs was mainly composed of CuxSy and NiS, respectively. Our results revealed that Cu and Ni can be selectively recovered as reusable resources from the mixture by controlling pH and choosing crystallization reagent accordingly.

Study on The Distribution of Applied 32P into Different Forms of P Compounds in the Soils During Incubation (논·밭 토양(土壤)에 시용(柴用)된 32P의 토양중(土壤中) 상이(相異)한 인산화합물(燐酸化合物)로의 분배(分配)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Hong, Jung-Kook;Hong, Chong-Woon;Park, Sang-Ji;Steenberg, Kjell
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1979
  • The present work was carried out to study the fate of applied phosphorus labelled with $^{32}P$ and its availability to plants in soils subjected to different management practices. The results can be summarized as follows (Table 3): 1. The applied phosphorus was transformed into different phosphorus compounds in the soils depending upon the management practices and soil characteristics. 2. In the flooded paddy soil (pH 5.8) added P after one week of incubation was transformed into various fractions, the order of abundance being: Al-P> Ca-P$${\sim_\sim}$$Fe-P> Org.-P. After two weeks the order changed to: Fe-P> Al-P> Ca-P> Org.-P. The amounts of the Fe-P and Al-P fractions were found to increase from the second week of incubation whereas a decrease in Ca-P was noticed with the organic-P remaining constant. The amount of available P decreased from the first to the third week of incubation, but increased thereafter. 3. In the volcanic ash soil a major proportion of the applied phosphorus was found in the Fe-P fraction during the whole experimental period. The interconversions of the $^{32}P$ among the different phosphate fractions was not as evident as in the case of flooded rice soil. The recovery of applied P was low and remained constant throughout the incubation period. 4. In the upland soils relatively more of the applied phosphorus was found in the Ca-P fraction as compared with those of the other soils. As in the flooded paddy soil $^{32}P$ in the Ca-P fraction decreased with increasing incubation time, whereas in the Fe-P fraction it increased with time. The recovery of added phosphate as available P followed different patterns for the cultivated and the uncultivated soils. In the cultivated soils lit was relatively high and remained nearly constant during the whole incubation period. In the uncultivated soil on the other hand, it was high at the earlier time of incubation, but decreased with incubation time.

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Analysis on Calcination of Cementitious Powder of Waste Concrete for Raw Cement

  • Park, Dong-Cheon;Kwon, Eun-Hee;Ahn, Jae-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to examine whether cementitious powder separated from waste concrete can be used as an alternative raw material to limestone and reduce the usage of natural resource (limestone) and $CO_2$ emission based on recycling cementitious powder from waste concrete. Experiments actually analyzed the chemical composition of cementitious powder and performed hyperthermia analysis, measurement of free CaO and XRD analysis to measure the degree of recovery of hydration in the model of cementitious powder manufactured based on chemical composition. These were performed in each cementitious powder model at different calcination temperatures such as $900^{\circ}C$, $1200^{\circ}C$, $1300^{\circ}C$, $1400^{\circ}C$ and $1450^{\circ}C$. Through the experiments, it was found that the recovery of hydration was at a level which can be used as the alternative raw material for limestone, but the replacement ratio was directly affected by the degree of mixing of fine aggregate in less than $150{\mu}m$, which cannot be separated from cementitious powder. It was shown that there was no difference in the production of compounds involved in hydration at calcination temperatures of $1200^{\circ}C$ or higher. Therefore, to pursue the replacement of limestone and reduction of greenhouse gas by recycling cementitious powder, the development of technology to efficiently separate aggregate fine powder is required.

Optimization of Extended UNIQUAC Parameter for Activity Coefficients of Ions of an Electrolyte System using Genetic Algorithms

  • Hashemi, Seyed Hossein;Dehghani, Seyed Ali Mousavi;Khodadadi, Abdolhamid;Dinmohammad, Mahmood;Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen;Hashemi, Seyed Abdolrasoul
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.652-659
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    • 2017
  • In the present research, in order to predict activity coefficient of inorganic ions in electrolyte solution of a petroleum system, we studied 13 components in the electrolyte solution, including $H_2O$, $CO_2$ (aq), $H^+$, $Na^+$, $Ba^{2+}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Sr^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $SO_4$, $CO_3$, $OH^-$, $Cl^-$, and $HCO_3$. To predict the activity coefficient of the components of the petroleum system (a solid/liquid equilibrium system), activity coefficient model of Extended UNIQUAC was studied, along with its adjustable parameters optimized based on a genetic algorithm. The total calculated error associated with optimizing the adjustable parameters of Extended UNIQUAC model considering the 13 components under study at three temperature levels (298.15, 323.15, and 373.15 K) using the genetic algorithm is found to be 0.07.