• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSL

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Statistical Optimization of Production Medium for Enhanced Production of Succinic Acid Produced by Anaerobic Fermentations of Actinobacillus succinogenes (Actinobacillus succinogenes의 혐기성배양에 의해 생합성 되는 숙신산의 생산성 향상을 위한 통계적 생산배지 최적화)

  • Park, Sang-Min;Chun, Gie-Taek
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.165-178
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    • 2014
  • Statistical medium optimization has been carried out for the production of succinic acid in anaerobic fermentations of Actinobacillus succinogenes. Succinic acid utilized as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals is a fourcarbon dicarboxylic acid, biosynthesized as one of the fermentation products of anaerobic metabolism by A. succinogenes. Through OFAT (one factor at a time) experiments, corn steep liquor (CSL), a very cheap agricultural byproduct, was found to have significant effects on enhanced production of succinic acid, when supplemented along with yeast extract. Hence, using these factors including glucose as a carbon/energy source, interactive effects were investigated through $2^n$ full factorial design (FFD) experiments, showing that the concentration of each component (i.e., glucose, yeast extract and CSL) should be higher. Further statistical experiments were conducted along the steepest ascent path, followed by response surface method (RSM) in order to find out optimal concentrations of each constituent. Consequently, optimized concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and CSL were observed to be 180 g/L, 15.08 g/L and 20.75 g/L respectively (10 g/L of $NaHCO_3$ and 100 g/L of $MgCO_3$ to be supplemented as bicarbonate suppliers), with the estimated production level of succinic acid to be 92.9 g/L (about 3.5 fold higher productivity as compared to the initial medium). Notably, the RSM-estimated production level was almost similar to the amount of succinic acid (92.9 g/L vs. 89.1 g/L) produced through the actual fermentation process performed using the statistically optimized production medium.

Regional Differences in Onion Bulb Quality and Nutrient Content, and the Correlation Between Bulb Characteristics and Storage Loss

  • Lee, Jongtae;Ha, Injong;Kim, Heedae;Choi, Silim;Lee, Sangdae;Kang, jumsoon;Boyhan, George E.
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.807-817
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    • 2016
  • Many onion growers and researchers assert that differences in soil type, agricultural practices, weather, and duration of prolonged onion cultivation in a particular field could affect onion bulb quality. This study evaluates the bulb quality of onions grown in different regions and determines the correlations between bulb characteristics and postharvest loss during cold and ambient storage. Soil and onion bulbs were collected from fields in six onion growing regions in Korea, during the growing season of 2011-2012. The fresh weight, dry matter content, and carbon (C), sulfur and magnesium contents of the onion bulbs were significantly affected by the location in which they were grown. Bulbs grown in Muan had the greatest number of scales, thinnest scale thickness, and the highest total soluble solids (TSS) and total flavonoids (TF). Bulbs originating from Jecheon had the lowest pyruvic acid (PA), total phenolics and TF. Storage loss of bulbs from the different regions was similar in refrigerated storage, but differed in ambient temperature storage. Bulb fresh weight was positively correlated with scale thickness (r = 0.617) and cold storage loss (CSL; r = 0.398). Dry matter content was positively correlated with C (r = 0.958) and TF (r = 0.256) contents, while it was negatively correlated with CSL (r = -0.424). CSL was primarily affected by the fresh weight, as well as the dry matter, C, and PA contents of the bulbs, while ambient storage loss was primarily influenced by the amount of TSS.

Development of Composite Flours and Their Products Utilizing Domestic Raw Materials - II. Bread-making Test with Composite Flours - (국산원료(國産原料)를 활용(活用)한 복합분(複合粉) 및 제품개발(製品開發)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 제 2 보 복합분(複合粉)을 이용(利用)한 제빵시험(試驗) -)

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Kim, Yong-Hui;Woo, Chang-Myung;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.16-24
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    • 1973
  • Breads were made from composite flours based on domestic resources and their quality was assessed to obtain the following results. 1) When barley bread was made according to the formula for standard wheat bread, its specific loaf volume (SLV) was quite low (1.3 at 100% addition of water) in comparison with 3.3 for wheat bread. Addition of 10% defatted soy flour increased its SLV to 1.7 (at 100% water). Among various flour-improving additives, the use of 1.5% GMS + 0.5% CSL gave best results (SLV: 2.0 at 100% water). Admixture of wheat flour with the composite flour based on barley was most effective. Replacement of barley flour with 25% wheat flour gave SLV of 2.8 (at 90% water) and that with 50% wheat flour gave SLV of 3.2 (at 90% water), comparable to standard wheat bread with respect to loaf volume, color and texture. 2) Sweet potato bread had the characteristics of turning black-brown on baking. Use of 20% defatted soy flour and GMS + CSL gave higher SLV (1.9 at 100% water). Addition of wheat flour at 25% or 50% level to the composite flour based on sweet potato flour gave SLV of 2.3 and 2.6, respectively, at 90% water and its color and texture were improved 3) Potato flour was different from sweet potato flour in baking, the effect of GMS + CSL being quite low. Bread from corn flour was different from barley flour bread and defatted rice bran was not suitable for bread-making. 4) Bread was made from following composite flours based on naked barley and sweet potato flours along with the use of proper additives: (a) naked barley flour + defatted soy flour + wheat flour (45 : 10 : 45) (b) naked barley flour + defatted soy flour + wheat flour (67 : 10 : 23) (c) naked barley flour + defatted soy flour (90 : 10) (d) sweet potato flour + defatted soy flour + wheat flour (40 : 20 : 40) (e) sweet potato flour + defatted soy flour (60 : 20 : 20) Sensory evaluation of above breads in comparison with standard wheat bread (So) gave the following decreasing order of scores, So>(a)>(b)>(c)>(e)>(d) and Duncan's multiple range test showed that bread (a) was not different from standard wheat bread significantly at 5% level, in overall evaluation including color, texture, taste and flavor.

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Effects of Vegetable Sprout Power Mixture on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed High Fat Diet (새싹채소 혼합분말이 고지방 식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Lee, Yu-Mi;Shin, Hyoung-Duck;Jeong, Young-Sim;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.965-974
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of vegetable sprout powder on serum and adipose tissue lipid metabolism in rats fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks for induction hyperlipidemic model rat. Weight-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups according to dietary fat level (10% or 20% of diet wt.) and mixture of vegetable sprout powder levels (5% or 10% 10% or 20% of diet wt.). Vegetable sprout powder was the mixture of same amounts of dried barley, broccoli, rapeseed, alfalfa, radish, mustard, buckwheat and brussels sprouts. Experimental groups were normal fat diet with 5% cellulose (NF-C), high fat diet without fiber (HF-N), high fat diet with 5% cellulose (HF-C), HF-C diet with 5% vegetable sprout powder (HF-CSL), and HF-C diet with 10% vegetable sprout powder (HF-CSH). The body weight of HF-N group increased 16% compared with the NF-C group, while it was decreased by 15% and 22% for HF-CSL group and HF-CSH group, respectively. Fat mass and fat cell size of adipose tissue were lower in HF-CSL group and HF-CSH group compared with HF-C group, and lower in HF-CSH group compared with HF-CSL group. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol contents were markedly decreased by vegetable sprout powder containing diet, while the serum HDL-cholesterol and phospholipid contents were higher in vegetable sprout powder containing diet in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin and insulin levels in serum showed a decrease in HF-CSH group. Significantly increased contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, leptin and insulin in the serum of HF-N group were returned to normal or even below normal levels by feeding 10% vegetable sprout powder diet. The increased activities of NADP-malate dehydrogenase (ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in adiposetissue by HF-N group were decreased to the activity of normal fat group by feeding vegetable sprout powder in a dose-dependant manner. These results indicate that lipid metabolism in rats fed high-fat diet was suppressed by feeding vegetable sprout powder.

Fed-Batch Fermentation of High-Content RNA Yeast by Using Molasses Medium. (당밀 배지를 이용한 고함량 RNA효모의 유가배양)

  • 김재범;권미정;남희섭;김재훈;남수완
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2001
  • In order to maximize the RNA accumulation and biomass production is Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTY62, a high-content RNA yeast strain, batch and fed-batch cultures were performed. Among the feeding modes of fed-batch cultures examined, the intermittent feeding mode R\`(IFB-lV), in which 50 ml of 40% molasses and 20% com steep liquor (CSL) solution was intermittently fed for 5 times, resulted in the cell concentration of 33.8 g- dry cell weight/1 and the RNA concentration of 5221 mg-/l, and RNA content of 153 mg-RNA/g-dry cell weight. The constant fed-batch with feeding mode III (CFB-III), in which the feeding rate of 40% molasses and 20% CSL solution was stepwisely decreased from 48 mph (9-13 h), to 24 mph (13-21 h), and to 18 ml/h (21∼ 48 h), gave the highest cell concentration of 42.7 g-dry ceil weigh71 and R7IA concentration of 5536 mg-RNA/1, which were about 2.4-fold and 1.9-fold increased levels, respectively, compared to the results of batch culture. However, the RNA con- tent of 130 mg-RNA/g-dry cell weight of the fed-batch was lower than that of the batch culture (171 mg-RNA/g-dry cell weight) and other fed-batch cultures. When the specific growth rates in the fed-batch cultures were increased, the RNA contents increased. This result indicates that the RNA content is adversely proportional to the cell concen- tration. However, at the same specific growth rate, the RNA content was maintained at higher level in the intermit- tent fed-batch than in the constant fed-batch culture.

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The Effect of Inter-word Space on Chinese reading: An Eye Movement Study (단어 간 공백이 중국어 글 읽기에 미치는 영향: 안구운동 추적 연구)

  • Han, Mi-ae;Jiang, Xin;Zhao, Weiqi
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.243-263
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    • 2018
  • This research investigated whether inter-word spaces, the spaces between words, can affect the efficiency of Korean-speaking CSL(Chinese as a second language) learners in Chinese reading of Korean-speaking's ability to read Chinese. Through eye movement tracking experiments, CSL learners of different proficiency levels(beginning, intermediate, and advanced) and native Chinese readers were asked to read Chinese sentences with and without inter-word spaces. The tests analysed the participants' fixation counts and the time spent in reading each sentences and also between each words. In terms of the fixation counts and time spent between sentences, the results show that there were no significant difference in participants' fixation counts from reading sentences with and without inter-word spaces. The results also prove that reading sentences with inter-word spaces significantly shortened the reading time for both CSL learners and native Chinese readers. Even for the participants' fixation counts and time duration between each words, participants spent significantly less fixation counts and reading time while reading words with inter-word spaces. The results were more prominent and positive in tests conducted with CSL learners of lower proficiency. This research shows that inter-word spaces in Chinese texts can enhance the efficiency of chinese learners' reading ability.

Characteristics of Grain Orientation and Grain Boundaries of the $ZrB_2$-ZrC Composites Densified by Spark Plasma Sintering (방전플라즈마소결법으로 제조된 $ZrB_2$-ZrC 복합체의 결정립 방위분포 및 결정입계의 특성)

  • Shim, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Kyoung-Hun;Shim, Kwang-Bo
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.914-920
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    • 2001
  • The grain orientation distribution and grain boundary characterization of $ZrB_2$-ZrC composites sintered by a SPS(Spark Plasma Sintering) method, a new sintering technique were analyzed by the EBSP technique and then their crystallographic results have been compared with those of a sintered specimen using a PLS(Pressureless Sintering) method. In the $ZrB_2$-ZrC composite manufactured by SPS, (0001) planes of $ZrB_2$ were oriented in the direction normal to the specimen surface. In the case of PLS, those of $ZrB_2$ were oriented normal to the electron beam. In both cases of PLS and SPS, ZrC grains had the randomly oriented grain structure. The grain boundary characterization showed that low angle grain boundaries in the PLS and SPS processed materials constituted about 10% and 8% of the total number of boundaries, respectively, represented the only slight difference between the proportion of low angle grain boundary. However, in the distribution of CSL(Coincident Site Lattice) boundaries, it was shown the higher proportion of CSL boundaries with $\Sigma$ 3,5,7,9, 11 in the SPS processed material.

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A Study on the Correlation Between Sasang Constitution and Sound Characteristics Used Harmonics and Formant Bandwidth (Harmonics(배음)와 Formant Bandwidth(포먼트 폭)를 이용한 음성특성(音聲特性)과 사상체질간(四象體質間)의 상관성(相關性) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Kim, Dal-Rae
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.61-73
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    • 2004
  • This study was prepared to investigate the correlation between Sasang constitutional groups and voice characteristics using voice analysis system(in this study, CSL). I focused on the voice characteristics in terms of harmonics, Formant frequency and Formant Bandwidth. The subjects were 71 males. I classified them into three groups, that is Soeumin group, Soyangin group and Taeumin group. The classification method of Constitution used two ways, QSCCII(Questionnarie for the Sasang Constitution Classification II) and Interview with a specialist in Sasang Constitution. So 71 people were categorized into 31 Soeumin(people), 18 Soyangin(people) and 22 Taeumin(people). Pitch is approximately similar to the fundamental frequency(F0) in voices. Shimmer in dB gives an evaluation of the period-to-period variability of the peak-to-peak amplitude within the analyzed voice sample. FFT(Fast Fourier Transform) method in CSL can display sampled voices into harmonics. H1 is the first peak and h2 is the second peak in the harmonics. The amplitude difference of h1 and h2(h1-h2) can be explained as the speaker's phonation type, And Formant frequency and bandwidth can be explained as the speaker's vocal tract. So I checked the harmonics and Formant frequency and Bandwidth as the voice parameters. First I have captured /e/ voices from all subjects using microphone. And then I analyzed /e/ voices with CSL. Power Spectrum and Formant History is the menu in the CSL which can display harmonics and Formant frequency and bandwidth. The results about the correlation between Sasang Constitutional Groups and voice parameters are as follows; 1. There is no significant amplitude difference of harmonics(h1-h2) among three groups. 2. There is the significant difference between Soeumin Group and Soyangin Group in Formant Frequency 1 and Formant Bandwidth 1(p<0.05). Any other parameters have no significance. I assume that Soyangin Group has clearer and brighter voice than Soeumin Group according to the Formant Bandwidth difference. And I think its result has coincidence with the context of "Dongyi Suse Bowon" and "Sasangimhejinam".

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Production of Organic Acids from Food By-Products - Mass Production of Organic Acids by Continuous Flow Ceil Recycling Fermentation - (식품부산물로부터 유기산의 대량생산공정에 관한 연구 - 세포재순환식 연속발효를 이용한 유기산의 대량 생산 -)

  • Ju Yun-Sang;Jin Sun-Ja;Hwang Pil-Gi;Choi Chul-Ho;Lee Eui-Sang
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.484-488
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    • 2004
  • Fermentation studies were conducted in batch and continuous flow cell-recycle reactors with food by-products as substrates. The genus Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4965 was utilized in the production of organic acids. Good performance was achieved in the batch fermentation using hydrol as a carbon source and corn steep liquor (CSL) as nitrogen and vitamin sources. Product yields and productivity based on maximum values were 0.80 g total acids/g glucose and 0.26 g total acids/L/h, respectively, when $3\%$, (w/v) of hydrol and $2.5\%$, (w/v) of CSL were utilized. Continuous fermentation with cell-recycling system using the optimum amounts of substrates resulted in dramatic increase in cell concentration (X) and maximum productivity (P). Compared to the batch fermentation, X and P were increased by as much as 21 and 13 times, respectively, at the dilution ratio of $0.2\;hr^{-1}$, indicating that cell recycling fermentation of food by-products provides valuable means for the mass production of organic acids as well as utilizing cell mass as good nutrient resources.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Extracts from Caesalpinia sappan L. on Skin Inflammation (TPA로 유도된 마우스 귀 부종 동물모델에서 소목추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Eum, Won Sik;Lee, Kwang-Jae;Kim, Dae Won;Lim, Soon Sung;Kang, Il-Jun;Park, Jinseu;Choi, Soo Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.384-388
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from Caesalpinia sappan L. (CSL) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema in mice. Skin inflammation was detected by immunohistochemistry and the protein and mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-$1{\beta}$ and TNF-${\alpha}$) detected by Western blotting and RT-PCR. The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were analyzed by Western blotting. CSL extracts markedly inhibited the TPA-induced expression of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, CSL extracts significantly reduced the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ and MAPK. These results suggest that CSL extracts may serve as therapeutic agents against skin diseases related to inflammation.