• Title, Summary, Keyword: CVM

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Closed vitrification of mouse oocytes using the CryoLogic vitrification method: A modification that improves developmental competence

  • Jo, Jun Woo;Jee, Byung Chul;Suh, Chang Suk;Kim, Seok Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To compare the mouse oocyte vitrification outcomes of the CryoLogic vitrification method (CVM) and the conventional open method using a Cryotop. Two CVM methods (original CVM and modified CVM) were tested. Methods: Mature oocytes obtained from female BDF-1 mice were vitrified by two-step exposure to equilibrium and vitrification solutions. Three vitrification protocols were tested on three groups: the CVM-kit, modified CVM, and Cryotop groups. After exposure to the two solutions, the oocytes were vitrified. After warming, the oocytes were fertilized in vitro, and the embryo development was assessed. Blastomeres positive for caspase were counted using an in situ assay kit. The spindle morphology and chromosome configurations of warmed vitrified oocytes were also assessed. Results: The modified CVM and Cryotop groups showed similar developmental capacities, and similar proportions of cells with intact spindles and chromosome configurations. The modified CVM protocol was superior to the original CVM protocol for developmental competence and intact spindle preservation. However, the CVM group showed a relatively higher number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Conclusion: Closed vitrification using the modified CVM protocol may be used as an alternative to the conventional open method, but strategies to decrease apoptosis in the blastomere need to be investigated.

The Effect of Circumvaginal Muscle Exercise on Sexual Function in Married Women (질회음 근육운동이 기혼여성의 성기능에 미치는 효과)

  • 이영숙
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.148-164
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    • 1996
  • The effect of circumvaginal muscle(CVM) exercises to improve sexual function in married women has not been investigated by currently acceptable research methods, nor have appropriate instruments and techniques to carry out such investigation been available. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of CVM exercise on sexual function, and of measuring CVM function after CVM exercises. The research tools used were a modified Derogates Sexual Function Inventory questionnaire and a pressure sensitive intravaginal balloon device. This research was conducted in Kwangju-city and Chonnam province, Korea from July, 1994 to July, 1995. The research used a non-equivalent control pre-post test quasi-experimental design. Forty-five healthy married female volunteers, aged 30-58, and were randomly assigned by age using the matching fixed-length blocks to two groups. The experimental group consisted of 21 women who were assigned a 25-minute per day CVM home exercise program for six weeks. The control group of 24 women did not do the CVM home exercises. The CVM home exercise was developed by Dougherty(1989a) and adopted to Korea by Lee (1993). Data were analyzed by $x^{2-}$test, Paired t-test, Spearman product-moment correlation using SAS /P $C^+. The results are summarized as follows : 1. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the subjects between the experimental and control groups before the CVM home exercises. 2. Hypothesis 1 that married women who participated in CVM home exercises would have higher mean scores on the sexual function(SF) than in those who did not participate in home exercise was supported. 3. Hypothesis 2 that married women who participated in CVM home exercises would have higher vaginal pressure on SF than in those who did not participate in home exercises was supported (mean maximum pressure, t=-7.338, P<.0001, peak maximum pressure, t=-11.164, P<.0001). 4. Hypothesis 3 that the more often(number of days) and the more frequent (numbers of time per day) that married women do CVM home exercise, the higher their mean scores on SF and vaginal pressures was supported(r=0.233, P<.01 ; r=0.352, P<.05). A six week CVM home exercise program using a tape recording showed that SF can be improved. Results of this study showed that married women who exercise on a regular basis for six weeks improve their sexual function and increase the mean vaginal pressure and peak maximum pressure (tested by electronic monitor). In conclusion, CVM exercise is effective in increasing SF.SF.

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THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CORRELATION ON HAND-WRIST WITH CERVICAL VERTEBRAE FOR SKELETAL MATURATION IN MIXED DENTITION CHILDREN WITH NORMAL OCCLUSION (혼합치열기 정상교합아동의 수완부골과 경추골의 성숙도 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Myoung-Gook;Yang, Kyu-Ho;Choi, Nam-Ki;Kim, Seon-Mi;Kim, Jee-Soo
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of study is for the certified correlations of hand-wrist radiograph with cervical vertebrae for skeletal maturation in children. Normal evaluation devices of growth stage is sexual feature, biological age, tooth development stage, height and weight. Evaluation of growth potential is very important for childhood and puberty. The skeletal developmental stages were evaluated by using the hand-wrist radiograph and cephalometric radiograph that obtained from 6 to 18 years old children. 1. Chronologic age was not more suitable indicator of skeletal development compared to Skeletal Maturity Indicators(SMI) and Cervical Vertebrae Maturation(CVM) stages. 2. SMI and CVM stages for females occurred earlier than that for male. 3. SMI 1 and 2 stages were corresponded to CVM 1; SMI 3,4 = CVM 2; SMI 5,6 = CVM 3. 4. Reproducibility and reliability of observer for SMI and CVM were excellent. This results suggest CVM stage is comparable to SMI stage in terms of evaluating the skeletal development.

The Comparative Study of Public Library Valuation Using CVM: Case of the Payment Vehicles (조건부가치측정법(Contingent Valuation Methods)을 적용한 공공도서관 가치의 비교 연구: 지불수단을 중심으로)

  • Pyo, Soon-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.173-191
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    • 2012
  • CVM (Contingent Valuation Method) has been most widely used for valuation of public libraries. However, there have been a debate on the validity of CVM in that many kind of biases could exist due to its hypothetical nature, the type of questions, payment vehicles and so on. To ensure the validity and reliability of public library valuation, this study analyzed the effects of payment vehicles to valuation using CVM. Three types of payment vehicle, tax, donation, fee were used to pay in hypothetical market. As a result, these payment vehicles estimated the different WTP and donation produced 14,542 won, which is the highest WTP.

Semiparametric Evaluation of Environmental Goods: Local Linear Model Approach

  • Jeong, Ki-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2003
  • Contingent valuation method (CVM) is a main evaluation method of nonmarket goods for which markets either do not exist at all or do exist only incompletely; an example is environmental good. A dichotomous choice approach, the most popular type of CVM in environmental economics, employs binary discrete choice models as statistical estimation models. In this paper, we propose a semiparametric dichotomous choice CVM method using local linear model of Fan and Gijbels (1996) in which probability distribution of error term is specified parametrically but latent structural function is specified nonparametrically. The computation procedures of the proposed method are illustrated with a simple design of simulations.

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A Study for Benefit Calculation of Bicycle Roadway Construction using Contingent Valuation Method (조건부 가치측정법(CVM)을 이용한 자전거도로 건설에 따른 편익 산출에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Yong Seok;Lee, Jin Kak;Son, Young Tae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.26 no.6D
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    • pp.945-950
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    • 2006
  • In implementing transportation projects, benefits have been estimated using conventional benefit components. However, these components have a lot of assumptions and limitations for benefit estimations and thus it seems to be difficult to obtain values of parameters as well as to overlook benefits of non-market goods in calculation process. In other words, current benefit estimations are considered that can be solely measured by directly depending on traffic volumes. Existing economic analysis do not reflect the full benefits, including direct and indirect of the project implementations. To illustrate this fact, bicycle road construction can result in various functional benefits, including improved quality of life, balanced regional development, and good scenery composition. These benefits can not be explained with conventional economic analysis. The objective of this research is to estimate valuation of bicycle road construction using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). CVM can evaluate user's direct willingness-to-pay as well as maximize bicycle utilization with balanced regional development. This research used the coastline bicycle road construction project for example. The proposed method can be well calculated or estimated benefits for non-market goods of bicycle road constructions using CVM.

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Design and Implementation of GUI in CVM on Real-Time Operating System, iRTOS (실시간 운영체제에서 iRTOS에서의 CVM GUI 설계 및 구현)

  • Choi, chan-woo;Lee, cheol-hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.551-554
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    • 2008
  • JVM(Java Virtual Machine) has GUI(Graphical User Interface) facility and Platform Independance and is used on the embedded device such as set-top box and smart phone. This needs JVM to execute Java application in the embedded device. CVM(Classic Virtual Machine) which is the kind of JVM is designed for embedded device to have limited resources. To support GUI facility of JAVA uses PBP(Personal Basis Profile) which is included on CVM. The PBP defines the GUI Stardard API to support GUI facility. When the GUI Stardard API is implemented, JNI(Java Native Interface) is used to connect between Java Native Method and Native function in Operating System. In this pater, PBP which is defined by CVM has designed and implemented on the Real-Time Operating System, iRTOS.

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Design and Implementation of CVM on Real-Time Operating System, UbiFOSTM (실시간 운영체제 UbiFOSTM에서의 CVM 설계 및 구현)

  • Choi, chan-woo;Lee, cheol-hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Contents Association Conference
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    • pp.812-816
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    • 2007
  • Having been speedy development of the IT industry, devices such as set-top box and smart phone are used in the broad filed. Because Java has merits that are platform independency, security and mobility, that is important software platform to offer stable services in the small device. This needs JVM(Java Virtual Machine) to execute Java application in the small device. CVM(Classic Virtual Machine) which is the kind of JVM is designed for embedded device to have limited resources. In this paper, CVM which is defined by CDC has designed and implemented on the Real-Time Operating System, UbiFOS$^{TM}$.

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Evaluation of a Conjugate View Method for Determination of Kidney Uptake (신장 방사선 섭취량 결정을 위한 Conjugate View 방법에 대한 평가)

  • Bong, Jung-Kyun;Yun, Mi-Jin;Lee, Jong-Doo;Kim, Hee-Joung;Son, Hye-Kyung;Kwon, Yun-Youug;Park, Hae-Jeong;Kim, Yu-Seun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.191-199
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: In order to obtain better quantitation of kidney uptake, this study is to evaluate a conjugate view method (CVM) using a geometric mean attenuation correction for kidney uptake and to compare it to Gate's method. Materials & Methods: We used a Monte Carlo code, SIMIND and a Zubal phantom, to simulate kidney uptake. SIMIND was both simulated with or without scatter for the Zubal phantom. Also, a real phantom test was carried out using a dual-head gamma camera. The activity of 0.5 mCi was infused into two small cylinder phantoms of 5 cm diameter, and then, they were inserted into a cylinder phantom of 20 cm diameter. The results by the CVM method were compared with ideal data without both of attenuation and scatter and with Gate's method. The CVM was performed with or without scatter correction. The Gate's method was performed without scatter correction and it was evaluated with regards to $0.12cm^{-1}\;and\;0.15cm^{-1}$ attenuation coefficients. Data were analyzed with comparisons of mean counts in the legions of interest (ROI), profiles drawn over kidney images and linear regression. Correlation coefficients were calculated with ideal data, as well. Results: In the case of the computer simulation, mean counts measured from ideal data, the CVM and the Gate's method were (right $998{\pm}209$, left: $896{\pm}249$), (right: $911{\pm}207$, left: $815{\pm}265$), and (right: $1065{\pm}267$, left: $1546{\pm}267$), respectively. The ideal data showed good correlation with the CVM and the correlation coefficients of the CVM, Gate's method were (right: 0.91, left: 0.93) and (right: 0.85, left: 0.90), respectively. Conclusion: The conjugate view method using geometric mean attenuation correction resulted in better accuracy than the Gate's method. In conclusion, the conjugate view method independent of renal depths may provide more accurate kidney uptake.

Implementation of Successive Approximate Register typed A/D Converter for a Monitored Battery Voltage Conversion (모니터링된 배터리 전압 변환을 위한 SAR typed A/D 컨버터의 제작)

  • Kim, Seong-Kweon;Lee, Kyung-Ryang;Yeo, Sung-Dae;Hong, Justin S.Y.;Park, Yong-Eun
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, a design and an implementation of an Analog to Digital (A/D) converter are introduced for the conversion of monitored battery cell voltage in the cell voltage monitoring(CVM) system in battery management system(BMS), which is one of the key devices of ECO hybrid cars. The A/D converter in CVM system required a middle conversion speed and a high resolution, therefore, a successive approximate register(SAR) typed A/D converter with 10 bits resolution has been designed and implemented using Magna 0.6um 40V process. The measurement result which kept ${\pm}1$ LSB accuracy in the full scale range(FSR) of 5V, showed the usefulness of the SAR typed A/D converter in realizing a CVM system.