• Title, Summary, Keyword: CSL

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OPTHiS Identifies the Molecular Basis of the Direct Interaction between CSL and SMRT Corepressor

  • Kim, Gwang Sik;Park, Hee-Sae;Lee, Young Chul
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.842-852
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    • 2018
  • Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and involves in the regulation of various cellular and developmental processes. Ligand binding releases the intracellular domain of Notch receptor (NICD), which interacts with DNA-bound CSL [CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1] to activate transcription of target genes. In the absence of NICD binding, CSL down-regulates target gene expression through the recruitment of various corepressor proteins including SMRT/NCoR (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear receptor corepressor), SHARP (SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein), and KyoT2. Structural and functional studies revealed the molecular basis of these interactions, in which NICD coactivator and corepressor proteins competitively bind to ${\beta}-trefoil$ domain (BTD) of CSL using a conserved ${\varphi}W{\varphi}P$ motif (${\varphi}$ denotes any hydrophobic residues). To date, there are conflicting ideas regarding the molecular mechanism of SMRT-mediated repression of CSL as to whether CSL-SMRT interaction is direct or indirect (via the bridge factor SHARP). To solve this issue, we mapped the CSL-binding region of SMRT and employed a 'one- plus two-hybrid system' to obtain CSL interaction-defective mutants for this region. We identified the CSL-interaction module of SMRT (CIMS; amino acid 1816-1846) as the molecular determinant of its direct interaction with CSL. Notably, CIMS contains a canonical ${\varphi}W{\varphi}P$ sequence (APIWRP, amino acids 1832-1837) and directly interacts with CSL-BTD in a mode similar to other BTD-binding corepressors. Finally, we showed that CSL-interaction motif, rather than SHARP-interaction motif, of SMRT is involved in transcriptional repression of NICD in a cell-based assay. These results strongly suggest that SMRT participates in CSL-mediated repression via direct binding to CSL.

Packet scheduling algorithm for guaranteed bound and firewall property of delay performance (지연의 상한 보장과 안정성을 고려한 패킷 스케쥴링 알고리즘)

  • 정대인
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5C
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    • pp.435-444
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, a novel packet scheduling algorithm, so-called the CSL algorithm is discussed, whereby the firewall property as well as the deterministic delay bound guarantee are supported in session level. Lots of simulation studies validate those properties of the CSL algorithm. The CSL algorithm is distingushable from the well- known EDD scheme in terms of the firewall property. Regarding the implementation complexity, the CSL algorithm turns out to be of 0(1) besides the sorting overhead. Owing to the maintained generic fair queueing structure in the CSL algorithm, a various fair queueing schemes can be applied with minor modification. For the TCP/IP network which is vulnerable to the misbehaving traffic sources, the firewall property of the CSL algorithm is quite useful for the advanced quality of services.

Influence of Corn Steep Liquor on Feeding Value of Urea Treated Wheat Straw in Buffaloes Fed at Restricted Diets

  • Mahr-un-Nisa, Mahr-un-Nisa;Khan, M. Ajmal;Sarwar, M.;Lee, W.S.;Lee, H.J.;Ki, K.S.;Ahn, B.S.;Kim, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.1610-1616
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    • 2006
  • Influence of different levels of corn steep liquor (CSL) on chemical composition of urea treated wheat straw (UTWS), ruminal characteristics, digestion kinetics, nitrogen (N) utilization, and nutrient digestibility by ruminally-cannulated buffalo bulls was studied in a $4{\times}4$ Latin Square Design. The CSL was used to ensile 5% UTWS at the rate of 0, 3, 6, and 9% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total N and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) were increased with increasing level of CSL. Increased NDF content was attributable to increased neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen. Four diets were formulated to contain 20% concentrate and 80% UTWS ensiled with 0, (control), 3 (CSL3), 6 (CSL6), and 9% CSL (CSL9). All diets were mixed daily and fed at 1.5% of body weight twice daily. Ruminal NH3 concentration decreased with level of CSL used to ensile UTWS at 3 and 6 h post prandial, however, at 9 h post parandial it was similar across all diets and at 12 h post prandial was higher with diets containing UTWS ensiled with CSL. Concentrations of total ruminal volatile fatty acid and acetate were increased with the CSL level used to ensile UTWS. Increased rate of disappearance and reduction in lag time of DM and NDF was recorded with diets containing UTWS ensiled with CSL. Dry matter and NDF digestibilities were higher with CSL diets than on the control diet. Buffalo bulls retained more N with diets containing UTWS ensiled with CSL. The present results indicated that UTWS could be ensiled with CSL to improve its nutritive value and N utilization by ruminants.

Effect of calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate and lipase supplementation on growth performance, gut health, and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens

  • Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka;Cho, Hyun Min;Macelline, Shemil Priyan;Kim, Eunjoo;Shin, Taeg Kyun;Yi, Young Joo;Park, Seung Hwan;Lee, Kyung Bon;Heo, Jung Min
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.981-991
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To evaluate calcium stearoyl-2 lactylate (CSL) performance as an exogenous emulsifier together with lipase for broiler diets. Methods: In total, 252 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 6 replications per treatment with 7 birds in each cage. There were six dietary treatments representing a 2×3 factorial arrangement consisted of two energy levels (standard energy [positive control, PC] and -100 kcal/kg of the requirement level [negative control, NC]) and three dietary treatments (without additives [CON], CON+CSL [CSL], and CON+CSL+lipase [CSL-Lipase]). Corn and soybean meal-based experimental diets containing vegetable oil were formulated. Growth performance, blood parameters, visceral organ weights, ileal morphology, nutrient digestibility, and cytokine gene expression were measured. Results: Birds fed a diet including CSL increased (p<0.05) lipase level in blood compared to birds fed a diet including CSL-Lipase on day 21. Similarly, higher (p<0.05) liver weight was observed in birds fed a diet including either CSL or CSL-Lipase on day 21. Birds fed NC diet with CSL improved (p<0.05) nutrient digestibility compared to the NC diet on day 21. However, birds fed a diet supplemented with CSL or CSL-Lipase did not affect (p>0.05) the weight gain, feed efficiency, ileal morphology, and cytokine concentrations during the experiment period, regardless of dietary energy levels. Conclusion: Our results indicated that CSL has a role in improving nutrient digestibility in young birds when supplemented to a corn-soybean meal based broiler diet.

Modeling of Early Age Concretes Using a CSL Model (CSL 모델을 이용한 초기재령 콘크리트 거동 해석)

  • Zi, Goang-Seup;Jung, Jin-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.411-414
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    • 2007
  • The confinement-shear lattice(CSL) model for hardened concretes developed by Cusatis is extended for early age concretes. The uniaxial behaviors available in the literature for 3 to 28 days were simulated by the CSL model to identify the change of the model parameters for various ages. The change with respect to the age was interpolated based on the chemomechanics to develop the extended version of CSL model.

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Nutritive Value of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with or without Corn Steep Liquor for Lactating Nili-ravi Buffaloes

  • Nisa, Mahr-un;Sarwar, M.;Khan, M. Ajmal
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.825-829
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    • 2004
  • Influence of different levels of corn steep liquor (CSL) on chemical composition of urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) and its dietary effect on nutrient intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition were studied. The 5% UTWS was ensiled with 0, 3, 6 and 9% CSL on dry matter (DM) basis. Total nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of UTWS ensiled with 0, 3, 6 and 9% CSL increased linearly with the increasing level of CSL. Increase in NDF content was due to increased neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen contents. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 35% UTWS ensiled without CSL (control), 45 (WS45), 55 (WS55) and 65% (WS65) UTWS ensiled with 9% CSL, respectively. Dry matter, NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes by lactating buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with or without CSL remained similar across all treatments. However, DM, NDF and ADF intakes as a percent of body weight and digestible DM, NDF and ADF intakes were higher in animals fed WS65 diet compared to those fed other diets. Apparent DM, crude protein (CP), NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher in diets containing UTWS ensiled with CSL compared to control. These differences may be attributed to higher rates of degradability of UTWS ensiled with 9% CSL than that ensiled without CSL. The 4% fat corrected milk and CP were statistically higher with WS65 diet compared to other diets. Percent milk fat, solid not fat and total solid remained unchanged across all treatments.

A Study on Industrial Media for Production of Lactic acid in Batch and Continuous Fermentations (회분식 및 연속배양에 있어서 고농도 젖산의 생산을 위한 공업용 배지연구)

  • 김양훈;이기범;문승현
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 1999
  • We have investigated industrial media for lactic acid fermentation to reduce the cost of nitrogen sources. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was successfully used at 5% (v/v) in batch fermentations. Use of soluble CSL improved the productivity about 20% with an advantage of clearer fermentation broth. Yeast extract-complemented CSL improved the productivity about 20% with an advantage of clearer fermentation broth. Yeast extract-complemented CSL media further increased the increased the productivity. It was found that 3.1 g/L yeast extract and 5% CSL could be an effective substitute for 15 g/L yeast extract in 10% glucose medium. Brewing yeast was also used as a sole nitrogen source equivalent to 5% CSL. A continuous culture coupled with cell-recycle by microfiltration at the dilution rate of 0.05-0.065 h-1 led to the highest lactic acid productivity. Lactic acid was recovered by electrodialysis from the cell free broth. Depleted cell free broth supplemented with 5-10 g/L of yeast extract performed reasonably in batch and continuous cultures. Reuse of the fermentation broth may reduce the cost of raw materials as well as minimize the fermentation wastes.

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Interface-tracking simulation of multi-phase flow using CIP-CSL2 scheme (CIP-CSL2법에 의한 다상유동 경계포획 시뮬레이션)

  • Im, H.N
    • 한국전산유체공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2011
  • In this study, it is performed numerical simulation on multi-phase flow by means of CIP-CSI2 scheme. It is applied In a two-phase free surface flow problem at a high density ratio equivalent to that of an air-water system, for examining the computational capability. The method that is being developed and improved is a CIP(Constrained Interpolation Profile) and CSL2(Conservative Semi-Lagrangian) based Cartesian Grid Method.

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The impact of Caesalpinia Sappan L. on Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Relevant Factor in RAW 264.7 Cells and HUVEC (소목(蘇木)이 산화적 손상 및 Raw 264.7 cell과 HUVEC에서의 염증 유관 인자에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Seong-Sun;Kim, Myung-Sin;Jo, Jae-Jun;Choi, Seong-An;Yang, Eui-Ho;Jeon, Sang-Yun;Choi, Chang-Won;Hong, Soek
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.100-111
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    • 2013
  • Objectives : This study investigated the impact of Caesalpinia sappan L. on oxidative damage and inflammatory relevant factor in RAW 264.7 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Methods : We determined whether fractionated EtOH extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L. (CSL) inhibit free radical generation such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 cells and HUVEC. Result : 1. DPPH removal capacity was increased by CSL. 2. LPS-induced ROS, and NO inhibitory capacity were increased by CSL. 3. LPS-induced cell death of Raw 264.7 cells was decreased by CSL. 4. The amount of cytokine generation in Raw 264.7 cell was decreased significantly by CSL. 5. The amount of cytokine generation in HUVEC was decreased significantly by CSL. Conclusions : These results suggest that CSL supplement may attenuate oxidative stress by elevated antioxidative processes, and suppress inflammatory mediator activation.

Wire Optimization and Delay Reduction for High-Performance on-Chip Interconnection in GALS Systems

  • Oh, Myeong-Hoon;Kim, Young Woo;Kim, Hag Young;Kim, Young-Kyun;Kim, Jin-Sung
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.582-591
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    • 2017
  • To address the wire complexity problem in large-scale globally asynchronous, locally synchronous systems, a current-mode ternary encoding scheme was devised for a two-phase asynchronous protocol. However, for data transmission through a very long wire, few studies have been conducted on reducing the long propagation delay in current-mode circuits. Hence, this paper proposes a current steering logic (CSL) that is able to minimize the long delay for the devised current-mode ternary encoding scheme. The CSL creates pulse signals that charge or discharge the output signal in advance for a short period of time, and as a result, helps prevent a slack in the current signals. The encoder and decoder circuits employing the CSL are implemented using $0.25-{\mu}m$ CMOS technology. The results of an HSPICE simulation show that the normal and optimal mode operations of the CSL achieve a delay reduction of 11.8% and 28.1%, respectively, when compared to the original scheme for a 10-mm wire. They also reduce the power-delay product by 9.6% and 22.5%, respectively, at a data rate of 100 Mb/s for the same wire length.