• Title, Summary, Keyword: CYP1A1

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Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Bovine CYP26A1 Promoter (소 CYP26A1 유전자 프로모터의 molecular cloning 및 특성)

  • Kwak, Inseok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2016
  • The retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the growth and development of many cells, and bioactive RA concentration is regulated by several enzymes, including CYP26A1. The expression of the CYP26A1 gene is regulated by RA, and the CYP26A1 gene is one of the candidates for RA-responsive genes. Although CYP26A1 genes are cloned from several animals, cloning of the CYP26A1 gene from cows has not been reported yet. The promoter region of CYP26A1 from cows was cloned by PCR and analyzed by sequence alignment with human and mouse CYP26A1. The RA-responsive element (RARE), DR-5 (ttggg), was located in this region and was perfectly conserved. The promoter region of bovine CYP26A1, which contains DR-5, was ligated to the luciferase reporter gene on transient transfection assays. The expression of CYP26A1-Luc promoter was activated by ATRA treatment in lung-derived mtCC cells. Co-transfection with RAR-α or -β with ATRA significantly activates the expression of CYP26A1-Luc promoter; however, it was less effective with either RAR-γ or RXR-γ. In addition, the endogenous gene expressions measured by Q-RT-PCR in mtCC cells were not significantly affected by ATRA treatment for 2 days; however, the expression of the endogenous CYP26A1 gene was diminished sharply at day 3 with ATRA treatment. In conclusion, the promoter region of bovine CYP26A1 contains conserved DR-5 RARE, which functions as a binding site for RAR-α or -β, and it is involved in the regulation of CYP26A1 gene expression and the control of RA signaling in mtCC cells.

Mechanism of Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 by Piceatannol

  • Chae, Ah-Reum;Shim, Jae-Ho;Chun, Young-Jin
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2008
  • The resveratrol analogue piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenol present in grapes and wine and reported to have anti-carcinogenic activities. To investigate the mechanism of anticarcinogenic activities of piceatannol, the effects on CYP 1 enzymes were determined in Escherichia coli membranes coexpressing recombinant human CYP1A1, CYP1A2 or CYP1B1 with human NADPH-P450 reductase. Piceatannol showed a strong inhibition of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in a concentration-dependent manner, and $IC_{50}$ of human CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was 5.8 ${\mu}M$ and 16.6 ${\mu}M$, respectively. However, piceatannol did not inhibit CYP1A2 activity in the concentration of up to 100 ${\mu}M$. Piceatannol exhibited 3-fold selectivity for CYP1B1 over CYP1A1. The mode of inhibition of piceatannol was non-competitive for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The result that piceatannol did not inhibit CYP1B1-mediated $\alpha$-naphthoflavone ($\alpha$-NF) metabolism suggests piceatannol may act as a non-competitive inhibitor as well. In human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells, piceatannol induces apoptosis and prevents Aktmediated signal pathway. Taken together, abilities of piceatannol to induce apoptotic cell death as well as CYP1 enzyme inhibition make this compound a useful tool for cancer chemoprevention.

In vitro Assessment of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition by Red Ginseng Ginsenosides (홍삼 Ginsenoside의 Cytochrome P450 저해 활성 평가)

  • Ryu, Chang Seon;Shin, Jang Hyun;Shin, Byoung Chan;Sim, Jae Han;Yang, Hyeon Dong;Lee, Sung Woo;Kim, Bong-Hee
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2015
  • In the present study we evaluated comparative herb-drug interaction potential of red ginseng total powder, ginsenoside Rg1, and Rb1 by inhibition of CYP isoforms including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). As measured by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, red ginseng total powder inhibited significantly activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and testosterone 6-beta hydroxylation by CYP3A4, but the $IC_{50}$ values were higher than $556{\mu}g/ml$. Activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were inhibited by ginsenoside Rb1. Also, activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and testosterone 6-beta hydroxylation by CYP3A4 were inhibited by ginsenoside Rg1. The $IC_{50}$ values of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were higher than $200{\mu}g/ml$. Based on $IC_{50}$ values against CYP isoforms, ginsenosides-drug interactions by CYP inhibition may be very low in clinical situations.

Effects of CYP1A2$^*$1C and CYP1A2$^*$1F Genotypes on the Activity and Inducibility of CYP1A2 Determined by Urinary Caffeine Metabolite Ratio in Koreans

  • Shin, Mi-Kyung;Yi, Hyeon-Gyu;Kwon, Yong-Hyun;Lee, Sung-Keun;Lim, Woo-Sung;Park, Chang-Shin;Kang, Ju-Hee
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.314-319
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    • 2007
  • The effects of common variants of CYP1A2 gene (CYP1A2$^*$1C and CYP1A2$^*$1F) on the CYP1A2 activity and inducibility were controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of CYP1A2$^*$1C and CYP1A2$^*$1F on the activity of CYP1A2 determined by urinary caffeine metabolite ratio in Koreans. As might be expected, there was large inter-individual variation (16-folds) of CYP1A2 activity ranged from 2.41 to 39.58. The mean CYP1A2 activity of smokers was significantly higher than that of non-smokers. The frequencies of CYP1A2$^*$1C (-3858A) and $^*$1F (-164A) alleles were 0.219 and 0.646, respectively. The effect of CYP1A2$^*$1C on the CYP1A2 activity was not significant. However, the CYP1A2 activity of subjects with AA genotype for CYP1A2$^*$1F allele was significantly lower than that of non-AA genotypes (CC, or CA). Interestingly, the significant effect of CYP1A2$^*$1F allele on CYP1A2 activity was not observed in nonsmokers. Our results suggest that CYP1A2$^*$1F allele rather than CYP1A2$^*$1C allele significantly influences on the inducibility of CYP1A2 in Koreans. Owing to small sample size of our study, further studies should be conducted to reveal the inter-ethnic difference or the gene-environmental interaction.

Effects of Hydroxyl Group Numbers on the B-Ring of 5,7-Dihydroxyflavones on the Differential Inhibition of Human CYP 1A and CYP1B1 Enzymes

  • Kim Hyun-Jung;Lee Sang Bum;Park Song-Kyu;Kim Hwan Mook;Park Young In;Dong Mi-Sook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1114-1121
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    • 2005
  • Flavonoids are polyphenols composed of two aromatic rings (A, B) and a heterocyclic ring (C). In order to determine the effects of the number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring of the flavonoids on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family enzymes, we evaluated the inhibition of CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity by chrysin, apigenin and luteolin, using bacterial membranes that co-express human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, or CYP1B1 with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Chrysin, which possesses no hydroxyl groups in its B-ring, exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects on CYP1A2-dependent EROD activity, followed by apigenin and luteolin. On the contrary, CYP1A1-mediated EROD activity was most potently inhibited by luteolin, which is characterized by two hydroxyl groups in its B-ring, followed by apigenin and chrysin. However, all of the 5,7-dihydroxyflavones were determined to similarly inhibit CYP1B1 activity. Chrysin, apigenin, and luteolin exhibited a mixed-type mode of inhibition with regard to CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and CYP1A1, with apparent Ki values of 2.4, 0.5, and 2.0 ${\mu}M$, respectively. These findings suggested that the number of hydroxyl groups in the B-ring of 5,7-dihydroxyflavone might have some influence on the degree to which CYP1A enzymes were inhibited, but not on the degree to which CYP1B1 enzymes were inhibited.

The effect of CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms on Theophylline metabolism and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Turkish patients

  • Uslu, Ahmet;Ogus, Candan;Ozdemir, Tulay;Bilgen, Turker;Tosun, Ozgur;Keser, Ibrahim
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.8
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    • pp.530-534
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    • 2010
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 gene polymorphisms are thought to be involved in the metabolism of theophylline (TP). We aimed to investigate the effect of CYP1A2*1C, CYP1A2*1D, CYP1A2*1E, and CYP1A2*1F polymorphisms of the CYP1A2 on TP metabolism by PCR-RFLP in 100 Turkish patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving TP. One hundred and one healthy volunteers were included as control group. The genotype frequencies of the CYP1A2*1D and CYP1A2*1F were found to be significantly different in the patients compared to the controls. The "T" allele at -2467 delT and the "C" allele at -163 C > A in the CYP1A2 displayed association with a significantly increased risk for COPD. "T" allele at -2467 delT was also associated with a high risk of disease severity in COPD. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic alterations in CYP1A2 may play a role both in the pharmacogenetics of TP and in the development of COPD.

CYP1A1 (Ile462Val), CYP1B1 (Ala119Ser and Val432Leu), GSTM1 (null), and GSTT1 (null) Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer Risk in a Turkish Population

  • Berber, Ufuk;Yilmaz, Ismail;Yilmaz, Omer;Haholu, Aptullah;Kucukodaci, Zafer;Ates, Ferhat;Demirel, Dilaver
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3925-3929
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    • 2013
  • We aimed to investigate bladder cancer risk with reference to polymorphic variants of cytochrome p450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1B1, glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, and GSTT1 genes in a case control study. Polymorphisms were examined in 114 bladder cancer patients and 114 age and sex-matched cancer-free subjects. Genotypes were determined using allele specific PCR for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 genes, and by multiplex PCR and melting curve analysis for GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Our results revealed a statistically significant increased bladder cancer risk for GSTT1 null genotype carriers with an odds ratio of 3.06 (95% confidence interval=1.39-6.74, p=0.006). Differences of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and GSTM1 genotype frequencies were not statistically significant between patients and controls. However, the specific combination of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and CYP1B1 codon 119 risk allele carriers and specific combination of GSTM1 present, GSTT1 null, and CYP1B1 432 risk allele carriers exhibited increased cancer risk in the combined analysis. We did not observe any association between different genotype groups and prognostic tumor characteristics of bladder cancer. Our results indicate that inherited absence of GSTT1 gene may be associated with bladder cancer susceptibility, and specific combinations of GSTM1, GSTT1 and CYP1B1 gene polymorphisms may modify bladder cancer risk in the Turkish population, without any association being observed for CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and bladder cancer risk.

CYP1B1 Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling through Suppression of Herc5-Mediated ISGylation for Protein Degradation on β-Catenin in HeLa Cells

  • Park, Young-Shin;Kwon, Yeo-Jung;Chun, Young-Jin
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2017
  • Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) acts as a hydroxylase for estrogen and activates potential carcinogens. Moreover, its expression in tumor tissues is much higher than that in normal tissues. Despite this association between CYP1B1 and cancer, the detailed molecular mechanism of CYP1B1 on cancer progression in HeLa cells remains unknown. Previous reports indicated that the mRNA expression level of Herc5, an E3 ligase for ISGylation, is promoted by CYP1B1 suppression using specific small interfering RNA, and that ISGylation may be involved in ubiquitination related to ${\beta}-catenin$ degradation. With this background, we investigated the relationships among CYP1B1, Herc5, and ${\beta}-catenin$. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that CYP1B1 overexpression induced and CYP1B1 inhibition reduced, respectively, the expression of $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling target genes including ${\beta}-catenin$ and cyclin D1. Moreover, HeLa cells were treated with the CYP1B1 inducer $7,12-dimethylbenz[{\alpha}]anthracene$ (DMBA) or the CYP1B1 specific inhibitor, tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) and consequently DMBA increased and TMS decreased ${\beta}-catenin$ and cyclin D1 expression, respectively. To determine the correlation between CYP1B1 expression and ISGylation, the expression of ISG15, a ubiquitin-like protein, was detected following CYP1B1 regulation, which revealed that CYP1B1 may inhibit ISGylation through suppression of ISG15 expression. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Herc5 were strongly suppressed by CYP1B1. Finally, an immunoprecipitation assay revealed a direct physical interaction between Herc5 and ${\beta}-catenin$ in HeLa cells. In conclusion, these data suggest that CYP1B1 may activate $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling through stabilization of ${\beta}-catenin$ protein from Herc5-mediated ISGylation for proteosomal degradation.

Effect of B-Ring-Oh Numbers of 5,7-Dihydroxyflavone on the Activity of Cyp1 Enzymes

  • Lee, Sang-Bum;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Hwan-Mook;Park, Young-In;Dong, Mi-Sook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.169-169
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    • 2003
  • CYP1 enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1, are known to bioactivate procarcinogens particularly polyaromatic compounds. Flavonoids are a class of natural compounds that are present in edible plants. Structurally, these compounds are polyphenols with two aromatic rings (A, B) and a heterocycyclic ring (C).(omitted)

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Purification and Characterization of the Rat Liver CYP2D1 and Utilization of Reconstituted CYP2D1 in Caffeine Metabolism

  • Chung, Woon-Gye;Cho, Myung-Haing;Cha, Young-Nam
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.13 no.1_2
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 1997
  • In order to assess the possibility whether CYP2D is involved in caffeine metabolism, we have purified and characterized the rat liver microsomal cytochrome P4502D1 (CYP2D1), equivalent to CYP2D6 in human liver, and have utilized the reconstituted CYP2D1 in the metabolism of 4 primary caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) metabolites such as paraxanthine (1, 7-dimethylxanthine), 1, 3, 7-trimethylurate, theophylline (1, 3-dimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine). Rat liver CYP 2D1 has been purified to a specific content of 8.98 nmole/mg protein (13.4fold purification, 1.5% yield) using $\omega$-aminooctylagarose, hydroxlapatite, and DE52 columns in a sequential manner. As judged from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the purified CYP2D1 was apparently homogeneous. Molecular weight of the purified CYP2D1 was found to be 51, 000 Da. Catalytic activity of the purified and then reconstituted CYP2D1 was confirmed by using bufuralol, a known subsFate of CYP2D1. The reconstituted CYP2D1 was found to produce to 1-hydroxylbufuralol at a rate of 1.43$\pm$0.13 nmol/min/nmol P450. The kinetic analysis of bufuralol hydroxylation indicated that Km and Vmax values were 7.32$\mu M$ and 1.64 nmol/min/nmol P450, respectively. The reconstituted CYP2D1 could catalyze the 7-demethylation of PX to 1-methylxanthine at a rate of 12.5 pmol/min/pmol, and also the 7- and 3- demethylations of 1, 3, 7-trimethylurate to 1, 3-dimethylurate and 1, 7-dimethylurate at 6.5 and 12.8 pmol/min/pmol CYP2D1, respectively. The reconstituted CYP2D1 could also 3-demethylate theophylline to 1-methylxanthine at 5 pmol/min/pmol and hydroxylate the theophylline to 1, 3-dimethylurate at 21.8 pmol/min/pmol CYP2D1. The reconstituted CYP2D1, however, did not metabolize TB at all (detection limits were 0.03 pmol/min/pmol). This study indicated that CYP2D1 is involved in 3-and 7-demethylations of paraxanthine and theophylline and suggested that CYP2D6 (equivalent to CYP2D1 in rat liver) present in human liver may be involved in the secondary metabolism of the primary metabolites of caffeine.

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