• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSTR

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Knowledge-Based Unmanned Automation and Control Systems for the Wastewater Treatment Processes (하.폐수 처리장의 원격 모니터링 및 지식 기반 무인 자동화 시스템)

  • Bae, Hyeon;Jung, Jae-Ryong;Seo, Hyun-Yong;Kim, Sung-Shin;Kim, Chang-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.56-59
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, unmaned fully automation systems are applied for the CSTR(Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor) and, SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) wastewater treatment pilot plant. This plant is constructed in the country side which is little far from a main city. So networks and wireless modules are employed for the data transmission. The SBR plant has a local control and monitoring system which is contained communication parts which consist of one ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) network and one CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) module. Remote control and monitoring systems are constructed at a laboratory in a metropolis.

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가스상 TCE 처리를 위한 추출막 생물반응기의 수학적 모사

  • Kim, Ji-Seok;Kim, Gwan-Su;Jang, Deok-Jin
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.370-373
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    • 2000
  • In this work, an extractive membrane bioreactor containing coulture broth of Burkholderia cepacia G4 PR1 constitutively expressing the TCE-degrading enzyme, tolune-ortho-monooxygenase(TOM), was used for the degradation of TCE. The membrane bioreactor operates by seperating the TCE-containing waste gas from the aerated biomedium, by which the air-stripping of TCE without degradation was overcome that could occur in conventional aerobic biological treatments of TCE-contaminated waste gases. This was achieved by a silicone rubber membrane which was coiled around a perspex draft tube. TCE from the gas phase diffuses across the silicone rubber membrane into microbial culture broth that was continuously fed from a separate aerobic CSTR. Therefore, TCE degradation occured without the TCE being directly exposed to the aerating gas stream. Of the TCE supplied to the membrane bioreactor, 72.6% was biodegraded during the operation of this system. To construct a mathematical model for this system, parameters describing microbial growth kinetics on TCE were determined using a CSTR bioreactor. Else parameters used for numerical simulation were determined from either indepedent experiments or values reported in the literature. The model was compared with the experimental data, and there was a good agreement between the predicted and the measured TCE concentrations in the system. To achieve a higher treatment efficiency, various operating conditions were simulated as well.

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The Kinetics of Radical Copolyerization of ${\alpha}$-Methylstyrene with Acrylonitrile in a CSTR (연속반응기에서 ${\alpha}$-Methylstyrene과 Acrylonitrile 라디칼 공중합 속도론)

  • Kim, Nam-Seok;Park, Keun-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.33-42
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    • 2002
  • Copolymerization of ${\alpha}$-Methylstyrene(AMS) with Acrylonitrile(AN) was carried out with benzoylperoxide(BPO) as an initiator in toluene at $80^{\circ}C$ in a continuous stirred tank reactor. Reaction volume and residence time were 0.6 liters and 3 hours, respectively. The monomer reactivity ratios, $r_{AMS}$ and $r_{AN}$ determined by both the Kele$T{\"{u}}d\"{o}s$ method and the Fineman-Ross method were $r_{AMS}$=0.16(0.14), $r_{AN}$=0.04(0.06). The cross-termination factor ${\Phi}$ of the copolymer over the entire AMS composition ranged from 0.75 to 0.92. The ${\Phi}$ factors of poly(AMS-co-AN) were increased with increasing AMS content. The simulated conversions and copolymerization rates were compared with the experimental results. It was observed that the average time to reach dynamic steady-state was three times the residence time.

음식물쓰레기와 폐활성 슬러지를 이용한 생물학적 수소생산

  • Sang, Byeong-In;Lee, Yun-Ji;Kim, Dong-Im;Kim, Dong-Geon;Kim, Ji-Seong;Yu, Myeong-Jin;Park, Dae-Won
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2005
  • Anaerobic fermentation of food waste (FW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production was performed in CSTR (Continuous Stirred tank reactor) under various HRTs and volumetric mixing ratio (V/V) of two substrates, FW and WAS. The specific hydrogen production potential of FW was higher than that of WAS. However, pH drop in the CSTR for hydrogen production from FW was higher than that from WAS. The maintenance of desired pH during fermentative hydrogen production is regarded as the most important operation parameter for the stable hydrogen production. Therefore, when the potential of hydrogen production from FW and better buffer capacity of WAS, the proper mixture of FW and WAS for fermentative hydrogen production were considered as a useful complementary substrate. The maximum yield of specific hydrogen production, 140 mL/g VSS, was found at HRT of 2 day and the volumetric mixing ratio of 20:80 (WAS : FW). The spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria was observed in anaerobic fermentative reactor using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method.

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Evaluation of Removal Efficiencies of Heavy Metals Using Brown Seaweed Biosorbent Under Different Biosorption Systems (폐미역을 이용한 생물흡착 시스템별 중금속 제거 효율 평가)

  • Choi, Ik-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kim, Sung-Un;Kang, Se-Won;Lee, Jun-Bae;Lim, Byung-Jin;Kang, Seok-Jin;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Heavy-metal pollution represents an important environmental problem due to the toxic effects of metals, and their accumulation throughout the food chain leads to serious ecological and health problems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optimum conditions in continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and packedbed column contactor (PBCC) using brown seaweed biosorbent were investigated. Under optimum conditions from both lab-scale biosorbent systems, removal efficiency of copper (Cu) in a large-scale PBCC system was investigated. Removal capacity of Cu using brown seaweed biosorbent in a lab-scale CSTR system was higher than that in a lab-scale PBCC system. On the other hand, over 48 L/day of flow rate in Cu solution, removal efficiency of Cu in a lab-scale PBCC system was higher than that in a lab-scale CSTR system. Optimum flow rate of Cu was 24 L/day, optimum Cu solution concentration was 100 mg/L. Removal capacity of Cu at different stages was higher in the order of double column biosorption system > single column biosorption system. Under different heavy metals, removal capacities of heavy metal were higher in the order of Pb > Cr > Ni > Mn ${\geq}$ Cu ${\geq}$ Cd ${\fallingdotseq}$ Zn ${\geq}$ Co. Removal capacity of Cu was 138 L in a large-scale PBCC system. Removal capacity of Cu a large-scale PBCC system was similar with in a lab-scale PBCC system. CONCLUSION(s): Therefore, PBCC system using brown seaweed biosorbent was suitable for treating heavy metal wastewater.

Characteristics of Anaerobic Acid Fermentation with Food waste leachate by Reactor Type of Retention Time for Landfill Site Injection (매립지 주입을 위한 음폐수 산발효 시 반응기 형태와 체류시간에 따른 특성)

  • Moon, Kwangseok;Kim, Jaehyung;Koo, Hyemin;Lim, Junhyuk;Kim, Nakjoo;Chang, Wonseok;Pak, Daewon
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2014
  • In order to increase landfill gas (LFG) production with food waste leachate, this study was confirmed to be acidogenetic conditions for landfill site injection. Thereby, it was conducted for acidogenetic treatments to determine the decrease in viscosity and VFA production. After acidogenesis treatments, solubility of food waste leachate increased approximately 15%, and as a result, UASB and CSTR were similar by reactor type using the change of retention time. Based on the result of the change in viscosity by reactor type, efficiency of UASB showed approximately 11.38% of higher decrease in viscosity as $76.95{\pm}3.27%$ vs. CSTR. Also, VFA production showed the higher increase of 2.01 times (UASB) and 1.76 times (CSTR) respectively at the point of increasing retention time from 3 to 5 days. From the above results, efficiency of UASB in a reactor was relatively higher because large molecular lead to longer retention time than small molecular due to having screen effect in the fixed media.

Control of chaos in nonlinear chemical reactor

  • Lee, Joon-Suh;Yang, Dae-Ryook;Lee, In-Beum;Chang, Kun-Soo
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.48-53
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    • 1993
  • In this paper, it is shown that chaotic nonlinear chemical process can be controlled based on the Poincare map based control algorithm. An isothermal autocatalytic CSTR, which has chaotic dynamics, is successfully controlled and period 2 orbit is generated in a normal chaotic region with small perturbation of the control parameter.

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Modeling and controller design for a continuous copolymerization reactor (연속식 공중합 반응기의 모델링 및 제어기 설계)

  • 황우현;이현구
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.788-791
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    • 1996
  • A mathematical model is developed for thermal solution copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile in a continuous stirred tank reactor(CSTR). Computational studies are carried out with the continuous copolymerization system model developed in this work to give the monomer conversion, copolymer composition and the average molecular weights of the copolymer. By performing the dynamic analysis of the reaction system, the polymer properties against the changes in the operating conditions are determined quantitatively. The cascade PID and fuzzy controller show satisfactory performances for both set point tracking and disturbance rejection. Especially, the fuzzy controller is superior to the PID controller.

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On interfacing model predictive controllers with low-level loops

  • Lee, Yongho;Park, Sunwon;Lee, Jay H.
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.301-304
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    • 1997
  • Two options arising during implementation of an advanced model-based control system on a process with low-level loops are discussed. Strengths and deficiencies of the options are examined and methods to overcome the deficiencies are proposed. Simulation results of a CSTR and distillation column are presented to demonstrate the performance improvements.

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The Excitability by Both Electric and Concentrative Perturbation in CSTR

  • Bae, Jeong Min;Cho, Ung In
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.8
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    • pp.1145-1148
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    • 2006
  • Excitability is one of the basic and fundamental mechanisms utilized for signal transmission in living organisms. With reference to the condition by Marek and the condition by Schneider, we found a condition in which excitability with similar shapes can appear by chemical and electric perturbation. Our condition is constructed with 3 chemical channels and 1 electric channel, and can be used as a condition for a chemical spiking neuron and as a unit of a chemical spiking neural network.