• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSTR

Search Result 104, Processing Time 0.045 seconds

Degradation of energetic compounds using an integrated zero-valent iron-Fenton process

  • Oh Seok-Young;Kim Byung J.;Chiu Pei C.;Cha Daniel K.
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.493-500
    • /
    • 2003
  • The effect of reductive treatment with elemental iron on the extent of mineralization by Fenton oxidation was studied for the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) using a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results support the hypothesis that TNT and RDX are reduced with elemental iron to products that are oxidized more rapidly and completely by Fenton's reagent. Iron pretreatment enhanced the extent of TOC removal by approximately $20\%\;and\;60\%$ for TNT and RDX, respectively. Complete TOC removal was achieved for TNT and RDX solutions with iron pretreatment under optimal conditions. On the other hand, without iron pretreatment, complete mineralization of TNT and RDX solutions were not achieved even with much higher $H_2O_2$ and $Fe^{2+}$ concentrations. The bench-scale iron treatment-Fenton oxidation integrated system showed more than $95\%$ TOC removal for TNT and RDX solutions under optimal conditions. The proposed zero-valent iron-Fenton process was evaluated with pink water from the Iowa Army ammunition plant. Results from batch and column experiments show that TNT, RDX, and octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) were completely removed from the pink water and that triaminotoluene (TAT) and ${NH_4}^+$ were recovered as products in reduction with zero-valent iron. By using an integrated system, $83.3\pm4.2\%$ of TOC was removed in a CSTR with 10 mM of $Fe^{2+}$ and 50 mM of $H_2O_2$. These results suggest that the reduction products of TNT and RDX are more rapidly and completely mineralized by Fenton oxidation and that a sequential iron treatment-Fenton oxidation process may be a viable technology for pink water treatment.

  • PDF

Surface Reaction Modeling for Plasma Etching of SiO2 Thin Film (실리콘 산화막의 플라즈마 식각에 대한 표면반응 모델링)

  • Im, YeonHo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.44 no.5
    • /
    • pp.520-527
    • /
    • 2006
  • A realistic surface model is presented for prediction of various surface phenomena such as polymer deposition, suppression and sputtering as a function of incidence ion energy in high density fluorocarbon plasmas. This model followed ion enhanced etching model using the "well-mixed" or continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) assumption to the surface reaction zone. In this work, we suggested ion enhanced polymer formation and decomposition mechanisms that can capture $SiO_2$ etching through a steady-state polymer film on $SiO_2$ under the suppression regime. These mechanisms were derived based on experimental data and molecular dynamic simulation results from literatures. The model coefficients are obtained from fits to available beam and plasma experimental data. In order to show validity of our model, we compared the model results to high density fluorocarbon plasma etching data.

Development of RTD Model of the Mixer-Settler-Type Extractor Using the Stimulus-Response Method (자극-반응법(反應法)을 이용(利用)한 혼합침강형(混合沈降型) 추출장치(抽出裝置)의 RTD 모델 개발(開發))

  • Lee, Jin-Young;Kim, Joon-Soo;Lee, Hoo-In;Sohn, Jeong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.65-70
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study presents the findings of the experiments that were conducted on single- and multi-stage solvent extractors using the stimulus-response method, with the am of identifying flow characteristics of the material inside the mixer-settler-type extractor. The results of this study show that the response characteristics of a single-stage mixer is the same as that of a completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and that the lag time of a mixer-settler-type extractor increases with the number of its extraction stages. The experimental data for the single- and multiple-stage extractors were analyzed using K-RTD, a response analysis program, to obtain a retention time distribution (RTD) model of one-stage and four-stage extractors. The correlation coefficient between the calculated values and the experimental data was 0.963 for the one-stage extractor and 0.995 for the four-stage extractor, showing quite a good correlation.

The Effect of Chlorinated Ethenes and Electron Donor on VC Dehalogenation Rate (염화에텐류 화합물 및 전자공여체가 VC 탈염소화 속도에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Jae-Ho;Lee, Il-Su;Park, Young-Koo;Semprini, Lewis
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.436-443
    • /
    • 2007
  • Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of perchloroethene (PCE) was studied with lactate as the electron donor in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) inoculated with a mixed culture previously shown to dehalogenate vinyl chloride (VC). cis-1,2- dichloroethene (cDCE) was the dominant intermediate at relatively long cell retention times (>56 days) and the electron acceptor to electron donor molar ratio (PCE:lactate) of 1:2. cDCE was transformed to VC completely at the PCE to lactate molar ratio of 1:4, and the final products of PCE dehalogenation were VC (80%) and ethene (20%). VC dehalogenation was inhibited by cDCE dehalogenation. Propionate produced from the fermentation of lactate might be used as electron donor for the dehalogenation. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of increased hydrogen, VC, and trichloroethene (TCE) on VC dehalogenation which is the rate-limiting step in PCE dehalogenation The addition of TCE increased the VC dehalogenaiton rate more than an increase in the $H_2$ concentration, which suggests that the introduction of TCE induces the production of an enzyme that can comtabolize VC.

Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in Continuous Reactors (연속흐름반응기에서 바이오디젤 제조 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Deog-Keun;Lee, Jin-Suk;Park, Ji-Yeon;Park, Soon-Chul
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.589-593
    • /
    • 2007
  • 재생 가능한 자원인 동식물성 기름을 원료로 제조되는 수송용 연료 바이오디젤은 낮은 대기오염물질 배출과 $CO_2$ Neutral 특성으로 환경친화적인 연료로 인정을 받으며 전세계적으로 그 생산량이 급격히 증가하고 있다. 대부분의 상용화 공정은 염기촉매를 이용한 전이에스테르화 반응에 근거하고 있으며 높은 생산성을 위해 연속 공정을 채택하고 있다. 원료유 중의 유리지방산(free fatty acid, FFA)은 염기 촉매와 반응하여 지방산염(Soap)과 수분을 생성하며 반응촉매의 투입양을 증가시카고 반응 후에 글리세롤과 지방산 메틸에스테르와의 분리를 어렵게 만든다. 높은 수율과 후속공정의 부하를 줄이기 위해서는 식물성 원료유 중의 FFA는 고체 산촉매 하에서 메탄올과 에스테르화 반응시켜 전환 제거되어야 한다. 본 연구에서는 고체산 촉매인 Amberlyst-15을 충전한 4단 PBR(Packed Bed Reactor, 충전율 60%(v/v))에서 반응시간과 반응온도에 따른 대두원유의 전처리 효율을 조사하였으며 최적 전처리 조건을 도출하였다. 최적 전처리 조건에서 대두원유는 초기 산가 1.6에서 0.4-0.6으로 연속 전처리할 수 있었다. 본 연구에서는 연속 흐름 반응기인 PFR(Plug Flow Reactor)와 4단 CSTR(Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor)에서 균질계 촉매인 KOH 존재하에 대두유와 메탄올과의 전이에스테르화 반응 특성을 조사하였으며 각 연속 반응시스템에서 최적 운전 조건을 도출하였다. PFR 반응기에서 반응온도, 반응시간, 반응물 흐름방향, static mixer(SM) 개수에 따른 반응특성을 조사한 결과, PFR에서의 최적 반응조건은 하향류 흐름 방향과 3개의 SM를 설치한 조건에서 반응시간 5.8분, 반응온도 90$^{\cdot}C$, 메탄올:오일 몰비 9:1, KOH 농도 0.8%로 도출되었다. CSTR 반응기에서는 반응온도와 체류시간에 따른 반응특성을 조사하였으며 최적반응 조건으로 반응온도 80$^{\cdot}C$, 메탄올/오일 몰비 9:1, KOH 농도 0.8%, 체류시간 18.4분, 교반속도 250rpm로 조사되었다.

  • PDF

Design of Denitrification Reactor by Using Permeabilized and Immobilized Paracoccus denitrificans (Permeabilized Paracoccus denitrificans를 이용한 고정화 균주의 탈질화 반응기 설계)

  • Yun, Mi-Sun;Song, Ju-Yeong;Park, Keun-Ho
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.100-105
    • /
    • 2005
  • Removal of nitrogen compound from waste water is essential and often accomplished by biological process. Denitrification bacterium, Paracoccus denitrificans (KCTC 2350) is employed to estimate the denitrification ability and the characteristics. In the immobilized biological reactor system, the measurement of absolute amount of active strain in the reactor is comparatively difficult or impossible. In this. study, a reactor was designed with the unwoven texture wrapped peep holed plastic tube to calculate the absolute amount of active strain by comparing the activity of the permeabilized and or immobilized reactor and the free cell reactor The reactor system was continuous stirred tank reactor and the reaction rate of substrate consumption was assumed to satisfy the Michaelis-Menten equation. The effluent concentration of nitrate and nitrite was measured to estimate the apparent parameter of Michaelis-Menten equation. As a result, we found that the amount of immobilized active strain was figured out to be half of the total active strain in the reactor and the time required to be reached in the equilibrium state in the permeabilized and or immobilized reactor system was figured out to be shorter than that of the free cell reactor system.

GA-Based Design of a Nonlinear PID Controller and Application to a CSTR Process (GA 기반의 비선형 PID 제어기 설계 및 CSTR 프로세스에 응용)

  • Lee, Joo-Yeon;So, Gun-Baek;Lee, Yun-Hyung;So, Myung-Ok;Jin, Gang-Gyoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
    • /
    • v.39 no.6
    • /
    • pp.633-641
    • /
    • 2015
  • Several complex processes that are employed in industries, such as shipping, power plants, and the petrochemical industry, involve time-varying behavior as well as strong nonlinear behavior during operation. The fixed-parameter proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers have difficulty in dealing with control problems that occur in such processes. In this paper, we propose a method of designing a nonlinear PID controller for industrial processes that exhibit a large number of nonlinearities and time-varying behavior. The gains of the nonlinear PID controller are characterized by a simple nonlinear function of the error and/or error rate depending on the process set-point and output. We tune the user-defined parameters using a genetic algorithm by minimizing the integral of time absolute error (ITAE) index. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing a comparison of the proposed method and two other nonlinear and adaptive methods that are employed for reference tracking, disturbance-rejection performances, and robustness to parameter changes on a continuously stirred tank reactor.

Analysis of Microbial Communities in Biofilms from CSTR-Type Hollow Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactors for Autotrophic Nitrification and Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification

  • Shin, Jung-Hun;Kim, Byung-Chun;Choi, Okkyoung;Kim, Hyunook;Sang, Byoung-In
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.25 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1670-1679
    • /
    • 2015
  • Two hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactors (HF-MBfRs) were operated for autotrophic nitrification and hydrogenotrophic denitrification for over 300 days. Oxygen and hydrogen were supplied through the hollow fiber membrane for nitrification and denitrification, respectively. During the period, the nitrogen was removed with the efficiency of 82-97% for ammonium and 87-97% for nitrate and with the nitrogen removal load of 0.09-0.26 kg NH4+-N/m3/d and 0.10-0.21 kg NO3--N/m3/d, depending on hydraulic retention time variation by the two HF-MBfRs for autotrophic nitrification and hydrogenotrophic denitrification, respectively. Biofilms were collected from diverse topological positions in the reactors, each at different nitrogen loading rates, and the microbial communities were analyzed with partial 16S rRNA gene sequences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Detected DGGE band sequences in the reactors were correlated with nitrification or denitrification. The profile of the DGGE bands depended on the NH4+ or NO3- loading rate, but it was hard to find a major strain affecting the nitrogen removal efficiency. Nitrospira-related phylum was detected in all biofilm samples from the nitrification reactors. Paracoccus sp. and Aquaspirillum sp., which are an autohydrogenotrophic bacterium and an oligotrophic denitrifier, respectively, were observed in the denitrification reactors. The distribution of microbial communities was relatively stable at different nitrogen loading rates, and DGGE analysis based on 16S rRNA (341f /534r) could successfully detect nitrate-oxidizing and hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria but not ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the HF-MBfRs.

Modeling and Simulation on a Direct Esterification Reactor for PET Polymerization and energy analysis (PET 직접 에스테르화 중합 반응기의 모델링 및 시뮬레이션과 에너지적 분석)

  • 김주열;권태인;여영구
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society for Simulation Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.67-72
    • /
    • 2000
  • PET는 합성섬유, 필름, 음료수병, 성형 플라스틱 등의 다양한 용도를 가지고 있으며 특히 섬유 원료부분에서는 전세계의 약 40%이상을 차지하고 있는 상업적 입장에서 아주 중요한 소재이다.[1]그러나, PET 제조공정은 긴 반응시간과 높은 반응온도, 대용량의 다단계 공정시설을 필요로 하는 대표적인 에너지 다소비 공정으로서 현대의 치열한 고분자 제품의 시장경쟁 상황에서 에너지 투입량 감축을 위한 공정의 해석 및 개발과 그로 인한 생산원가의 절감이 필수적이다. 본 연구에서는 실제 공장에서 사용되는 단일 연속식 직접 에스테르화 반응기(CSTR Direct Esterification Reactor)를 모델링하고 Van Krevelen[2]의 Group contribution method로 계산된 올리고머의 열용량값을 이용하여 에너지 소모량을 계산하였다. 모델링 결과는 모두 실제 공장의 자료와 비교되었으며 가장 제어하기 쉬운 변수에 따른 반응물의 물성과 에너지 소모량을 분석하였다. 또한 압력이 일정한 조건 하에서 입력변화에 따른 반응기의 동적 모델링을 동시에 수행하였으며 투입에너지량과 반응기의 운전지표와의 관계를 분석하였다. 이러한 연구는 실제 공정분석과 최적화에 있어서 소모 에너지량을 고려한 보다 정확한 지표를 제시하고 에너지 사용의 효율성을 높이는 데 기여할 수 있다.

  • PDF

Multiple-Fault Diagnosis for Chemical Processes Based on Signed Digraph and Dynamic Partial Least Squares (부호유향그래프와 동적 부분최소자승법에 기반한 화학공정의 다중이상진단)

  • 이기백;신동일;윤인섭
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.159-167
    • /
    • 2003
  • This study suggests the hybrid fault diagnosis method of signed digraph (SDG) and partial least squares (PLS). SDG offers a simple and graphical representation for the causal relationships between process variables. The proposed method is based on SDG to utilize the advantage that the model building needs less information than other methods and can be performed automatically. PLS model is built on local cause-effect relationships of each variable in SDG. In addition to the current values of cause variables, the past values of cause and effect variables are inputted to PLS model to represent the Process armies. The measured value and predicted one by dynamic PLS are compared to diagnose the fault. The diagnosis example of CSTR shows the proposed method improves diagnosis resolution and facilitates diagnosis of masked multiple-fault.