• Title, Summary, Keyword: COLREGs

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Enabling Vessel Collision-Avoidance Expert Systems to Negotiate

  • Hu, Qinyou;Shi, Chaojian;Chen, Haishan;Hu, Qiaoer
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • v.1
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2006
  • Automatic vessel collision-avoidance systems have been studied in the fields of artificial intelligence and navigation for decades. And to facilitate automatic collision-avoidance decision-making in two-vessel-encounter situation, several expert and fuzzy expert systems have been developed. However, none of them can negotiate with each other as seafarers usually do when they intend to make a more economic overall plan of collision avoidance in the COLREGS-COST-HIGH situations where collision avoidance following the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea(COLREGS) costs too much. Automatic Identification System(AIS) makes data communication between two vessels possible, and negotiation methods can be used to optimize vessel collision avoidance. In this paper, a negotiation framework is put forward to enable vessels to negotiate to optimize collision avoidance in the COLREGS-COST-HIGH situations at open sea. A vessel vector space is defined and therewith a cost model is put forward to evaluate the cost of collision-avoidance actions. Negotiations between a give-way vessel and a stand-on vessel and between two give-way vessels are considered respectively to reach overall low cost agreements. With the framework proposed in this paper, two vessels involved in a COLREGS-COST-HIGH situation can negotiate with each other to get a more economic overall plan of collision avoidance than that suggested by the traditional collision-avoidance expert systems.

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Automatic Ship Collision Avoidance Algorithm based on Probabilistic Velocity Obstacle with Consideration of COLREGs (국제해상충돌예방규칙을 고려한 확률적 속도 장애물 기반의 선박 충돌회피 알고리즘)

  • Cho, Yonghoon;Han, Jungwook;Kim, Jinwhan;Lee, Philyeob
    • Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2019
  • This study presents an automatic collision avoidance algorithm for autonomous navigation of unmanned surface vessels. The performance of the collision avoidance algorithm is heavily dependent on the estimation quality of the course and speed of traffic ships because collision avoidance maneuvers should be determined based on the predicted motions of the traffic ships and their trajectory uncertainties. In this study, the collision avoidance algorithm is implemented based on the Probabilistic Velocity Obstacle (PVO) approach considering the maritime collision regulations (COLREGs). In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, an extensive set of simulations was conducted and the results are discussed.

Modified A* Algorithm for Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Surface Vehicle

  • Vo, Anh Hoa;Yoon, Hyeon Kyu;Ryu, Jaekwan;Jin, Taekseong
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.510-517
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    • 2019
  • Efficient path planning is essential for unmanned surface vehicle (USV) navigation. The A* algorithm is an effective algorithm for identifying a safe path with optimal distance cost. In this study, a modified version of the A* algorithm is applied for planning the path of a USV in a static and dynamic obstacle environment. The current study adopts the A* approach while maintaining a safe distance between the USV and obstacles. Two important parameters-path length and computational time-are considered at various start times. The results demonstrate that the modified approach is effective for obstacle avoidance by a USV that is compliant with the International Regulations for Preventing Collision at Sea (COLREGs).

선박운항자 의식 기반 충돌회피 알고리즘 개발에 관한 연구

  • Park, Min-Jeong;Park, Yeong-Su;Gong, In-Yeong;Lee, Eun-Gyu;Kim, Jong-Seong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.85-86
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    • 2020
  • 자율운항선박을 위한 충돌회피 알고리즘은 여러 연구자들을 통해 다양한 방식으로 개발되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 한국 연안 지역 특성 및 선박운항자의 의식을 기반으로 한 해상교통위험도 평가 모델인 PARK Model을 적용하여 충돌회피 알고리즘을 개발하였다. 이렇게 개발된 충돌회피 알고리즘은 자율운항선박과 사람이 동시에 항해하는 과도기에 선박운항자의 의식을 반영한 충돌회피를 수행하여 다른 선박운항자들에게 이질감 및 부담감을 주지않을 것으로 사료된다. 본 연구의 충돌회피 알고리즘은 PARK Model 위험도를 기반으로 COLREGS 규정을 반영하여 회피동작을 수행하며, 여러 규모의 선박을 대상으로 마주치는 상황, 횡단하는 상황, 추월하는 상황과 이들이 복합적으로 발생하는 상황에 대한 시뮬레이션 결과 모두 충돌을 회피할 수 있었다. 또한, 과거 AIS Data를 이용한 실해역 시뮬레이션 실험에서도 충돌회피를 수행하여 본 충돌회피 알고리즘의 성능을 검증하였다.

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A Collision Avoidance System for Intelligent Ship using BK-products and COLREGs (BK곱과 COLREGs에 기반한 지능형 선박의 충돌회피시스템)

  • Kang, Sung-Soo;Lee, Young-Il;Jung, Hee;Kim, Yong-Gi
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.181-190
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    • 2007
  • This paper presents a collision avoidance system for intelligent ship. Unlike collision avoidance system of other unmanned vehicles, the collision avoidance system for intelligent ship aims at not only deriving a reasonable and safe path to the goal but also keeping COLRECs(International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea). The heuristic search based on the BK-products is adopted to achieve the general purpose of collision avoidance system; deriving a reasonable and safe path. The rule of action to avoid collision is adopted for the other necessary and sufficient condition; keeping the COLREGs. The verification of proposed collision avoidance system is performed with scenarios that represent encounter situations classified in the COLREGs, then it is compared with $A^{\ast}$ search method in view of optimality and safety. The analysis of simulation result revels that the proposed collision avoidance system is practical and effective candidate for real-time collision avoidance system of intelligent ship.

Design and Fabrication of LED Navigation Lights (LED 항해등의 설계 및 제작)

  • Kim, Il-Kwon;Kim, Dong-Geon;Kil, Gyung-Suk;Cho, Heung-Gi;Cho, Kyu-Lyong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.743-749
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, we designed and fabricated LED navigation lights which can replace the existing ones immediately and overcome disadvantages due to use of conventional lamps. To decide the best arrangement and position of a LED module, optical systems of existing navigation lights were analyzed and refracted routes of rays were simulated. The electrical and optical characteristics of the fabricated LED navigation lights were measured and analyzed with a goniophotometer. To calculate ranges of visibility, the vertical and horizontal luminous intensity distributions were evaluated in accordance with the COLREGs (convention on the international regulation for preventing collisions at Sea). From the results, the proposed LED navigation lights showed suitable characteristics for marine environment with the power consumption reduced by 90% and the maximum luminous intensity increased by 20% compared to the existing navigation lights.

A Study on the Initial Action of Navigators to Avoid Risk of Collision at Sea (충돌위험 회피를 위한 선박 운항자의 초동조치에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Yun-Suk;Park, Jun-Mo;Lee, Young-Joong
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.327-333
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    • 2014
  • The Convention on the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea, 1972(COLREGs) defines the collision avoidance principles and various navigation rules for the prevention of collision at sea. In particular, the initial responses to avoid risk of collision are mainly decided by navigation officer's experience and subjective judgement. However, collision accidents could be effectively prevented if the minimum criteria of quantitative initial response are suggested to the junior officers and the cadets who have insufficient sea experience and navigation competency. This study reviewed the COLREGs terms related to the initial response and the existing papers concerned with risk assessment model. A questionnaire survey is also carried out for safe passing distance, degrees of alternating course and initial response distance to avoid collision in accordance with various encounter situations. Base on these results, we propose the proper minimum safe passing distance between the vessels, the initial response distance and required turning angles for alternation in each encounter situations. The suggested criteria of initial response will contribute to the prevention of collision at sea as well as the improvement of gradual navigation technology.

Development of Collision Avoidance Supporting System based on ECDIS (전자해도표시시스템 기반의 충돌회피 지원 시스템 개발)

  • Kim, Da-Jung;Ahn, Kyoungsoo;Lee, Tae-Il;Kim, Young Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this paper is to describe the result of development of collision avoidance supporting system, based on the electronic chart display and information system(ECDIS). In real ship operations, collision accidents happen frequently due to human errors such as the lax vigilance, misinterpretation of international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGs). We developed a system which will help to avoid these kind of accidents. This system can automatically recognize the risk of collisions, generate the safe alternative routes that comply with COLREGs, and then deliver the results into auto pilot. A virtual simulation assuming progressive collision situations revealed the usefulness of this system.

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