• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSL

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Structure design of Csl-Se Detector using Monte Carlo Simulation (몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 통한 Csl-Se 검출기의 구조 설계)

  • Park, Ji-Koon;Kang, Sang-Sik;Choi, Jang-Young;Lee, Hung-Won;Nam, Sang-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.420-423
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    • 2002
  • In recent years, there has been keen interest in developing f1at panel detectors for all modalities of radiology, including gerneral radiology, fluoroscopy(angiography and cardiology), electronic portal imaging, and mammography. In this paper, we report the new hybrid x-ray detector consisted of CsI(Tl) photoemission layer and a-Se photoconductor layer to resolve conventional x-ray detector such as the direct detector using a-Se and the indirect detector using CsI(Tl)/a-Si. To design the structure of CsI(Tl)/a-Se detector, the penetrated energy spectrum and absorption fraction was estimated using MCNP 4C code. Experimental results showed that the absorption fraction of $500{\mu}m-Se$ film and $150{\mu}m-CsI\left(Tl \right)/a-Se\left( 30{\mu}m \right)$ film is 70% at 70 kVp. The absorption energy is 90% at $350{\mu}m-CsI(Tl)$.

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Optimization of 4H-SiC Vertical MOSFET by Current Spreading Layer and Doping Level of Epilayer (Current Spreading Layer와 에피 영역 도핑 농도에 따른 4H-SiC Vertical MOSFET 항복 전압 최적화)

  • Ahn, Jung-Joon;Moon, Kyoung-Sook;Koo, Sang-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.767-770
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    • 2010
  • In this work, we investigated the static characteristics of 4H-SiC vertical metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (VMOSFETs) by adjusting the doping level of n-epilayer and the effect of a current spreading layer (CSL), which was inserted below the p-base region with highly doped n+ state ($5{\times}10^{17}cm^{-3}$). The structure of SiC VMOSFET was designed by using a 2-dimensional device simulator (ATLAS, Silvaco Inc.). By varying the n-epilayer doping concentration from $1{\times}10^{16}cm^{-3}$ to $1{\times}10^{17}cm^{-3}$, we investigated the static characteristics of SiC VMOSFETs such as blocking voltages and on-resistances. We found that CSL helps distribute the electron flow more uniformly, minimizing current crowding at the top of the drift region and reducing the drift layer resistance. For that reason, silicon carbide VMOSFET structures of highly intensified blocking voltages with good figures of merit can be achieved by adjusting CSL and doping level of n-epilayer.

High-Cell-Density Fed-Batch Culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 Using Molasses and Corn Steep Liquor

  • Vu, Van Hanh;Kim, Keun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.1603-1611
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    • 2009
  • High-cell-density cultivation of yeast was investigated using the agricultural waste products corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 cell mass was significantly dependent on the ratio between C and N sources. The concentrations of molasses and CSL in the culture medium were statistically optimized at 10.25% (v/v) and 16.87% (v/v), respectively, by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch culture in a 5-l stirred tank reactor using the optimized medium resulted in a cell mass production of 36.5 g/l. In the fed-batch culture, the feed phase was preceded by a batch phase using the optimized medium, and a very high dried-cell-mass yield of 187.63 g/l was successfully attained by feeding a mixture of 20% (v/v) molasses and 80% (v/v) CSL at a rate of 22 ml/h. In this system, the production of cell mass depended mainly on the agitation speed, the composition of the feed medium, and the glucose level in the medium, but only slightly on the aeration rate.

A Learning Method of French Prosodic Rhythm for Korean Speakers using CSL (CSL를 이용한 한국인의 프랑스어 운율학습 방안)

  • Lee, E.Y.;Lee, M.K.;Lee, J.H.
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.6
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    • pp.83-101
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    • 1999
  • The aim of this study is to provide a learning method of prosodic rhythm for Taegu North Kyungsang Korean speakers to learn French rhythm more effectively. The rhythmic properties of spoken French and Taegu North Kyungsang Korean dialect are different from each other. Therefore, we try to provide a basic rhythmic model of the two languages by dividing into three parts: syllable, rhythmic unit and accent, and intonation. To do so, we recorded French of Taegu Kyungsang Korean speakers, and then analysed and compared the rhythmic properties of Korean and French by spectrograph. We tried to find rhythmic mistakes in their French pronunciation, and then established a learning model to modify them. After training with the CSL Macro learning model, we observed the output result. However, although learners understand the method we have proposed, an effective method which is possible by repeating practice must be arranged to be actually used in direct verbal communications in a well-developed learning programme. Hence, this study may play an important role at the level of preparation in the setting of an effective rhythmic learning programme.

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Investigation for Multi-bit per Cell on the CSL-NOR Type SONOS Flash Memories (CSL-NOR형 SONOS 플래시 메모리의 멀티비트 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Joo-Yeon;An Ho-Myoung;Lee Myung-Shik;Kim Byung-Cheul;Seo Kwang-Yell
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2005
  • NOR type flash 32 ${\times}$ 32 way are fabricated by using the typical 0.35 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ CMOS process. The structure of array is the NOR type with common source line. In this paper, optimized program and erase voltage conditions are presented to realize multi-bit per cell at the CSL-NOR array. These are considered selectivity of selected bit and disturbances of unselected bits. Retention characteristics of locally trapped-charges in the nitride layer are investigated. The lateral diffusion and vertical detrapping to the tunneling oxide of locally trapped charges as a function of retention time are investigated by using the charge pumping method. The results are directly shown by change of the trapped-charges quantities.

Clustered LAG-1 binding sites in lag-1/CSL are involved in regulating lag-1 expression during lin-12/Notch-dependent cell-fate specification

  • Choi, Vit Na;Park, Seong Kyun;Hwang, Byung Joon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2013
  • The cell-fate specification of the anchor cell (AC) and a ventral uterine precursor cell (VU) in Caenorhabditis elegans is initiated by a stochastic interaction between LIN-12/Notch receptor and LAG-2/Delta ligand in two neighboring Z1.ppp and Z4.aaa cells. Both cells express lin-12 and lag-2 before specification, and a small difference in LIN-12 activity leads to the exclusive expressions of lin-12 in VU and lag-2 in the AC, through a feedback mechanism of unknown nature. Here we show that the expression pattern of lag-1/CSL, a transcriptional repressor itself that turns into an activator upon binding of the intracellular domain of Notch, overlaps with that of lin-12. Site-directed mutagenesis of LAG-1 binding sites in lag-1 maintains its expression in the AC, and eliminates it in the VU. Thus, AC/VU cell-fate specification appears to involve direct regulation of lag-1 expression by the LAG-1 protein, activating its transcription in VU cells, but repressing it in the AC.

Nitrogen Retention and Chemical Composition of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with Organic Acids or Fermentable Carbohydrates

  • Sarwar, M.;Khan, M. Ajmal;Nisa, Mahr-un
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1583-1591
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    • 2003
  • The influence of varying levels of urea and additives on nitrogen (N) retention and chemical composition of wheat straw was studied. The wheat straw was treated with 4, 6 and 8% urea and ensiled with 1.5, 2 and 2.5% of acetic or formic acid and 2, 4 and 6% of corn steep liquor (CSL) or acidified molasses for 15 days. The N content of wheat straw was significantly different across all treatments. The N content of urea treated wheat straw was increased with the increasing level of urea. The N content was higher in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled without these organic acids. The N content of urea treated wheat straw was further enhanced when it was ensiled with CSL or acidified molasses. This effect was significant across all levels of urea used to treat the wheat straw. Nitrogen retention in urea treated wheat straw was decreased linearly as the urea level was increased to treat the wheat straw. The N content was increased linearly when higher levels of CSL or acidified molasses were used to ensile the urea treated wheat straw. Most of the N in urea treated wheat straw was held as neutral detergent insoluble N (NDIN). The NDIN content was increased linearly with the increasing levels of urea and additives. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were higher in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled without additive. The NDF content further increased in urea treated wheat straw ensiled with CSL and acidified molasses. The entire increase in NDF content was because of fiber bound N. The hemicellulose content of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with CSL or acidified molasses was higher as compared to urea treated wheat straw ensiled with acetic or formic acid. The acid detergent fiber content of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with or without additives remained statistically non-significant. The cellulose contents of wheat straw was linearly reduced when urea level was increased from 4 to 6 and 8% to treat the wheat straw. This effect was further enhanced when urea treated wheat straw was ensiled with different additives. The results of the present study indicated that fermentable carbohydrates might improve the Nitrogen retention and bring the favorable changes in physiochemical nature of wheat straw. However, biological evaluation of urea treated wheat straw ensiled with fermentable carbohydrates is required.

VHI, V-RQOL, and vocal characteristics of teacher and singer (교사 및 성악가의 VHI, V-RQOL, 음향학적 특성 비교)

  • Hong, Ju-Hye;Hwang, Young-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3048-3056
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate VHI, V-RQOL, and vocal characteristics of a teacher and singer. 56 subjects were participated in this study (20 subjects are a teacher with vocal nodule, 20 subjects are a singer with vocal nodule, and 16 subjects are normal speakers). All subjects completed the VHI, V-RQOL, and vocal characteristics were measured using CSL 4500(Kay Pentax. USA). 21 subjects completed the VHI, V-RQOL, and vocal evaluation using CSL 4500 twice to assess test-retest reliability. A statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 18.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). The VHI and V-RQOL showed that the teacher and singer group were significantly higher than those of the control group in functional, physical and emotional aspects(p<0.05). the acoustic analysis using CSL 4500 showed the teacher and singer group were significantly higher than those of the the control group in fundamental frequency related variables, fundamental perturbation related variables, amplitude perturbation related variables, noise related variable, and tremor related variables(p<0.05). Conclusionally, the teacher and singer group recognized their voice problems as a serious physico-functional aspects.

Protective Effects of Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne Extract on Ethanol-induced Liver Damage in Rat (에탄올에 의해 유발된 간독성에 대한 모과 추출물의 보호효과)

  • Lee, Yu-Mi;Lee, Jae-Joon;Shin, Hyoung-Duck;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.1336-1342
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne (CS) on alcohol-induced liver damage in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing $135{\pm}10g$ were divided into 6 groups for 4 weeks; normal group (ND), alcohol (35%, 10 mL/kg/day) treated group (ET), CS ethanol extract 200 mg/kg/day treated group (ND-CSL), CS ethanol extract 400 mg/kg/day treated group (ND-CSH), CS ethanol extract 200 mg/kg/day and alcohol treated group (ET-CSL), and CS ethanol extract 400 mg/kg/day and alcohol treated group (ET-CSH). The body weight gain and food efficiency ratio were no differences between ND and ET. There were increases in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), asparate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in ET. On the other hand, the administration of CS decreased ALT, AST and ALP activities in serum. It was also observed that the hepatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and xanthine oxidase (XO) increased by alcohol treatment were also markedly decreased in the CS administered groups as compared with ET. The activities of hepatic SOD, catalase, GSH-Px and XO were riot significantly different among the normal diet groups. Contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased by the administration of alcohol, on the other hand, the administration of CS reduced TBARS value in the liver. In addition, the content of glutathione (GSH) in the liver was decreased by alcohol administration, however, GSH increased after administering CS. In conclusion, the administration of alcohol develops the hyperoxidation of liver lipids through tile increase in enzymes activity related to the lipid peroxiation, however, it was decreased after administring CS. Thus, CS may have a possible protective effect on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat liver.